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Rome, to furnish new matter for their insidious A.D. 1603. intrigues. “The son of a Catholic martyr,' they styled him, could not but be well affected to them and to their faith. Yea, they were bold enough to affirm openly, that the king was indeed of their religion; and that he only awaited a favorable opportunity of declaring himself. Meanwhile they resolved to act in a bold and decided manner, as if assured of his favor ; proceeding, accordingly, to seize on some of the parish churches by violence; building other new ones; repairing abbeys and monasteries for their own use; erecting crosses in conspicuous places; marching through the towns in pompous processions with their showy habits and gaudy ceremonies; reviewing and deciding causes which had been determined in the king's courts, and compelling their subjects to obey their decisions and not those of the law, and this on pain of damnation ; forbidding also the people to be present at the reformed worship in their parish churches. For to this period the practice of resorting to those churches had been still continued even by those who cherished strong feelings of attachment to the religion of Rome. Such persons were distinguished by the name of Church-Papists, from the more extreme and violent of those who belonged to the same party.

• Rothe's Analecta. Colon. 1617, p. 133.


A. D. 1604. But now every exertion was made use of by the The Church agents of Rome to put a stop to this practice ; Papists for these agents being partly foreigners from Spain attendance or Italy, who came over to maintain the struggle at the parish for temporal ascendancy in Ireland, and partly

natives of the country, the disciples of those foreigners, who, under such influence, had gone abroad to receive their education and orders in seminaries and colleges beyond the sea, in Spain, and France, and Flanders, &c. By means therefore of their efforts, many of those who had been known as Church-Papists were induced,

about this time (A.D. 1604) to discontinue their Act of Uni- attendance at the established worship : for which formity en

reason it was thought good to carry into effect, at least in Dublin (by way of example to other places), the provisions of the Act of Uniformity, as a means of counterbalancing this foreign

influence.* Proclama- But the republication of the Act of Unifortion for the mity was not followed, even in the metropolis, clergy of Rome to with that ready compliance and submission to its leave the kingdom,

injunctions which might have been anticipated; 4th July, and therefore, to enforce its observance more

effectually, measures of a harsher nature were adopted by the government. Sixteen of the most eminent persons of the city of Dublin were summoned to the Court of Castle Chamber, and

. See Mant, i. 349.

forced in Dublin.

A.D. 1605.

punished for their denial of conformity by cen- s. D. 1605. sures, imprisonment, and heavy fines, i.e., of £100 in some cases, and £50 in others. Moreover, seeing what seditious intrigues were continually kept on foot among the people, by the priests and other clergy of Rome, a proclamation was issued on the 4th of July, 1605, ordering them all, excepting such as would conform, to leave the kingdom before the 16th of the following December. This proclamation however was but faintly administered, and it was accord. ingly attended with but little effect.

Had the government of that day made use of Disloyalty still greater severity towards the tools of Rome, promoted we should have indeed little occasion to be by a fresh surprised at their proceedings, considering the ral, Dec. 7, incessant efforts which the emissaries of that foreign court were employing for the purpose of keeping up a treasonable' agitation in this country. About the very time at present under consideration, we find the partizans of the Italian Church once more encouraged to perseverance in their seditious practices by a Bull from Rome, dated the 7th of December, 1605, and containing an “Exhortation and Remission” to the Roman Catholics of Ireland; wherein the pope declared it to be as safe to sacrifice unto idols as to be present at the Common Prayer; and also promised to them aid of great force of


A. D. 1605; Romans, Germans, and Spanish, by the next

harvest, and great store of arms to resist their

governors.* Parochial What has been said a little above in reference worship in many places to the continued attendance of the people at wholly in their parochial worship, after the introduction of terrupted.

the reformed Liturgy, must be understood to apply only to those parts of the country where divine service was maintained at all, or with any kind of regularity. For in such places as had been the scenes of desolation and war, congregational worship was, of course, necessarily omitted. Such was the case mostly with all the rural parts of the north, during the Earl of Tyrone's rebellion, which had caused a general interruption of divine service throughout Ulster

for many years, excepting in cities or great towns. The govern

A few years before the time now under consiment of this deration, i. e. A. D. 1600, the Lord Deputy intolerant Mountjoy, writing over to the Lords of the toward loyal Council in England, had taken occasion to exable Roman- press himself as being strongly in favour of the

use of mild and tolerant measures, towards persons who might be opposed to the reformed religion as by law established ; "not that I think," says he,“ too great preciseness can be used in the reforming of ourselves, the abuses of our

• Loftus MS. Marsh's Library. See the Bull entire in Appendix, No. 58, inf.


own clergy, Church livings, or discipline; nor A.D. 1605, that the truth of the Gospel can with too great vehemency or industry be set forward, in all places, and by all ordinary means, most proper unto itself, that was first set forth and spread in meekness; nor that I think any corporal prosecution or punishment can be too severe for such as shall be found seditious instruments of foreign or inward practices; nor that I think it fit that any principal magistrates should be chosen without taking the oath of obedience, nor tolerated in absenting themselves from public divine service, but that we may be advised how we do punish in their bodies or goods any such only for religion as do profess to be faithful subjects to her majesty, and against whom the contrary cannot be proved."*

Now King James being very anxious to make

Leland, ii. 382. Even the turbulent and factious nobles of the Pale bore testimony to the mildness with which the Act of Supremacy was administered under Queen Elizabeth. In a remonstrance of theirs addressed to King James, on the subject of his first Irish Parliament, bearing date, Nov. 25, 1612, they write as follows:-" Your Majesty's subjects in generall do likewise very much distaste and exclaime against the deposing of so many magistrates in the cities and boroughs of this kingdome, for not swearing th'oath of supremacy in spiritual and ecclesiastical causes ; they protesting a firm profession of loyalty, and an acknowledgment of all kingly jurisdiction and authority in your highnesse ; which course, for that it was so sparingly and myldly carried on in the time of your late sister, af famous memory, Queen Elizabeth, and but now in your highnesse's happy reign first extended into the remote parts of this country, doth so much the more affright and disquiet the minds of your well-affected subjects here." Bee Leland, ii. 443, seqq. ; also, Appendix, No. 63, inf.

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