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to the different states, and that the party who hausted. The South too had no manufactures of had opposed the extreme doctrine of state rights

her own.

She had learned to depend entirely on in the early days of the Constitution were called Northern productions, and the loss of them struck Federalists.

a heavy blow at her resources. Lastly, the North

had command of the sea. A navy cannot, like an THE WAR OF SECESSION.

army, be created at a few months' notice, and the It may be well, before going further, to give vast superiority of the North in wealth, in harbors, some idea of the means and prospects with which and in materials for shipbuilding, gave her in this each party entered on the war. As far as mere manner an immense advantage. It enabled the military resources went, there was no very wide North to recruit her armies with supplies of emidifference. The advantage which the Federal gov- grants drawn from Europe, while the South, with ernment ought to have enjoyed from the possession her whole coast blockaded, could not fill the gaps of the national arsenals and stores was in a great which every campaign made in her population. measure lost, owing to the treachery of those Owing to the feeble policy of Buchanan's govSoutherners who had held public offices. Neither ernment, the Confederates were allowed to possess side was at first well off for skilled officers. On themselves of every national fort and dockyard the other hand, both in the North and South the south of the Chesapeake Bay, save Fort Sumter, absence of aristocratic exclusiveness allowed the

and Forts Key West and Pickens off the coast of best men to come quickly to the front, Thus the Florida. The secession of Virginia led to further armies on both sides were soon led by men of abil- enterprises of the same kind. The arsenal at Harity, while there was a great want of soldierly skill per's Ferry was seized, but the officers in charge and knowledge among the subalterns. In many had destroyed the greater part of the stores before ways the South furnished better raw material for evacuating the place. The two most important soldiers than the North. The Southern planters Federal possessions within Virginia were Fort Monwere more given to outdoor pursuits, to field sports roe and the navy yard at Norfolk. The latter conand the like, than the town-bred merchants of the tained two thousand cannon, a quarter of a million North. Good horses and skilful riders were plenti-pounds of powder, large quantities of shot and shell, ful, and the cavalry of the South was one of its and twelve ships of war. A force of about five hunmost efficient supports. Above all, the South was dred militia, with ten small field-pieces, threatened united. It is sometimes said that secession was not the place. Captain M'Cauley, the officer in charge, the unanimous act of the South, and that a large | although he had a force of a thousand men, did not majority was either beguiled or coerced into a attempt to resist, but scuttled the ships, made an movement which they condemned. But through- ineffectual attempt to sink the guns, and abandoned out the war, no such division of feeling showed it- the place, leaving the works and a large quantity of self, save in Virginia.

stores to fall into the hands of the Confederates. An There was no such unanimity in the North, at inquiry was ordered by Congress, and a committee least at the outset of the war. Many actually sym- of the Senate decided that both Buchanan's and pathized with the South, and thought the attempt Lincoln's administrations were to blame for neglectto detain her unjust; many were indifferent. Job- ing the proper defence of the place, and that Capbery and dishonesty of every kind were rife in the tain M'Cauley was highly censurable for not attemptgovernment offices. As the war went on, all this ing to hold it. Fort Monroe was a work of great was greatly lessened, and there grew up in the size and strength commanding the Chesapeake Bay North a resolute determination to preserve the and James River. It was thought that the VirUnion at any cost. But, from the very outset of ginians might by a prompt attack have seized it, the war, there were three great points of superiority and have dealt the Federal government a heavier which in the long run turned the scale in favor of blow than it had yet sustained. But the opporthe North. Her free population was far more tunity was allowed to pass, and in May the place numerous, and could bear the strain of a destruc- was garrisoned with twelve thousand men. tive war, while her opponent was becoming ex- | Early in 1861 rumors were afloat that the secessionists meant to seize the seat of


effect of this was to lessen the advantage of superior This danger was greatly increased by the secession numbers, as a small body of troops, dexterously of Virginia. Troops, however, were hurried down handled, might be rapidly moved from point to from the North in sufficient numbers to guard point, and used successively against different poragainst any surprise. When the war openly broke tions of the enemy's force. This was of especial out, it was clear that Washington, separated as it value to an army acting in its own country against was from Virginia only by the Potomac, was one of invaders. the most vulnerable points in the Northern terri- In July, the Northern and Southern armies contory. Accordingly the defence of the capital be- fronted one another on the south side of the Pocame the first object with the Federal government. tomac. The Southern army numbered about thirEarthworks were thrown up in the neighboring ty thousand men, under Beauregard. The Northheights, and troops were posted across the Potomac erners mustered forty thousand, under McDowell. to cover the city.

His troops were ill-drilled and unsoldierly, and his Before entering on the detailed history of the officers inexperienced, but, as many of his men were war, it will be well to get a general idea of the mili- enlisted only for three months, it was needful to tary position of both parties, and of their main ob- do something at once, and accordingly he advanced. jects. The object of the South was, of course, Both armies were in two divisions, the main force merely defensive. Her territory may be looked on to the east, while two bodies of about eight thouas a vast fortress bounded by the Potomac, the sand each, the Federals under Patterson, the ConOhio, the Mississippi, and the Atlantic. Her ar- federates under Johnston, faced each other about mies did indeed, more than once, penetrate into fifty miles further west. The two divisions of the the Northern territory. But such measures were Confederates enjoyed the great advantage of being merely like the sorties of a besieged garrison, in- connected by a line of railway. McDowell's plan tended to draw off or weaken the assailants, and was that Patterson should keep Johnston in check, had no permanent occupation or conquest in view. while he himself attacked Beauregard. But this Four main lines of attack lay open to the Feder- plan was thwarted by the difficulty so often met als:

-1. An invasion of Virginia from the north. with before in American history. The Pennsyl2. An invasion of Tennessee to the south-west of vanian volunteers under Patterson refused to serve the Alleghanies. 3. An attack from the sea-coast. for a day longer than their engagement bound 4. An invasion from the south-west, after they had them. Patterson was obliged to withdraw, leaving obtained the control of the Mississippi. As the McDowell to cope single-handed with Johnston and war showed, the real points on which the military Beauregard. Johnston at once hurried, with all strength of the Confederacy turned were the pos- the troops he could bring up, to the assistance of session of the Mississippi and of those lines of rail- the main body. way which connected the south-western states with On the morning of July 21, McDowell fell upon the coast. By mastering the Mississippi, the Fed- the right of the Confederate line, and drove them erals would cut off their enemies from the rich back. The Federal advance was stopped only by states to the south of the river, besides interfering the Virginian troops under General Jackson. with the communication between the west and the “ There's Jackson standing like a stone wall,” cried sea.

Possession of the Mississippi might be ob- the Southern general Bee, to encourage his men, .tained either from the sea, or from the west, or by and “Stonewall Jackson" was the name by which a combined attack in both directions. By bearing the Virginian commander was ever after known. in mind these general features of the war, opera- This check on the Federal right was soon turned tions, spreading over many thousand miles, and into a repulse along the whole line. seemingly unconnected, are at once seen to form crisis of the battle, the remainder of Johnston's part of one distinct scheme of attack and defence. force came up from the west, fell upon the Federal One very interesting feature of the war in a mili- right, and rendered the victory complete. From a tary point of view is that it was the first in which military point of view the result was of no great railways had ever played an important part. The importance. The Federal loss was not more than

At the very

three thousand in all, and their enemies gained no advantage of position. The real value of victory to the South was the confidence and enthusiasm which was called out by so complete a triumph at the very outset of the war. But probably the hopeful and exulting spirit which the battle kindled in the South was equalled, if not outweighed, by its effect on the Northerners. Their defeat did not so much dishearten as sober them. They saw that a great war was before them, which would tax their energies and their resources to the utmost. They learned that success could be bought only at a heavy price, and they soon showed that they were not unwilling to pay it.

It will be impossible in the history of the war to take in all the events in strict order of time. If we did so,'we should be constantly shifting our view from one scene of operations to another, and be unable to get any connected idea of each. Many different sets of operations were going on together, which can only be kept clear and distinct by tracing out one for a considerable time, and then going back to another. We must now go back to events earlier than Bull Run. Virginia, as we have seen, was not unanimous in its resolution to secede. The wish to remain in the Union prevailed in the western part of the state beyond the Alleghanies. The inhabitants of this district wished to form themselves into a separate state, and to cleave to the Union. A convention met, which carried out the wishes of the inhabitants by establishing a separate government.

This was regarded by the other Virginians as treachery to the state, which had a higher claim on their loyalty than the Union. Accordingly it became of importance both to the Federals and to the Confederates to secure this district. The West Virginians themselves raised six thousand soldiers; and troops from Ohio, Indiana, and other Western States were brought rapidly forward in their defence. Active operations began towards the close of May, under General McClellan, who advanced with a large force. The defending force, numbering about eight thousand, was stationed at Rich Mountain, on the western slope of the Alleghanies. When McClellan approached, they attempted to retreat, but were forced to give battle, and were completely defeated. Later in the year a Confederate force under Lee attempted to dislodge the Federals,

but without success. It was not, however, till two years later that West Virginia was admitted into the Union as a separate state.

During the summer and autumn of 1861 important operations went forward in the west. The states of Missouri and Kentucky were, from their position, of great importance in the war. They commanded the Upper Mississippi and the southwest portion of the seceding states. Accordingly, it was an object with each party to secure them. Both states would have wished to remain neutral, if they could have done so, but, as with Virginia, this was impossible. In each the sympathies of the inhabitants were about equally balanced. As Kentucky would not join the Southern Confederacy, in September General Polk, a Louisianian bishop who had turned soldier, invaded and took possession of it. In Missouri, a long and severe struggle between the two parties within the state was settled by the Federals occupying it with an army. In both Kentucky and Missouri there was some fighting during the autumn of 1861, which resulted somewhat in favor of the Confederates, but nothing decisive was done.

In the autumn of 1861, the Federal government created a separate military province, called the Western Department, with its centre at St. Louis on the Mississippi. This was placed under the command of General Halleck. His part in the war, though not a conspicuous, was a very important

He never distinguished himself in the field, but his understanding of military geography and his judgment as to the general course of operations were probably equal to that of any man in either army. He saw that the true policy of the Federals was to advance up the Tennessee and the Cumberland, a river which runs for the most part parallel to it, and so to penetrate into the south-western states, and to master the upper valley of the Mississippi. To carry out this it was necessary to take Fort Henry on the Tennessee, and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. Accordingly, at the beginning of 1862, General Grant with seventeen thousand men was sent against Fort Henry. It was evident that the place could not be held, but Tilghman, the Confederate general in command, made a determined resistance, and enabled the main body of his troops to escape to Fort Donelson.

The Federal gunboats then attacked Fort Donel.


as his

son, but were beaten off. The Confederates, how- As at Bull Run, the Southern armies had the adever, finding themselves outnumbered by the be- vantage of railway communication. Their comsieging force, attempted to cut their way through, manders resolved to unite, and to deal with Grant but were driven back, mainly through the resolu- before Buell could join him. This scheme was tion of Grant and his subordinate Smith. Several successful, and the whole Confederate army under thousand of the garrison escaped at night by means Johnston marched against Grant. The numbers of small steamboats. The remainder surrendered. were about equal, forty thousand on each side. By this victory, the Federals gained ten thousand Early on the morning of April 6th the Confedprisoners, twenty thousand small-arms, and sixty- erates attacked. Many of the Federal troops five guns, with a loss of little more than two thou- were taken completely by surprise, and fell back sand men.

It also gave them possession of Ken- in confusion. tucky, and of a large part of Tennessee. Moreover, A second Bull Run seemed to be at hand, with the Confederate line of defence was driven back this addition, that the Federals had a river immesome fifty miles, and Nashville, a large and impor- diately at their back, and were thus cut off from tant town, and Columbus, a fortress which com- retreat. Such a misfortune was warded off by the manded the upper waters of the Mississippi, were determination with which General Sherman held abandoned to the Federals. This was soon followed his ground, and by the death of Johnston, 'Struck up by further successes.

by a bullet, in the eagerness of victory he disreThe Confederates held New Madrid on the right garded the wound, and only learned its severity bank of the Mississippi, and No. 10 Island just when he found himself fast bleeding to death. opposite. General Pope was sent from St. Louis The delay saved the Federals. Grant was joined to attack them. Batteries were erected against by Buell with twenty thousand men, and, with that New Madrid, whereupon the garrison fled, leaving dogged courage which distinguished him throughout large quantities of arms and ammunition. No. 10 the war, he returned next day to the attack. His Island was then bombarded from the river, but to troops, by rallying so readily and so successfully, no purpose. Pope could not attack it, as it could showed that the panic of the day before was due to only be reached from the left bank, and he could want of discipline, and not to cowardice. In the not bring up boats to carry his troops across, owing second engagement the Confederates were worsted, to the Confederate batteries which commanded the and withdrew in good order; their total loss in the river. This difficulty was at length overcome by two days was about eleven thousand, that of the cutting a canal twelve miles long across a horse- Federals some three thousand more. shoe formed by the river. By this means trans- Throughout these two days' engagements, called ports were brought down the river, Pope crossed, the Battle of Shiloh, there was little room for skiland the island surrendered, with nearly seven thou- ful tactics. It has been described as a gigantic sand men and large supplies. Following up this bush-fight. From the nature of the ground, neisuccess, the Federals in two engagements defeated ther commander could get any comprehensive idea the Confederate fleet of gunboats and obtained pos- of the state of affairs, or even attempt to exercise session of the Upper Mississippi as far as the fron- control over more than a part of his army. Soon tier of Tennessee.

after this, the Confederate government, considering The Battle of Shiloh.-In spite of these disasters, its forces unequal to the task of holding Missouri the Confederate forces in the west proceeded to act and Arkansas, abandoned those states to the enemy. on the offensive. The position of the two armies The troops withdrawn thence were concentrated was not altogether unlike that at Bull Run. Each under Beauregard at Corinth. Shortly after the was in two divisions, the main bodies facing each Federals took Memphis on the Mississippi, a town other under Grant and Beauregard, the smaller di- of considerable commercial importance, and valuvisions also facing each other under Buell and able as a centre of railway communication. Sydney Johnston. This Johnston must not be On the Lower Mississippi the Federals had confounded with the other Confederate general of achieved even more brilliant and valuable sucthat name, Joseph Johnston, the hero of Bull Run.

In no department was the North weaker at



the outset than in its navy, and in none were so

But the chief Confederate stronghold on the Mismuch energy and determination shown in rapidly sissippi still remained. Vicksburg stands on a making up for short-comings. At the beginning horseshoe of land and commands the river in both of 1861 there were only four ships fit for duty in directions. Moreover, it is protected on the northharbors held by the Federal government. All the west by the Yazoo, a river which flows into the rest of the national navy was either seized by the Mississippi above the town, and it is also surConfederates or was at foreign stations. Yet, by rounded by swamps and forest. On June 24 the the end of the year, the blockade had been so suc- Federal fleets from New Orleans and St. Louis cessfully maintained, that a hundred and fifty ves- united. The same manquvre was tried here which sels had been captured in the attempt to reak had succeeded at New Madrid. A canal was cut through. Moreover the Federals had taken Port across the horseshoe, and thus the Federal fleet was Royal, a fortress on the coast between Charleston enabled to command the whole river without passand Savannah, and of importance for the defence ing the batteries of the town. The siege was of those two places. This was soon followed by an marked by a most brilliant exploit on the part of a unsuccessful endeavor to block up Charleston har- small Confederate ram, the Arkansas. She steamed bor by sinking ships, filled with stone, across its out of the mouth of the Yazoo, fought her way mouth. This attempt to destroy for ever a valuable through the Federal fleet of fifteen vessels, doing harbor, of great importance to Southern commerce, much damage to them, and anchored safely under was not much credit to the Federal government. the guns of Vicksburg. In July, after a futile

The next important naval attempt was of a far bombardment, the Federals abandoned the attack. more glorious character. This was the capture of The Merrimacand Monitor._One feature New Orleans by Admiral Farragut, whereby the in the naval history of the war deserves notice, since Southern States were cut off from the lower waters it ushered in a change of the greatest importance in of the Mississippi. Considering the great impor- naval warfare. This was the use of iron-clad vestance of the place, the Confederate government do sels. The first of these that appeared in the war not seem to have done enough for its defence. In was a somewhat roughly-built ram with iron platApril, 1862, the Federal fleet entered the mouth of ing, called the Manassas, devised by a Confederate the river, and for six days and nights bombarded officer, Commodore Hollins. She fell upon the the fortification which guarded the entrance. Federal squadron which was blockading the mouth the morning of the 24th, before daybreak, the of the Mississippi, dashed into the midst of it, and Federals fought their way up the river, past the put it to flight. Soon afterwards it became known forts, and through the gunboats of the enemy. that the Confederates were preparing a large ironThe Confederate flotilla was completely destroyed, clad. This was the Merrimac, a steamer which had while the assailants only lost one vessel. General belonged to the Federal government, and had been Lovell, the commander at New Orleans, considering captured in Norfolk navy yard. The Federals set that it would be impossible to hold the city, with- to work to build an iron-clad turret-ship, called the drew his troops. Farragut took possession of the Monitor, to match her. Each worked hard to be place, and was joined by General Butler with a the first in the field. In this the Confederates sucland force, which had been at hand, though it had ceeded. On March 8, 1862, the Merrimac appeared taken no part in the attack. The city was then in the mouth of the James river, and immediately placed under the military government of Butler. destroyed two Federal vessels. She attacked a third, He kept order, and the inhabitants do not seem to but, before she could complete its destruction, the have suffered much under his rule. But his over- Monitor, just launched, came to the rescue. She bearing manner, his summary and, as it was con- stood the shock of the Merrimac, which had been sidered, illegal execution of a citizen who had cut fatal to the wooden ships, and at last beat her off down the United States flag, and the brutal lan- with much damage. This fight was the first fair guage of his public documents, earned for him, trial of iron-clad ships. alone among all the Federal commanders, the uni- The Southern Confederacy at the outset confiversal hatred of the South.

dently expected help from foreign powers. But in

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