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and military service, some of the most dition had been, and was then, a matter accomplished statisticians, sanitarians, ar- of the most intense interest. Many of my-officers, and statesmen in the United the witnesses had, in various ways, been Kingdom. They were authorized to in- connected with that war: they were faquire into the habits and duties, the mor- miliar with its history, and their answers al and sanitary condition of the army, revealed much that had not before been the amount and kinds of sickness, the known. The result of all this investigacauses and frequency of death, and the tion is published in a folio volume of 607 means of improvement. This commission pages, filled with facts and principles, the sat for a long time in London. They lamentable history of the past, painful de called before them fifty-three witnesses, scriptions of the present, and wise sag among whom were Sir Benjamin Brodie, gestions for the future management of the leading surgeon of England, Dr. An- the army; and the whole is worthy of the drew Smith, Director-General of the careful attention of all who, as projectors, Medical Department of the Army, Thomas leaders, or followers, have anything to do Alexander, Inspector-General of Hospi- with the active operations of war. tals, Major-General Airey, Quartermas- The Crimean War has this remarkable ter-General, Dr. John Sutherland, late interest, not that the suffering of the Crimean Commissioner, and one of the troops and their depreciation in effective leading authorities of Great Britain in all power were greater than in many othsanitary matters, Dr. William Farr, the er wars, but that these happened in an chief and master-spirit of the Registry- age when the intelligence and philanOffice, and the highest authority in vital thropy, and even the policy of the nation, statistics, Colonel Sir Alexander Tulloch, demanded to know whether the vital de author of the elaborate and valuable re- pression and the loss of martial strength ports on the mortality in the British ar- were as great as rumor reported, whetbmy, Francis G. P. Neison, author of "Con- er these were the necessary condition of tributions to Vital Statistics,” Miss Night- war, and whether anything could be done ingale, and others, surgeons, officers, pur
to lessen them. By the investigations veyors, engineers, soldiers, and medical and reports of commissions, officers, and and sanitary scholars.
others, the internal history of this war The commission put forth 10,070 in- is more completely revealed and better terrogatories relating to everything con- known than that of any other on record. nected with the army, the persons and It is placed on a hill, in the sight of all the matériel, to officers, surgeons, phy- nations and governments, for their obsicians, health-officers, soldiers, nurses, servation and warning, to be faithful to cooks, clothing, food, cooking, barracks, the laws of health in providing for, and in tents, huts, hospitals, duties, labors, ex- the use of, their armies, if they would ob posures, and privations, and their effects tain the most efficient service from them. on health and life, in every climate, wherever British troops are stationed or
WANT OF SANITARY PREPARATIONS serve, at home and abroad. The same inquiry was extended to the armies of other nations, French, Turkish, Russian, THERE are, and have been, faults etc. To these questions the witnesses re- grievous, destructive, and costly faults — turned answers, and statements of facts in all connected with armies, from the and opinions, all carefully prepared, and Governments at the head, down through some of great length, and elaborate cal- all grades of officers, to the men in the culations in respect to the whole military ranks: they are faults of theory and fanlts and sanitary science and practice of the of practice, - of plan in those who direct, age. A large part of the inquiry was di- and of self-management in those whose rected to the Crimean army, whose con- whole duty is to obey. The root of this
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CIVIL AND MIL
is the failure to fully understand and gence or folly on its own part or in its count the cost, and to prepare to meet it agents, to expend any of the soldiers' as men generally do in the management health or strength in hunger, nakedness, of their common affairs. In civil life, foul air, miasma, or disease. There is a when prudent men intend to effect any glory attached to wounds, and even to purpose by the aid of motive power, wheth- death, received in a struggle with the er of water, steam, horse, or other kind, enemies of one's country, and this is ofthey carefully consider the means of
gen- fered as a part of the compensation to erating that power, and the best and saf- the warrior for the risk that he runs ; est ways of applying and expending it. but there is no glory in sickness or death They include this in their plans, and make from typhus, cholera, or dysentery, and provision accordingly. Precisely deter- no compensation of this kind comes to mining the extent of the purpose they de- those who suffer or perish from these, in sign to effect, and the amount of force camp or military hospital. that is and will be needed, they make their arrangements to provide or generate and maintain so much as long as they intend to do the work. During the whole process, they carefully guard and treasure Military life, with the labors, exit up, and allow none to be wasted or posures, and circumstances of war, differs applied to any other than the appointed widely from civil life. The social and dopurpose. But in the use and manage- mestic machinery of home spontaneousment of the vital machines, the human ly brings within the reach of families the bodies, by which the purposes of war are things that are needful for their susteto be accomplished, nations are less wise. nance, comfortable for their enjoyment, There are few, perhaps no records of any and favorable to their health. But this Government, which, in creating, maintain- self-acting machinery follows not the soling, and operating with an army, has, at dier through his campaigns. Everything
. and during the same time, created and he needs or enjoys is to be a matter of established the never-failing means of special thought, and obtained with a spekeeping the machinery of war in the best cial effort and often with difficulty. Much working order, by sustaining the health that was very comfortable and salutary and force of the men in unfailing fulness. in civil life must be given up in the
War is carried on by a partnership camp. The Government is the purveybetween the Government and soldiers, to or for and the manager of the army ; it which the Government contributes money undertakes to provide and care for, to and directing skill, and assumes the re- sustain and nourish the men.
But, with sponsibility of management, and the sol- all its wisdom, power, and means, it is diers contribute their vital force. In the not equal to the thousand or thousands operation of this joint concern, both the of housekeepers that cared and provided money of the nation and the lives of the for these men when at home; and cermen are put at risk. Although, by the tainly it does not, and probably cannot, terms of the contract, the Government is perform these domestic offices as well and presumed to expend its money and the as profitably for the soldiers as their natsoldiers' vital force to the extent that may ural providers did. Nevertheless, the be necessary to effect the objects of the Government is the sole provider for the association, it has no right to do this for army, and assumes the main responsibilany other purpose or on any other con- ity of the physical condition of its memdition. It may send the men to battle, bers. where they may lose in wounds or in death Starting with the very common belief a part or all that they have contribut- that the human body has an indefinite ed; but it has no right, by any negli- power of endurance, or, if it suffer from disease, or fall in death, it is from causes instinctive aptitude for self-care as well beyond man's control, --seeing, also, that it as for labor, and that he can generate is impossible to carry the common means and sustain physical force as well as exof sustaining life into the camp, Govern- pend it. But he is no more fitted for this, ments seem willing to try the experiment by his previous training and habits, than of requiring their men to do the hard his mother and wife are for making shoes work of war without a certain, full supply or building houses by theirs. Nevertheof sustenance. They expect from the ar- less he is thrown upon his own resources my the largest expenditure of force, but to do what he may for himself. The arsometimes give it the smallest means and my-regulations of the United States say, poorest conditions of recuperating it.
“ Soldiers are expected to preserve, disThe business of war is not constant and tribute, and cook their own subsistence"; permanent, like the pursuits of peace. It and most other Governments require the therefore comes to most managers as a same of their men. Washing, mending, new and unfamiliar work, to which they sweeping, all manner of cleansing, arcan bring little or no acquaintance from rangement and care of wbatever pertains experience. They enter upon untried to clothing and housekeeping, come under ground with imperfect knowledge of its the same law of prescription or necessity. responsibilities and dangers, and inade. The soldier must do these things, or they quate conceptions of the materials and will be left undone. He who has never powers with which they are to operate. arranged, cared for, or cooked his own or They therefore make many and some any other food, who has never washed, very grave mistakes, every one of which, mended, or swept, is expected to under in its due proportion, is doubly paid for stand and required to do these for himin drafts on the nation's treasury and on self, or suffer the consequences of neg. the soldiers' vital capital, neither of which lect. is ever dishonored.
The want of knowledge and training Military life is equally new to the sole for these purposes makes the soldier a dier, for which none of his previous edu- bad cook, as well as an indiscreet, Degücation or experience has fitted him. He gent, and often a slovenly self-manager, has had his mother, wife, sister, or other and consequently his nutrition and his housekeeper, trained and appointed for personal and domestic habits are neither the purpose, to look after his nutrition, so healthy nor so invigorating as those his clothing, his personal comfort, and, of men in civil life; and the Governconsequently, bis health. These do not ment neither thinks of this deficiency nor come without thought and labor. The provides for it by furnishing instruction domestic administration of the household in regard to this new responsibility and and the care of its members require as these new duties, nor does it exercise a much talent, intelligence, and discipline rigid watchfulness over bis habits to comas any of the ordinary occupations of pel them to be as good and as healthy
Throughout the civilized world, as they may be. this responsibility and the labor necessary for its fulfilment absorb a large portion of the mental and physical power
GOVERNMENT. of women.
When the new recruit enters the army, WHATEVER may be the excess of sick. he leaves all this care and protection be- ness and mortality among soldiers over hind, but finds no substitute, no compen- those among civilians, it is manifest that sation for his loss in his new position. a great portion is due to preventable The Government supposes either that causes; and it is equally manifest that a this is all unnecessary, or that the man large part of these are owing to the negin arms has an inspired capacity or an ligence of the Government or its agents,
MUCH SICKNESS DUE TO ERRORS OF
the officers in command or the men them- the climate of the Danubian Provinces, selves, in regard to encampments, tents, and especially of Bulgaria, where the clothing, food, labors, exposures, etc. temperature varies from 58° in the day
The places of encampment are usually to 29o at night, and where the falling dew selected for strategic purposes, or military is like a fine and penetrating rain.” * convenience, and the soldiers are exposed Lord Wellington was a sagacious obto the endemic influences, whatever they server and a bold speaker. His despatchmay be. In some localities these influ- es to his Government frequently mention ences are perfectly salubrious ; in others the errors of those who should provide they are intensely destructive. Malaria for the army, and the consequent sufferand miasms offer to the unpractised eye ings of the soldiers. November 14, 1809, of the military officer no perceptible signs he says, “ In the English army of 30,000 of their presence. The camp is liable to men, 6,000 are sick.”
“ Want of proper be pitched and the men required to sleep food increases sickness.” “ With nothing in malarious spots, or on the damp earth, but water for drink, with meat, but no or over a wet subsoil, exposed to noisome salt, and bread very rarely for a month, and dangerous exhalations from which dis- and no other food; consequently, few, if ease may arise. Pringle says, that, in 1798, any, were not affected with dysentery." the regiment which had 52 per cent. sick Again he writes, “ Men cannot perform in two months, and 94 per cent. sick in the labors of soldiers without food. Three one season, were cantoned on marshes · of General Park's brigade died of famine whence noxious exhalations emanated.” yesterday, on their march; and above a “ Another regiment encamped where hundred and fifty have fallen out from meadows had been flowed all winter and weakness, many of whom must have died just drained, and half the men became from the same cause.” August 9, 1809, sick.” Lord Wellington wrote, August he wrote to Lord Castlereagh, “ No 11, 1811, “ Very recently, the officer com- troops can serve to any good purpose, manding a brigade encamped in one of unless they are regularly fed. It is an the most un wholesome situations, and ev- error to suppose that a Spaniard, or any ery man of them is sick.”+ One of our man or animal of any country, can make regiments encamped at Worcester, Mas- an exertion without food.” In February, sachusetts, on the Agricultural Society's 1811, he wrote, “ The Portuguese army grounds, where the upper soil was not of 43,000 or 44,000 men has about 9,000 dry and the subsoil was wet. The men sick, which is rather more than a fifth. slept in tents on the ground, consequent- This is caused by want of proper and regly there were thirty to forty cases of dis- ular food, and of money to purchase hosordered bowels a day. The surgeon caus- pital-stores. If this be continued, the ed the tents to be floored, and the disease whole army will be down, or must be was mitigated. The Eleventh Massachu- disbanded.” setts Regiment were encamped on a wet The British army in Spain suffered soil at Budd's Ferry, in Maryland. In a from want of clothing as well as of food. week, thirty cases of fever appeared. Dr. The Duke, who did not intend to be mis. Russell, the surgeon, ordered the camp to understood, nor believe that this was withbe removed to a dry field, and the tents out somebody's fault, wrote, November 3, to be floored with brush; no new cases 1810, to General Fane, “I wish it were of fever appeared afterward. Moltka in my power to give you well-clothed says that “the Russian army which suf- troops or hang those who ought to have fered so terribly and fatally in 1828 and given them clothing.” 1829 was badly clothed and badly nour- The diaries of the medical officers in ished, and in no way protected against the Crimean army, quoted in the “Med. * Diseases of the Army, p. 59.
Boudin, Traité de Géographie et de Statis| Despatches.
tique Médicales, Tom. II. p. 289.
ical and Surgical History” of that war, cent. admitted to the hospital in this already referred to, are full of similar month.” complaints, and these are supported by Twentieth Regiment. “The impoverDr. Lyons's “ Pathological Report.” One ished condition of the blood, dependent says, “ Some of the camps were very in- on long use of improper diet, exposure judiciously chosen.”
“ The men were to wet and cold, and want of sufficient very much weakened,” “ unable to un- clothing and rest, bad become evident." dergo any fatigue,” even “ to carry their “Scurvy, diarrhæa, frost-bite, and ulcer knapsacks.” “At Balaklava, they built ation of the feet followed.” their huts on a very unhealthy site.” Sir First Regiment. “ December, 1854. John Hall, Inspector-General of Hospi- Scarcely a soldier in perfect bealth, from tals, referring to this, said, “ I protested sleeping on damp ground, in wet clothagainst it, in the strongest way I could, ing, and no change of dress; cooking but without effect; and the consequence the worst; field - hospital over-crowded." was that shortly after the men had spot- “January, 1855. Type of disease beted fever.” * Dr. Hanbury says, “ No coming more unequivocally the result of vember, 1854. Health of the army rap- bad feeding, exposure, and other hardidly deteriorated from defective diet, ships.” harassing duties, hardships, privations, Thirtieth Regiment. “Duties and emand exposures to the inclement season." ployments extremely severe ; exposure “ Cholera increased; cold, wet, innutri- protracted; no means of personal cleantious and irritating diet produced dysen- liness; clothing infested with vermin ; tery, congestion and disorganization of since Nov. 14, short allowance of meat, the mucous membrane of the bowels, and and, on some days, of biscuit, sometimes scurvy.” January, 1855, he says, “ Fe- no sugar, once no rice; food sometimes ver and bowel affections indicated morbid spoiled in cooking; tents leaked; floors action; scurvy and gangrene indicated and bedding wet; sanitary efficiency de privation and exposures."
teriorated in a decided manner.” The surgeon of the Thirty - Fourth These quotations are but samples of Regiment writes : “ November, 1854. hundreds, perhaps thousands, of similar Cholera broke out. It rained constantly. statements, showing the immediate conTroops had no other protection from the nection between privations, exposures, damp ground than a single wet blanket.” and hardships, and depression of life and “ Without warm clothing, on short al- abundant disease. lowance of provisions, in want of fuel.” Dr. Sutherland went through all the "The sanitary condition of the regiment camps, and makes similar statements. deteriorated rapidly: 56 per cent. of the “ The damp, unventilated, and undrained men admitted to the hospital.”
huts, in some parts of the camp, produced Forty-First Regiment, November and consequences similar to those in cellarDecember. “No respite from severe du- dwellings at home,” – that is, typhus and ties; weather cold and wet; clothing ill. typhoid diseases. “ The half-buried huts adapted for such climate and service; of the Sardinian camp furnished a large disease rapidly increased; 70 per cent. proportion of fever cases among their of the men in the hospital in two
“ That beautiful village of months.”
Balaklava was allowed to become a hotThirty- Third Regiment, December, bed of pestilence, so that fever, dysentery, 1854. “Cold and wet weather, coupled and cholera, in it and its vicinity and with insufficient food, fuel, and clothing, on the ships in the harbor, were abunand severe and arduous duties, all com- dant.” “ Filth, manure, offal, dead carbined to keep up the sickness; 48.8 per casses, had been allowed to accumulate to * Report on the Sanitary Condition of the
such an extent, that we found, on our British Army, p. 178.
arrival, in March, 1855, it would have