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whereas these emigrants had nothing---not even health. The subject of emigration has been discussed with much heat by its advocates and opponents, and in the case of Ireland the subject has been approached with peculiar bitterness. England argues that the miseries of Ireland are due to overpopulation, and Ireland maintains that a country capable in a year of famine of producing food for sixteen million persons, and containing five million acres of waste but improvable land cannot be said

to be too thickly peopled. The falseness of the over-population theory receives some support from the fact that, when Swift wrote his “modest proposal,” Ireland, with two million inhabitants, was worse off than she was in '41 with more than four times that population, and in 1886, now that the population has been reduced to between four and five millions, she is little better off than when she fed double as many at home and was a larger exporter of food.

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ITALY was at peace, but was still en- Russia and Austria, and the kings of Prussia, Sar

slaved and divided. The only Ital- dinia, and Naples, had a conference at Laybach in ian republic was the little San

Austria, and agreed to put down the insurrection. Marino; the only native Italian King Ferdinand, with the help of the Austrians, ruler, besides the pope, was the soon put down the movement. In March. 1821,

king of Sardinia, and Victor Em- first Alessandria and then Turin made an insurrecmanuel was an indolent despot. Three centuries tion: the people of both places crying out for a of foreign rule had lowered the character of the constitutional government, such as Ferdinand of Italian people, although during the French rule a Naples had for the moment granted, and for war great change for the better had begun. The Ital- with Austria. But the king had been at Laybach, ians of the Southern Kingdom were sunk lower and had there promised that he could not make any than those of the north, for they had borne the concessions. He kept his word to the great sovyoke far longer. All the Italian sovereigns were in ereigns, and chose to give up his crown rather than strict alliance with the Austrian emperor, who, in have his power cut short. He was succeeded by his return, guarenteed to keep them on their thrones. brother Charles Felix, who was at the time at MoIt was hopeless for the Italians by themselves to try dena. In his absence Charles Albert, prince of to get rid of rulers who were upheld by so great a Carignano, was made regent. This prince was depower: it was still more hopeless to make the at- scended from Charles Emmanuel, and, as Charles tempt without union of action or place. Neverthe- Felix had no children, he was the next heir to the less, such attempts were made, and failed again and throne. He was much pressed by the more violent again, until at last the deliverance of Italy was Liberals and by the Carbonari; and either willingly, brought about by the wisdom of statesmen who or from fear, or perhaps to secure his own succeswere content to bide their time, as well as by those sion, he granted the people the liberties for which who were ready to act when the time came. Before they asked. When Charles Felix heard this he was the Treaty of Vienna, plots were made by the mem- very angry, and threatened to bring the Austrians bers of a secret society, who were called the Carbo- down upon his people unless they yielded. Charles nari. These men were violent democrats, and they Albert had to retire into private life, and the king now hoped to get rid of the rulers of Italy, and to came to Turin, and for a time put an end to the set up a democratic government. The Neapolitans hopes of the Liberals. were much influenced by this society, and, in 1820, Francis, duke of Modena, had married a daughthey called on King Ferdinand to grant them a ter of Victor Emmanuel and his Austrian queen. constitution. They made a revolt so suddenly that The Jesuits and the Austrian party tried hard the king was forced to grant them all that they to make Charles Felix name Francis as his sucasked for. But a few months later the emperors of cessor, and so shut out Charles Albert, who was, they thought, inclined to liberalism, but the king Genoa, Giuseppe or Joseph Mazzini. This society would not agree to do this. The French Revolu- was called Young Italy, and its members aimed tion of 1830 raised the hopes of the Italians. The at making their country united and republican. Austrians made fresh efforts to work upon the It was strongly democratic, because Giuseppe Mazmind of the king, but he refused to listen, and zini, and others like him, thought that the workcalled Charles Albert to his court. In the begin- ing people were the noblest class, and that all ning of 1831 Ciro Menotti and his party found others were selfish and corrupt, and also because that Duke Francis had deceived them. The in- there did not seem any chance of Italy being surrection broke out all the quicker. The duke saved by any of her rulers. Mazzini was a man of Modena and the duchess of Parma were forced of far greater ability than most of his party; to flee. The revolt broke out also in the Romagna he was an eloquent speaker, and his hopes and against the government of the pope.

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The new

thoughts were lofty but rather undefined. He pope, Gregory XVI., had no power to withstand had a restless spirit, and a passion for intrigue, the movement; he had no troops and no money. but his turn of mind was unpractical, and he had He sent to beg the help of Austria. This was no patience. readily granted. The duke of Modena and the When Charles Albert came to the throne, Mazduchess of Parma were brought back by the Aus- zini called upon him to take the command of the trians. The revolt in the Romagna was put down, patriots, to defy Austria, and throw himself on and the pope was strengthened by the presence "God and the People.” The king was neither able of Austrian troops. This insurrection of Central nor willing to take such a step. Mazzini then Italy was caused by the hope of support from tried to seduce the king's soldiers from their alleFrance, but the Italians found themselves mis- giance, and thus did what he could to weaken the taken, for Louis Philippe, the king whom the only really Italian army that existed. These atFrench set up, could not help them in any way. tempts were met by severe and cruel measures, and But the French were jealous of the presence of the a large number were put to death by court-martial. Austrians in the Papal States, and in 1832 they Mazzini made Geneva his head-quarters, and there took possession of Ancona, and kept a garrison gathered together a small army of political refugees there until the Austrians withdrew their troops of different countries. In January, 1833, he made in 1838. As soon as the Austrians had crushed a raid upon Savoy, but the expedition utterly failed, the revolt, Charles Felix died. He left his king- and he took shelter in London. This wild invasion dom almost without an army, for he relied on the quite changed the feelings of the king. He was Austrians in case of need, and, he said, needed no now exposed to danger from the same quarter other troops.

which threatened Austria. He allied himself more When the revolt of 1831 was put down, Italy closely with that power and with the Jesuits, and was more than ever at the feet of the Austrians: ruled his people with great severity. On the other all her rulers held their power simply by Aus- hand, this raid of Polish and other refugees excited trian leave. Charles Albert was, from his former the anger of the Piedmontese against the extreme history, the most likely to take the headship in party, and the belief that the king's life was in any attempt to throw off the yoke. IIe seems danger helped to awaken a spirit of loyalty. Durto have been willing to grant to his subjects, as ing the next fourteen years several attempts were king, the same charter which he had granted as made against the rulers of Italy by members of the regent. But this would have brought on a war republican party, but they were in most cases foiled with Austria, for which he had not sufficient by spies and traitors. strength; and France, to which the hopes of the A large number of Italians were waiting and Italians turned, could not give him any help. working for the deliverance of their country in Nevertheless a party in Italy determined to give another way. The Moderate men did not expect him a chance of taking a decided step. A society to gain the freedom of Italy by violence without chiefly composed of young men, many of them policy. They were strongly opposed to the schemes political refugees, was organized by a native of of Mazzini: and the greater part of them looked to Charles Albert as the king under whom Italy should his states. In order to punish the pope for his disbecome free and united. They were brave enough obedience, and to keep in check the people of his to speak and to write in the cause of freedom, and states, who had now become powerful because they to act when the time came; but they were content were armed, the Austrian government sent troops to wait till then. This party was strongest in Pied- into the pope's territory. A large detachment of mont and Tuscany, for in both, though there was Croats marched into Ferrara, and took possession much evil, yet there was less oppression than in the of the city in spite of the papal legate. There had rest of the land, and men were not goaded on to been for some time causes of dispute between Ausaction. The opinions of this party were spread by tria and Sardinia, chiefly about levying duties. a book called Delle Speranze d'Italia (On the Hopes The conduct of the pope now definitely changed of Italy), published about 1843 by Cesare Balbo, a the policy of Charles Albert. He turned for supson of the minister of Victor Emmanuel, which port from Austria to his own people, and declared pointed out the king of Sardinia as the future lib- that, if the Austrians went further, he would fight erator. In Milan · Alessandro Manzoni raised his to the death for Italy and the pope. voice against the rule of the foreigners in his fa- The strength of the Republicans throughout Eumous novel, I Promessi Sposi, in his poems, and in rope, and the example of the pope, stirred up the his tragedies.

people of Italy to make a struggle for freedom. In During the reign of Gregory XVI. the breach be- Tuscany the suspicion of the Liberal party had been tween the Liberals and the Papalists grew wider roused by some concessions which the government each year.

The pope was kept on his throne by had made to Pope Gregory at the end of his reign. the Austrians, and he followed the policy which They now raised their voices for a National Guard, pleased the emperor Ferdinand. He would not and the grand duke was forced to grant it to them. suffer

any reform to be so much as named before In Lucca, under its Bourbon duke, Charles Louis, him. On his death, in 1846, Cardinal Mastai Fe- the State was managed by one Ward, who had been retti was chosen pope, and took the title of Pius a Yorkshire horse-jockey, and whom the duke had IX. The new pope immediately began a different made a baron and his chief minister. In Septempolicy. The power of the Gregoriani, as the Pa- ber, 1847, the people rose against the duke, but he palists of the last reign were called, came to an managed to appease them at the time, and the next end. An amnesty to political offenders was put month he sold the duchy to the grand duke Leoforth: liberty of speech and of complaints was pold. An insurrection was made at Palermo at granted. Two opposite parties looked on these re- the beginning of 1848, and the king was forced to forms with anger. The Gregoriani were indignant grant his people a constitutional government: his and helpless; for the Roman people were delighted example was quickly followed by the king of Sarwith their liberal pope, and triumphed over the

dinia, the grand duke, and the pope. party which had so long oppressed them. The ex- In February, 1848, Louis Philippe was driven treme Republicans were angry and suspicious, be- out of France, and a republic was again set up. cause these reforms made the pope popular, and

This revolution raised the hopes of the Republicans increased his authority.

all through Europe, and in a short time the disafIn the autumn some disturbances were made in fection, which had long been felt at Vienna, ended the streets of the city, and during the early part of in an open revolt, and the government was also emthe next year they became more frequent and seri- barrassed by an insurrection in Hungary. The Ital

The cardinals were insulted and threatened, ians took advantage of the difficulties of their and the papal guard and police were not strong Austrian masters. The Milanese attacked the enough to keep the peace. The Liberal party then Hungarian garrison under Marshal Radetzky, and, demanded that a National Guard should be formed. after a struggle which lasted for five days (March The Austrian government sent a strong remon- 18 to 23), drove him out of the city. Vicenza, strance against this plan, but on July 6, 1847, the Padua, Brescia, Bergamo, and other places openly pope gave his consent to the formation of a Nat- joined the Milanese. The duke of Modena fled ional Guard, not only in Rome but throughout all from his dominions. On March 22, the Venetians rose against the Austrians, murdered the comman- forced from him four months before, and vainly dant of the arsenal, Colonel Marinovich, and raised tried to bring Sicily into obedience by a bombardthe cry of Viva San Marco ! which had not been ment of Messina. heard for so many years.

ous.

The Austrians left the The defeat of Custoza, and the pope's Encyclical, city; a provisional government was set up, and nearly crushed the moderate party, but the RepubDaniele Manin, a Venetian of Jewish blood, who licans were active in Tuscany and in Rome. The had been foremost in the revolt, was placed at its pope

and his ministers were now held to be false to head.

the cause of Italian freedom, and the Roman people The king of Sardinia seized the opportunity to became riotous. The wisest of these ministers was declare war against Austria. He crossed the Ticino, Count Pellegrino Rossi. He was anxious to avoid and defeated the Austrians at Goito. He was joined an open breach between the frightened pope and by crowds of volunteers from all parts of Italy. The the Republicans, lest Austria should interfere, but army of the pope crossed the Po, and the king of Papalists and Republicans alike longed to push matthe Two Sicilies was forced to allow General Pepe ters to a crisis. On November 15, the count was to advance northward. But Charles Albert had no assassinated as he entered the Chamber of Deputies. fixed plan, and no military skill. He was success- Then the disorder in Rome became great. The ful until Radetzky received reinforcements, and pope shut himself up in the Palace of the Quirinal; then, July 25, he was utterly defeated at Custoza. and later retired to Gaeta. In Tuscany the extreme The Austrians entered Milan again, and the country democrats defeated the moderate party, which was was declared under martial law. Nearly all the led by the marquess Gino Capponi. Northern Kingdom was subdued. Venice still held War was declared against Austria, but it did not out under her Dictator Manin, and the Italians of last quite four days, for on March 23d Radetzky the northern mountains still kept up an irregular crossed the Ticino, and utterly defeated the Piedwarfare. They were led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, a montese at Novara. The king gave up his throne native of Nizza. This famous leader had been a to his son Victor Emmanuel. He left Italy, brokensailor; he had been banished from the Sardinian hearted, and died four months after his defeat. Kingdom because it was said that he took part in After the pope left Rome the city was governed first the plots of Mazzini. He then began a life of ad- by the Chamber of Deputies, and then by an Assemventure, and for a time was in the service of the bly chosen by universal suffrage. There were many republic of Uruguay. He offered his services to people in the city who would gladly have received Charles Albert, but the king was afraid of his re- the pope back, if he would have yielded some publican feelings, and would not accept them. things, but he refused to make any terms with them. Nevertheless, when the Piedmontese Parliament The chief place in the republic was soon taken by met in 1848, Giuseppe Garibaldi sat as a deputy Mazzini, who was made the first of the Triumvirs from Nizza. He helped the Milanese in their re- (or three head magistrates). The cause of the pope volt, and for a time defended Brescia, until he was was taken up by the king of the Sicilies, which was forced to retreat to the Alps. The Austrians occu- natural and, which sounds more strange, by the pied Parma and Modena, and put an end to the re- French Republic against the Republic of Rome. volts there. The archduchess of Parma had died, The French were jealous of the power which Austria and was succeeded by the ex-duke of Lucca, and he had in the peninsula, and seized the opportunity of gave Radetzky leave to enforce martial law in his meddling in the affairs of Italy. But the Romans dominions. Meanwhile the pope and the king of the were determined to defend their city, and sent for Two Sicilies retreated from the popular cause. The Garibaldi, who was in the Abruzzi, where he was Pope was afraid when he saw that he would have to guarding the frontier, and gave him the chief fight against Austria, and, in 1848, published an

command. Encyclical, which declared that his troops had In April, a French army under General Oudinot crossed the Po without leave. King Ferdinand, on landed at Civita Vecchia, and tried to storm the May 15, slew the people of Naples in the streets, city, but they were beaten back. The French now and took away all the liberties which had been gave up all hopes of taking Rome by storm, and

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