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about this period expelled from the island.59
The Dutch on gaining possession of Java, Ceylon, and other islands in the East Indies, found a corrupt dialect of the PortuGUESE spoken in them; they therefore not only established ministers to preach in Portuguese, as well as in Dutch and the Indian dialects, but distributed among them Portuguese Bibles, and other Books of Piety.
The New Testament translated by John FERREIRA D' ALMEIDA, after being revised, was printed at Amsterdam, 1681, 4to., by order of the illustrious East India Company of the United Provinces. The revisors were the Rev. Barthol. Heynen, and J. de Vooght. The Preface, or Introduction, occupies 3 leaves. A second edition was printed at Batavia, 1693, 4to., by order of the Dutch East India Company, at their press, after being revised and improved by Theodorus Zas and Jacobus op den Akker, ministers at Batavia. The Danish missionaries, however, speak of an edition printed at Batavia, prior to the one of 1681, and say that it was on account of the first impression proving faulty, that it was sent to Amsterdam to be revised and reprinted; but the edition of 1693, is expressly stated, in the reverse of the title-page, to be the second, “ Esta segunda impressao d’o S. S. novo Test.” The missionaries add, that a copy of the edition of 1681 cost them, in 1709, at the Cape of Good-Hope, Three Specie Dollars.69
Joam (John) Ferreira A D’Almeida was a native of Portugal, boro at Lisbon. He was in his youth of the Roman Catholic persuasion, and appears to have gone as a missionary to the East; but afterwards he embraced the reformed religion, which so irritated the Catholics that they burnt him in effigy at Goa. After his conversion to Protestantism, he laboured on the Coast of Malabar for a year among the native Christians of the Romish (58) Fabricii Lux Evangelii, &c. cap. xxxv. pp. 594,595; cap.xlii. p. 698.
Brown's Hist. of Propag. of Christianity among the Heathen, I. p. 21. (59) Adleri Bibliotheca Biblica, pt. ii. Plut. 22, p. 348.
Propag. of Gospel in the East, pt. ii, pp, 14, 15, Lond. 1718, 8v0
communion, but without much success, on account of the prejudices entertained against him for having forsaken that church. He afterwards resided in Ceylon, where it is probable he commenced his translation of the Bible, which he did not live to complete, dying when he had finished the New Testament and advanced the Old to the end of the Prophecy of Ezekiel. He was cotemporary with Baldæus, who, in his “Description of Ceylon," relates the following curious circumstance: “I remember,” says he, “that in my time a Portuguese reformed minister, named John Ferreira d'Almeida, travelling with his wife from Galle to Colombo, the coolies, or litter carriers, (according to their custom) ran away at the sight of an elephant, who, however, did not the least harm, but laying his trunk upon the woman's palanquin, or litter, went away.
In Ceylon the Dutch erected churches, established ministers, and founded schools, but do not appear to have translated any part of the Scriptures into the Cingalese, during this century.
From remarking the efforts of the Dutch to promote Biblical knowledge in their Eastern possessions, we return to notice some of the more important or rare GERMAN versions of the Scriptures, published during this century. The first of these was by John Piscator, a divine of Herborn, where his translation of the Bible was printed, 1602–3, 4 vols. in 4to. with notes; afterwards frequently reprinted.
John PISCATOR, or FISCHER, was a Protestant divine, born at Strasburg, in 1546. He became professor of divinity at Herborn ; and published a Latin version of the Old Testament, with Beza's version of the New Tes
(60) Baldæus's Description of the Coasts of Malabar, &c. in Churchill's
Voyages, III, pp. 648. 825. .
Adleri Bibliotheca Biblica, pt. ii. Plut. 22, p. 350, (61) Le Long, I. p. 402, Paris, 1723, fol.
tament, in several vols. 8vo. from 1601, to 1615, printed at Herborn ; accompanied with a Commentary, and Junius and Tremellius's version of the Old Testament. The “Commentary” was printed separately, 1646, 2 vols. fol. He died at Herborn, in 1626, in the 80th year of his age.
In 1617, Zachariah Schürers, a bookseller of Wittemberg, published an edition of Luther's German Bible, in 4to. which he republished in 1625. In this latter edition, a Roman Catholic printer had the audacity to corrupt the text in different places, especially in Rev. xiv. 6. where, by the substitution of neu for ewig, the passage reads, “I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the novel” (instead of everlasting) "Gospel;” intending by this to mortify the disciples of Luther, who were accustomed to apply this passage to that great reformer. A few copies got abroad, but the edition was speedily suppressed. A similar corruption was attempted in an edition published at Nuremberg, 1670, fol. in which the printer introduced the doctrine of Purgatory, in the Epistle of Jude, 23.64
A Catholic translation of the Bible from the Vulgate, was made by Caspar Ulenberg, in 1630, and printed at Cologne, in folio. This edition is extremely rare; for the divines of Mentz being dissatisfied with the version, which Dr. Geddes calls"
disgustingly literal and obscure,” especially with the provincialisms in it, revised the style and language of it, under the auspices of John Philip de Schonborn, archbishop and elector of Mentz, and reprinted it in that city, in 1662, in fol. and from this revision the subsequent editions of Ulenberg's Bible were taken.
CASPAR ULENBERG was a native of Lippe, in West
(62) Chalmers, XXIV. p. 524. Le Long, I. p. 40%,
Le Long, edit. Masch, pt. ii. vol. III. pp. 471, 472, (63) Clement, Bibliotheque Curieuse, IUI, p. 403. (64) Ibid, III. p. 408.
phalia. He was licentiate in theology, regent of the Laurentian College, and pastor of the church of St. Columban, in Cologne. The translation of the Bible, he undertook under the sanction of Ferdinand, duke of Bavaria, elector and archbishop of Cologne. He died in 1637.65
A translation of the Bible was likewise commenced, but never completed, by John Saubert, professor of the Oriental languages at Helmstadt. The circumstances were these: The learned and pious Augustus, duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg, having remarked, in constantly reading the Holy Scriptures, that Luther's German version was not always strictly conformable to the original, owing to his great anxiety to express himself in good German ; became desirous of having a more literal translation, that should exhibit the Hebrew text with the utmost exactness possible. The duke passed thirty years in meditating a plan to gratify his wishes, without doing injury to religion, or discrediting the version of Luther, which he highly esteemed. At length he devolved the undertaking upon young SAUBERT, who though only 27 years of age, was professor of the Orientał languages. The translation was begun in 1665, and the necessary arrangements for printing it adopted. Every sheet was sent, as soon as printed, to the duke who personally examined it, and also laid it before different divines, in whose learning and talents he had the highest confidence, that he might be able to form a sound and correct judgment respecting the translation, and the remarks of the translator. The translation thus proceeded till the death of this worthy prince, which happened September 17th, 1666 ; when Saubert, finding his work attacked on all sides, requested the Duke Rodolph Augustus to discharge him from his engagement, which, (65) Clement, Bibliotheque Curieuse, III. p. 405. Le Long, I. p. 380; et Index Auctor. p. 587.
after some deliberation, was granted. The copies of the translation, which had been printed on large paper, with a beautiful type, and had advanced as far as I. Samuel, xvii. 12, when the printing of it was suspended, were transmitted to Wolfenbuttel, and so carefully guarded, that not a single copy would have been obtained, had not the Duke Anthony Ulric made presents to a few of his most intimate friends.“
In 1641, a revised edition of Luther's German translation of the Bible, with short notes, was published at Nuremberg, in folio; with a preface by Solomon Glassius; under the auspices of Ernest, duke of Saxe-Gotha. This edition is held in esteem by the Lutherans; and is sometimes called the Ernestine, and sometimes the Weimar, or Nuremberg edition. The persons employed in the revision were John Gerhard, John Himmel, Solomon Glassius, John Mich. Dilherrus, and others.67
Fred. Shoberl, in his “Historical Account of the House of Saxony," Lond. 1816, 8vo. furnishes the following curious information, relative to the great patron of this Bible :
“ Ernest, the pious, founder of the modern house of Saxe Gotha, in 1640, found the people in a state of the grossest ignorance: his first care, therefore, was to reform the church, and establish schools. He obliged all persons to send their children to these schools at five years of age ; and such was the success of his regulations, that it became a common saying, that “the boors of Thuringia were better educated than the gentry of other countries.” By his commands, Seckendorf undertook bis voluminous and valuable History of Lutheranism. He likewise formed the plan of publishing the Bible with notes, composed by as many Protestant wri
(66) Clement, Bibliotheque Curieuse, III. p. 407,
Le Long, I. pp. 389-392. Paris, 1723, fol. (67) Ibid. I. p. 387.