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The disasters embraced in the foregoing divisions are classified as follows, viz:
1. Founderings-embracing founderings which resulted from the leaking or capsizing of vessels, but not those which resulted from collision, stranding, or striking ang sunken wreck, or against piers,
snags, or ice.
2. Strandings-embracing disasters resulting from running aground, striking a rock, reef, bar, or other natural object, although the vessel may have foundered as a result of such casualty. 3. Collisions-embracing all collisions between vessels only. 4. Other causes-embracing disasters resulting from various causes as follows, viz:
Fire, irrespective of result. Scuttling, or any intentional damage to vessel. Collisions with fields or quantities of ice, although vessel may be sonk thereby. Striking on sunken wrecks, anchors, buoys, piers, or bridges. Leakage, (except when vessel foundered or went ashore for safety.) Loss of masts, sails, boats, or any portion of vessel's equipments. Capsizing, when vessel did not sink. Dainage to machinery. Fouling of anchors. Striking of lightning: Esplosion of boilers. Breakage of wheels. Also water-logged, missing, and abandoned vessels. Four hundred and seventy-seven vessels are reported as having met with collision, but it should be remembered that as two vessels were engaged in each collision, (though in a few instances three or more collided with each other in gales,) the actual casualties of this nature are about one-half that number. Besides the disasters to vessels and cargoes which are embraced in the tables, 73 lives were lost by drowning out of the crews employed on 34 different vessels. In these cases neither vessels nor cargoes rafiered damage, the persons drowned having been lost overboard, or baring perished by the capsizing of small boats in wbich they had left heir vessels to attend fishing-trawls, or for some other purpose.
While the information contained in the following statements is cadoubtedly generally accurate, it should be borne in mind that the reports upon which the tables are based are those of the owners, agents, mis masters of the vessels concerned, who are interested parties. The sables distinguishing the causes of disasters, therefore, may not be "Itirely reliable, and the actual number of disasters arising from defects of vessels, or their equipments, or from carelessness, inattention, ignorance, &c., my be more numerous than appears. The number of disasters to foreign vessels in American waters during
Fear was 83, copies of the returns of which have been forwarded Ebrough the Department of State to the respective governments to abich the vessels belonged. In return, wreck reports giving the par. Ciculars of disasters to American vessels on foreign coasts have gen"tally been received from the governments of the countries in which they scarred, copies of which have, in all cases, been promptly forwarded *u the owners or agents of the vessels concerned.
The tables include all disasters involving losses as low as $50, for the purpose of exhibiting the nature, causes, and localities of casualties, the "baracter of vessels, loss of life, and other information of importance.
As, however, any damage less than $500 to vessels or cargoes may be considered unimportant, the following table is presented which shows the number of casualties resulting in damage of that amount and exceeding it.
Prior to the act of June 20, 1874, there was no provision of law requiring the collection and preservation of statistics of marine disas. ters. Such statistics, however, became a year or two since incidentally needfulto the Department. Instructions were therefore issued to officers of the customs, requiring them to collect and forward all essential particulars of disasters which might thenceforth occur within their districts, or to vessels owned therein, together with all obtainable information respecting disasters of the ten preceding years. All availablo sources were resorted to for the desired data, such as the records of under. writers, wreck commissioners, superintendents of life-saving stations, light-house keepers, &c. From the careful research made and the extent and completeness of the various records which were consulted, it is believed that the information obtained is substantially correct. These statistics, properly tabulated and arranged by years, were published in an appendix to the last annual report, and are available for comparison with the following tables of last year's disasters.
ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTS
Table 1.- dbstract of returns of disasters to vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts during the year ending June 30, 1875, showing the number and value of vessels and cargoes, and amount of loss to same, where known.
* In this column are included the casualties in which no damage was sustained by the vessels ; for the number of which, see appropriate coluinn iu Table 2.
TabLE 2.- Abstract of returns of disasters to ressels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts during the year ending June 30, 1875, showing the number of vessels totally lost, the number damaged, aggregate tonnage of ressels totally lost, number of passengers and crew, and number
of lires lost.
TABLE 3.- Abstract of returns of disasters to vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts during
the year ending June 30, 1875, showing the number of vessels and cargoes insured and un. insured, and the amount of insurance where known.
Number of Number of vessels and cargoes reported to be Number of vessels and insured, and amount of insuranco.
Vessels and cargoes,
ported not insured or
insured. not, un
Vessels in ballast.
6 4 8 17 18 11
9 16 13 9
TABLE 4.- Abstract of returns of disasters to vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts during
the year ending June 30, 1875, distinguishing the nature of each casualty.