« PreviousContinue »
In vocational education analysis is a device to help in discovering and recording functioning content. Learning is a product of experience. Experience consists in mental and physical reactions. Experience is often incidental and fragmentary, but for best results in teaching it should be organized into reasonably complete and coherent units. In any case, vocational experience is likely to be complex. Therefore in teaching it is necessary to distinguish the essential from the incidental elements.
It is usually difficult for a person proficient in a certain thing to readily identify the significant elements in the things which he does. Hence, from the standpoint of the most effective teaching, it is essential, first, that the teacher can do the things which he is attempting to teach others to do; second, that he has a complete analysis of the training content; and, third, that he can visualize such content in terms of doing the job.
One of the difficulties in the analysis of training content in farming occupations is that occupational standards are not so well established in agriculture as they are in most occupations in the industrial field. One reason for this is that agricultural occupations are conducted under such widely varying conditions; also there is a tendency to speak of things agricultural in generic terms. However, basic training of any sort must be specific even though it may also have transfer value or general utility value as well. It is therefore not a question of whether or not we can use analysis in vocational education in agriculture, but rather one of adopting the kinds of analysis which will fit the situations encountered.
The division of labor in farming occupations has not been carried so far as it has in most other industrial occupations. We have seen, however, that there are two very important functions which most farmers perform in varying degrees and combinations, namely, operation and management. Even though one individual performs both of these functions, he usually centers his attention on one of them at a time. Indeed, if this were not the case no great proficiency could be attained. Thus management has to do with making the plans before the work is started, whereas operation has to do with putting the plans into effect. When a man is on an operative job, he should not have to stop to plan; on the other hand, the essence of good management lies in preparedness, forecasting, and planning ahead of time so that when the actual work is done there may be no avoidable delays or mistakes in procedure. This does not imply that a farmer must become a mere nonthinking machine when he does operative jobs, but merely emphasizes the fact that the thinking which he does for an operative job is a different kind of thinking from that which he does for a management job, because in each case the thinking is governed by a different objective.
An analysis may be set up in general terms which merely give an outline or broad classification of parts or elements, or it may include part of or all of the details. In making and using an analysis these facts should be kept in mind so that the kind of analysis most suited to the particular needs can be chosen. The analysis form is purely an arbitrary thing which one adopts for convenience.
Probably the best procedure in connection with agricultural education is, first, to analyze each enterprise to be taught into its operative jobs. Then check such of these job units as are desired to be taught also from the managerial standpoint. Then analyze the enterprise into such other distinctly managerial jobs as may be found, proceeding likewise with farm jobs which are not identified with any one enterprise.
From the foregoing it is apparent that the term "job analysis” in this connection applies strictly to the analysis of the work units of an agricultural enterprise or of the work of a farm outside of particular enterprises. This kind of an analysis forms the basis for courses of study.
In order to secure and to visualize training content we must make analyses of such content for each job. It is this material which forms the basis for teaching units and lesson plans. The forms used for operative training content and managerial training content, respectively, together with the significance of the component elements of such training have already been discussed in this bulletin. Following are some additional examples:
An example of analysis of standard practice stated in relative terms.
Analysis of operative training content of the farm job of feeding laying hens
1. Select feeds At least 2 grains.
Feeds commonly used for ration. At least 5 or more mash ingredi- locally.
ents, including 1 with animal Feeds available at farm, protein.
dealers, etc. Not more than 5 per cent fiber Recognition of feeds of in whole ration.
good quality. Not more than 40 per cent high Understanding of terms
fiber grains, as oats, in mix- and feed analyses so ture.
that computations can Total digestible nutrients, 70 to be made readily. 75 per cent.
Costs of home-grown and Digestible protein, 12 to 15 per of purchased feeds. cent.
Proportion of mash to Animal protein one-third of total grain needed to provide protein.
nutritive balance. Access to green food, grit, oyster Scientific explanations as shell, and water.
to the physiology of the Economical.
hen in relation to feeding.
Analysis of operative training content of the farm job of feeding laying hens-Con.
3. Provide water- Water container 18-inch
Climate with respect to
ing facili- stand, protected from dirt and
freezing, and holding day's
likelihood of freezing.
Total amounts of different
types of feed consumed normally by hens of breed used.
4. Make feeding | Leave mash hopper open all day.
as much grain in morning as
third more for heavy breeds.
ing, so as to maintain balance
as will not unduly loosen
An example showing how managerial training content differs from
operative training content as compared with the preceding example. Analysis of managerial training content of the farm job of feeding laying hens
Kind of information needed to apply factors
1. What ration Cost of total Rations commonly fed by successful (ingredi- nutrient.
poultrymen. ents) to feed. Cost of protein. Meaning of protein, carbohydrate, fat,
Cost of animal mineral, vitamine, from experimental
tion, analyses, and experimental data. Cost of feeds available for purchase, from
survey of locally grown supply and
supply shipped in. Comparison of cost of commercial mixtures
and feeds purchased separately. Value of feeds available on farm, from
market price less cost of transportation. Relation of variety in a ration to its
adaptability and the avoidence of
radical changes. Possibility of securing a continuous supply
of respective ingredients. Possibility and effects of substitution of
to be fed.
2. What storage Costs.
facilities to Prevention provide. waste.
Ways in which waste occurs as by spilling,
moisture causing decay and molding, rats and mice, temperature changes
causing freezing or decay. Susceptibility of various ingredients to
spoil. Means of preventing waste. Estimate on storage costs such as first
cost of facilities, rental value, interest on value of feed in storage, price fluc
tuation. Location of storage facilities which will
3. What feeding Cost.
facilities to Prevention provide.
Feeding devices commonly used by suc
cessful poultrymen. Ways in which waste occurs in connection Analysis of managerial training content of the farm job of feeding laying hens
waste. Labor. Accessibility (to
hens). Exercise (for
with feeding as by loss or contamination
of feed in litter, by rats and mice. Records showing comparative amount of
labor required by schedules in common
use locally. Readiness with which hens can get at feed
in different types of hoppers. Suitability of hopper as to keeping feed
clean and wholesome. Suitability of various types of litter as to
providing exercise, lasting quality, and absorptive quality.
An example of analysis of standard practice stated in specific terms
and suitable for placing in the hands of pupils as a work sheet.
Analysis of operative training content of the farm job of filing and setting a crosscut
1. Jointing -- Place saw in clamp with point toward Recognition of clamp,
operator's left as he faces clamp. (For jointer, point, heel,
2. Shaping This operation should be omitted if only Recognition of set, teeth. a very light jointing has been done and three-cornered
if the teeth have not been battered or taper file of proper
right (for right-handed persons) and
taper file of a size to fit the saw teeth.