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of the province of Dublin, on which occasion A. D. 1614. decrees were passed. 1st. For the reception of the Canons of the Council of Trent, as far as compatible with the time and circumstances. 2ndly. For the establishment of vicars, and the appointment of deans to preside over the priesthood.” 5th. For the decorous celebration of the mass .... that at least a clean place should be selected where the altar might be sheltered from wind and rain ... 7th. For the maintenance of the priests, (inasmuch as the ecclesiastical revenues were in the hands of those opposed to their Church,) by collections from their flock ... 8th. For the morality of the clergy, their abstaining from mercantile pursuits, worldly traffic, farming, and especially from intermeddling in the affairs of the state or political questions, &c., &c.

It appears therefore that at this time the Philip clergy of the Romish persuasion in Ireland were account of busily engaged in organizing their newly-formed the new communion in this country, appointing “vicarsgeneral,” “ deans,” “parish priests,” &c.; a new A.D. 1621. hierarchy, new succession, new orders, new canons, and, in short, an entirely new ecclesiastical establishment for Ireland. A still more comprehensive and interesting account of their proceedings, for the accomplishment of this object, is furnished to us by the famous Romish author,

O'Sullevan's

arrangements,

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A. D. 1621. Philip O'Sullevan, who, in the reign of King

James, was living as an exile at the court of
Spain ; and there published, in A.D. 1621, his
rancorous and bitter production, entitled, a
“Compendium of the Catholic History of Ire-
land," which we have had occasion to refer to

more than once already in the present history. Foreigners

In this work O'Sullevan gives us an account of and foreign the assistance which had been supplied to the very influ. Irish by foreigners, and especially by the king ential in the of Spain, towards the support of the papal reli

.

gion in Ireland, by providing for the education
of the youth in seminaries established for that
purpose beyond sea, by having them thus trained
up for holy orders, and by providing means and
money for such purposes. He then adds, that
many also of the rich and affluent Irish paid for
the support of persons who were sent over to be
educated in Roman Catholic countries, that they
might return again to Ireland and help to re-
pair the losses which Rome had sustained in
their native land by the influence of the Refor-
mation. After which he proceeds to give the
following account of the doings of the Roman-
ists in Ireland itself at the time when he wrote :*

“In Ireland likewise,” observes our author,

“there are yet some attaching themselves to the tic orders religious orders, while still greater numbers are

• Hist. Cath. tom. 4, lib. 1. cap. 17.

Zeal and artifices of

receiving ordination for the sacred office. These 4. d. 1621, administer the sacraments, assist such as are firm in the faith, establish the wavering, support the falling, raise up the downcast : they give expositions of the Holy Gospel, preach sermons to the people, expose the artful schemes of the heretics. The more frequently they are ordered to quit the kingdom, the more pleasure they feel in remaining there; aye, and even in flocking together into it. To avoid being observed by the English, they dress themselves in the apparel of lay persons; and appear, some as merchants, or medical men, some as knights, equipped with dirk and sword, others under other characters and pretences.

“ And in order that there may be priests in Method all parts of the kingdom to attend to the cure of adopted for souls, a salutary plan has been set on foot, for new body of the better understanding of which we are to bear for the pain mind, that there are in Ireland four archbi- rishes of shoprics and a large number of bishoprics; and that at the present day [A.n. 1621,] they are all held by ringleaders of heresy, [i.e., Catholic bishops of the Reformed Church, and that [R.] Catholic prelates are not appointed [i.e., by the pope of Rome] to the titles belonging to them, unless in some few instances, for this reason, that it is considered that such a number of bishops could not, without the ecclesiastical dues, main

Ireland.

Of titular

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two non

this age.

A. D. 1621. tain their proper dignity and consequence. On

which account four [titular] archbishops, who bishops for have been consecrated by the Roman pontiff, * only two re- are appointing priests, or clerks, or persons of sident and the religious orders, for vicars-general, in the resident in suffragan bishoprics, with the sanction of the

apostolic see. And Eugene Mac Magauna [i.e., Mac Mahon,] the [titular] Archbishop of Dublin, and David O'Kearney, of Cashel, are encountering great perils and immense labours in attending personally to the feeding of the sheep of their archbishoprics. While Peter Lombard, the [titular] Archbishop of Armagh, and Florence O'Melconry, (or Conroy] of Tuam, (who for many reasons is unable to live in Ireland secure from the English,) have entrusted the charge of their provinces to vicars."

Philip O'Sullevan then goes on to give a origin and

boastful account of the number of priests, friars,

&c., of Rome, to be found in Ireland preaching establish-disloyalty and schism, and of their incredible

activity and zeal for their bad cause. We must note however that as he is of no great character for truthfulness or honesty,f his words are not

See p. 890, sup. Also, Appendix, Nos. 65 and 66, inf. + "Philip O'Sullevan? A worthy author to ground a report of antiquity upon, who, in relating the matters that fell out in his own time, discovereth himself to be as egregious a liar as any, I verily think, that this day breatheth in Christendom." Abp. Ussher, in his Religion of the A. I., chap. 8, near the end.

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Note on the

character of this new ecclesiastical

ment.

a

much to be depended on where a falsehood will A. D. 1621, help his argument. Still his account of the first construction of the modern Irish branch of the Roman Church is curious and interesting; and corroborated as it is from other sources of information, we may well regard it as full worthy of credit; for he must have been well acquainted with those movements of his party which are here recorded, and in describing them he appears to state merely simple facts. From his narrative, as well as from other evidence, it appears that in A.D. 1621, all the Irish sees being occupied by Protestants, there were at that time but four bishops connected with the Romish Church in our country: two living in Ireland, and the other two in foreign parts.* Such was the original nucleus of the present Romish Church in this island—such its first bishops and officers. They

The newlywere at best but emissaries from the pope, and intended intruders in our Church and realm, disturbing,

priests and

bishops no by their interference, its peace and liberty; and successors of their followers could be justly regarded only as Columbdissenters and separatists from the Church of kille, Ireland. Such, too, are their descendants, the Roman Catholic bishops and clergy, with their followers, to this day; men whose entire ecclesiastical authority, appointment, and orders, are de

O'Melrian, the titular of Killaloe, (pp. 788, 790, sup.) seems to have died before this date.

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Patrick and

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