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FTER the signature of the truce with board, and afford what aid they could in negotia
the United Provinces, preparations ting their establishment in Africa. The Duke of were made for transporting the Gandia thus accompanied twenty thousand of his Moors to Africa. These prepara- vassals, the loss of whom reduced him from imtions excited the apprehensions of mense wealth to comparative poverty. They reached
their protectors, and again the Va- Tremecen in safety; and were there kindly received, lencian nobles drew a vigorous remonstrance against and comfortably settled. a measure so fraught with injustice and ruin, The intelligence of the prosperous voyage of this which they sent, by deputies chosen from their own first band of exiles, if it did not reconcile the Moors to body, to court. It was unavailing. In September, their fate, relieved many of their fears. They emthe edict was published, enjoining all men, women, barked without resistance; and becoming impatient
of to get through the impending evils, many freighted death, to hold themselves in readiness within three ships for their own conveyance, rather than wait days, for being conducted to the sea-coast, and there their turn in the vessels provided by government. put on board the ships provided for their transpor- But now every species of calamity seemed to conspire tation to foreign parts. Their property, beyond against these persecuted people. As the season adwhat they could carry with them, was adjudged to vanced numbers were shipwrecked, and never reached the lords whose vassals they were; but six families their destination. Of those who hired vessels for in every hundred were allowed to be temporarily themselves, many were robbed and murdered, and detained by such lords, for the purpose of instruct- their women barbarously outraged by the crews; and ing the Christian inhabitants in the management of even of those who landed upon the Barbary coast, the drains, aqueducts, rice plantations, sugar works, numbers were almost as cruelly treated by the wild manufactures, and such other kinds of business as and wandering Arabs. One hundred thousand perhad been carried on solely by the Moors. Children sons are computed to have perished in one way or under four years of age might also remain behind; another, within a few months of their expulsion and where one parent was a Christian, children up from Valencia. to the age of seven might remain with that Christian No Moors now remained in Valencia except a few parent.
young children, whom certain pious ecclesiastics and Many of the Spanish nobles not only refused to their female devotees had caused to be stolen from profit by the confiscation of property which the their parents at the moment of embarkation, in order edict gave them, but they assisted the Moors in dis- to educate them in the Christian faith, and some posing of their effects, and in carrying away with bands of outlying mountaineers. The numbers of them whatever could be conveniently transported; these last did not exceed thirty thousand. and many of them actually embarked with their thus did Philip, in the course of a few months, vassals, to insure their good treatment on ship- banish at least one million of his most, if not his
only, industrious and ingenious subjects. The Moors are said to have revenged themselves by managing the betrayal of Larach, one of the very few fortresses remaining to the Spaniards of their once large African possessions, into the hands of the Corsairs.
The remaining transactions of Philip III.'s reign relate wholly to the affairs of Germany, where the war, known by the name of the Thirty Years' War, broke out. Matthias had succeeded his brother Rodolph as emperor; and as he, and all his yet living brothers, were childless, bis succession became an important question. Philip was the legitimate heir, as the son of Anne, the emperor's eldest sister. But Philip was not ambitious of re-uniting the immense dominions of Charles V., and willingly resigned his right in favor of Ferdinand, the brother of his deceased queen Margaret, and grandson to Ferdinand I., by his younger son Charles.
In February 1621, Philip sank under an illness that had long been growing upon him. He is said never to have recovered from the pain he endured when convinced of the unfortunate condition into which Spain had fallen, and which he felt himself quite incapable of remedying. From that moment a deep melancholy seized upon his spirits, and his health gradually declined. He died at the age of forty-two, leaving three sons, Philip, prince of Asturias, Ferdinand, already a cardinal and archbishop of Toledo, and Charles, still a child; and two daughters, Anne, queen of France, and Maria.
Philip IV. was only sixteen when he ascended the throne. During his long reign of forty-four years, the downfall of Spain was yet more fearfully accelerated. The Dutch fleets rode triumphant in the Indian and American seas. They intercepted the return of Spanish treasure, and of Portuguese merchandise. They subdued the greater part of the large Portuguese empire in India and Brazil. They sacked Lima in Peru, where they made an immense booty, and they took several of the smaller West Indian islands. The politicians of the day, who had not yet discovered that liberty is the invigorating principle as well of military enterprise, as of internal policy and commercial industry, beheld with amazement a handful of fishermen actually acquiring wealth, strength, and power, during the continuance of a war which was wholly exhausting the
apparently inexhaustible resources of Spain, so lately the terror of Europe.
Whilst this struggle was going on between Spain and her revolted provinces, 1622-1623, the Thirty Years' War was raging in Germany, by the intervention of new parties, whenever its flames appeared likely to be extinguished for want of fuel. In 1623, the fine-spun web of policy, that had insured Eagland's neutrality, was broken through by the haughty tempers of two overbearing favorites.
The Prince of Wales, impatient of the endless obstacles that delayed the negotiation for his marriage, had been easily persuaded by the romantic Duke of Buckingham to visit Spain, and by his unexpected presence hasten the conclusion. An act of gallantry so unusual in a royal suitor was well calculated to charm Spaniards, and the reserved demeanor of Charles suited their ideas of royal de
Accordingly the treaty seems to have proceeded more rapidly and cordially than before, although difficulties still occurred respecting the papal dispensation, and Spanish etiquette allowed the bridegroom few opportunities of even seeing his promised bride. During these delays a quarrel took place between Olivarez and Buckingham, whose bold licentiousness was most offensive to Castilian pride; and the impetuous English favorite immediately exerted his unbounded influence over Charles, to induce him to return home, break off the marriage, and espouse Henrietta Maria of France, a daughter of Henry IV., instead of the infanta. And what seems yet stranger, he prevailed upon James I. to abandon a match upon which he had so long set his heart, to effect which he had made such sacrifices. The infanta some years later married the emperor's eldest son, afterwards Ferdinand III.
Upon the cessation of Italian hostilities, Olivarez, the Spanish generalissimo, devoted his whole attention to the Dutch and German wars, and afforded somewhat more assistance to the emperor. But he could gain no success against the Dutch; and a deep feeling of rivalry and hatred was hourly increasing between the count-duke and Cardinal Richelieu, the equally ambitious, and more able, prime minister of France. So long as the power of France was weakened by civil wars with the Huguenots, Richelieu confined his inimical measures against Spain and Austria to intriguing with all the states opposed
to them, through either political or religious mo- man, accompanied by a priest bearing a crucifix tives, and affording liberal pecuniary supplies to the in one hand and a sword in the other, led a body German Protestants. In 1635, France was inter- of citizens against a fort adjoining the palace. They nally tranquil, the Huguenots, and the members of bore down all before them, and quickly made the the royal family who detested the minister, being Castilian garrison prisoners. Another party realike subdued; and Richelieu took the opportunity leased all prisoners incarcerated for political ofof an attack made by a Spanish army upon the fences. Archbishop of Treves, an ally of France, whom They were now masters of the palace, from the they despoiled of his dominions, and made prisoner, windows of which the successful conspirators proto declare war. He immediately prepared to invade claimed liberty and John IV.; an immense concourse the Netherlands and the Milanese. A revolt in of people, who had assembled without, joyfully reCatalonia later on induced the Catalonians to seek echoing the national cry. Meanwhile, Ribeiro with assistance from Louis XIII., which was gladly ren- his party were seeking for Vasconcellos, the vicedered them. Louis XIII. was proclaimed Count of queen's secretary, who was regarded as the real Barcelona, and French troops were poured into Cat- governor of the country, and to whom every odious alonia, which, henceforward, became one of the measure was ascribed. At the first alarm Vasconchief theatres of the war between France and Spain. cellos had concealed himself in a closet behind It was here carried on with vigor, and produced ob- heap of papers, and some time elapsed ere his enestinate sieges, gallant defences, marked by patient mies could find him. At length a maid-servant endurance of great privations, and innumerable pointed out his retreat. He was instantly dragged actions of brilliant courage, but no decisive battle, forth, pierced with innumerable wounds, and flung or very important results.
out of the window, amongst the populace, who A spirit of dissatisfaction had long been growing vented their hatred by cruelly mangling his corpse; amongst the Portuguese. Their colonies were neg- and shouts of “The tyrant is dead!” arose interlected; a great part of Brazil, and a yet larger por- mixed with those of “God save John IV., king of tion of their Indian empire, had fallen into the Portugal!" hands of the Dutch; Ormus, and their other pos- The vice-queen was still to be secured, and the sessions in the Persian Gulf, had been conquered by principal conspirators assembled at the door of her the Persians; their intercourse with their remaining apartments, whilst the mob without clamorously colonies was harassed and intercepted; their com- threatened to fire the palace. Margaret, deeming merce with the independent Indian states, with what had occurred a mere burst of general indignaChina and with Japan, was here injured, and there tion against Vasconcellos, still hoped to preserve her partially destroyed, by the enterprising merchants authority. Her door was thrown open, and presentand mariners of Holland; whilst at home the priv-ing herself, attended by the primate and her ladies, ileges secured to them as the price of their submis- she said, “Senhors, I confess that the secretary desion, were hourly, if not flagrantly, violated by their served the people's hatred, and your resentment, by Spanish masters.
his insolence and misconduct. But be satisfied with The country ripened for revolt and a conspiracy what you have done. Thus far the tumult may be headed by the Duke of Braganza was hatched ascribed wholly to popular rancor against Vasconto overthrow the Spanish rule. The 1st of cellos; but consider that, if you persist in such disDecember, 1640, was the day appointed for the orders, you will incur the guilt of rebellion, and insurrection. Early in the morning the conspira- make it impossible for me to plead in your behalf to tors approached the palace in four well-armed the king." Don Antonio de Menezes answered, bands. At eight o'clock, Ribeiro, the Duke of Bra- that they acknowledged no king but the Duke of ganza's law-agent, fired a pistol, the preconcerted Braganza; and her further remonstrances were cut signal, and each band instantly attacked its allotted short, by shouts of “God save John IV., king of post. Don Miguel d'Almeida fell upon the German Portugal!" guard, and surprising them unarmed, soon mas- The revolution thus wisely planned, secretly matered them. Don Francisco Mello, grand hunts- tured, and happily executed, was now complete.
Portugal had recovered her independence, and replaced the legitimate descendant and representative of her ancient sovereigns upon the throne.
In 1646 Spain was threatened with the loss of her Neapolitan dominions. The imposition of a new tax by an unpopular viceroy led to an insurrection headed by a fisherman named Massaniello. The fisherman was executed, but the revolt was subdued with no little difficulty. Spain concluded a peace with the United Provinces in 1648, which was shortly afterward followed by the Peace of Westphalia, which arrayed and settled such a mass of conflicting interests, that it was considered as the fundamental law of Europe until the French Revolution overthrew all established political relations.
In Catalonia Philip was successful. In the Netherlands disputes arose between Condé and the Spanish generals, and the abilities of Turenne balanced those of the rebel prince. England, too, under the vigorous administration of Cromwell, joined in the war against Spain. By her assistance Dunkirk was taken, and the greater part of what is now called French Flanders overrun. In Italy, Spanish influence had now sunk so low, that all the petty powers declared for France.
Failures and exhaustions on both sides had now produced a mutual desire for peace between France and Spain, but an obstacle seemingly insurmountable opposed its conclusion. The chief condition proposed by France was the marriage of Louis XIV. with Philip's daughter Maria Theresa, since her brother's death the acknowledged heiress of the Spanish crown; and Philip would not listen to a proposal that might expose his dominions to the possible risk of falling to the crown of France. His objection was, however, removed, when in 1657 his second wife, Marianne of Austria, his own niece, bore him a son. Negotiations were set on foot; and, in November, 1659, Don Louis de Haro, and Cardinal Mazarin, meeting in the Isle of Pheasants, in the middle of the boundary river, the Bidassoa, concluded and signed the treaty, known by the name of the Pyrenees. The war with England ceased the following year, upon the restoration of Charles II.; it should seem without any treaty.
Spain had now no enemy but Portugal, and exerted herself to reduce this last remaining rebellion. The young king, Alfonso VI., had suffered a paralytic attack in his infancy, from which it is alleged
that he never completely recovered, either in body or mind. Considerable mystery hangs, nevertheless, over his character and history, some of the vices and extravagances of which he is accused appearing to be inconsistent with the extreme debility attributed to him. What appears certain is, that he indulged in many vicious and silly propensities, gave way to unbridled violence, offended the nobility, by selecting for his favorites two Genoese of inferior birth, named Conti; and whilst he refused to attend the councils of state with his mother, impatiently demanded the surrender of her authority.
In June, 1662, however, the queen professed her readiness to resign the regency, provided the Contis, to whom she ascribed much of Alfonso's misconduct, were first removed from about his person. This was done with a strange sort of violence. The queen held the king in conversation in her own apartments, whilst a party of noblemen seized the two Genoese in the palace, put them on board a ship, and dispatched them to Brazil. The king showed little feeling or resentment upon the occasion, but at once transferred his affection to the Count of Castel Melhor, a gentleman of his chamber, under whose conducı he secretly left Lisbon for Alcantara, and thence extorted from his mother an authority which she had declared herself willing to surrender. She lingered some months at court, vainly striving to gain influence over her son, if not to recover her authority; but in March, 1663, was driven away by the insults of the king and his creatures, and retired to a convent.
The Spanish forces were decisively beaten by the Portuguese at the battle of Villa Viçosa, and from that moment the question of the permanence of Portuguese independence, if it had ever been doubtful, was settled. On receiving the tidings of this defeat, Philip said, “It is the will of God," and fainted away. Philip IV. did not long survive the defeat of Villa Viçosa. He died on the 17th of September of the same year, 1665, leaving by his second wife one only surviving son, Charles II., a sickly child of three years, and a daughter Margaret.
In Portugal, meanwhile, the queen mother was dead; the king's follies and vices are represented as hourly increasing, and his marriage, which was expected to operate some sort of reform in his conduct, only precipitated a catastrophe that could not, in all likelihood, have been long delayed. The wife
selected for him was a princess of a branch of the The queen regent of Spain was distasteful to the House of Savoy, settled in France, the second people, and she was confined in a convent at Toledo, daughter of the Duke of Nemours. She arrived in her confessor, Valenzuela, banished to the Philipthe Tagus on the morning of the 2d of August, pines, and Don John placed in the keeping of the 1666; and the king immediately adopted towards young King Charles who, in 1675, was in his fourher the line of conduct in which he afterwards persevered. It was not till late in the evening that During Valenzuela's administration, the war with Castel Melhor's entreaties and remonstrances could France broke out anew. French intrigue having induce him to go on board the vessel, in order to detached Sweden and England from the Triple receive and conduct her on shore. He did at Alliance, Louis invaded the United Provinces, unlength comply, and went through the marriage der the idle pretence of resenting a treaty conceremony; but it proved utterly impossible to pre- cluded between them and Spain, for mutual provail upon him even to visit her apartment that tection in the Low Countries. The United Provnight. The court now became a scene of faction inces had no other ally; they had lost during peace and disorder.
the high courage that marked their revolt from This state of affairs lasted till the 21st of Nov. Spain; they were rapidly overrun, and, in 1672, 1667; when the queen, suddenly withdrawing to the reduced almost to despair; whilst Spain was comnunnery of la Esperanza, wrote thence to the king, pelled to disavow an endeavor of the Count of that she was weary of ill usage, and that, as he Monterey, governor of the Netherlands, to assist knew she was not his wife, she desired their nominal them. marriage might be annulled, her portion restored, It was from the very depth of their danger and and she herself sent home to France. This step despair that the means of preservation arose. The seems to have been the preconcerted opening of the House of Nassau had been driven from the governhitherto masked batteries against the king. The ment by the republican party, and its head, the next day passed in negotiations, professedly tending young Prince of Orange, afterwards William III. of to prevail upon the queen to return to the king, England, was then living in obscurity and inaction. and
upon the king to accept the infante as his col- He took advantage of the terror excited by the league. Both pertinaciously refused; and early on French victories, to gain the ascendency over the the morning of the 23d, the council of state in a adverse faction which was suspected of partiality to body waited upon his majesty, and required him to
He was named Stadtholder, the title of the acknowledge his own incapacity, and to abdicate in Dutch chief magistrate; and under his able guidfavor of his brother. This proposal he of course ance the energies of the Seven Provinces revived, rejected, yet more decidedly than the other; but whilst the emperor united with Spain for their prothe council was now joined by the infante, the tection. The war, however, lasted for years; the municipality of Lisbon, and the Juez do Povo, or Netherlands were again devastated, and in great judge of the people, a sort of tribune of the people. part conquered, by France; and Louis further harThese collective authorities locked the king in his assed Spain by inroads into Catalonia, and by exchamber, until at last, on the evening of the same citing a rebellion in Sicily. day, he signed a form of abdication prepared by The reign of Charles was a most unhappy one. them. The deposed monarch, either in folly' or The king, who anxiously desired to promote and satire, chose a boy employed in his kennel for his enforce all salutary measures, harassed by conflictcompanion, and was kept in easy confinement for ing parties and interests, distracted between his some years at one of the Azores.
love for his beautiful young queen, and his detestaMay 1668 beheld the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, by tion of everything French, was fast sinking into a which Louis XIV. disgorged most of his acquisitions state of hypochondriacal disease. The finances of upon the stern front presented to him by England, Spain were altogether ruined; the government was the United Provinces, and Sweden, retaining, how- disorganized; the army had lost its reputation for ever, a large slice of what was thenceforward called courage and discipline; commerce was annihilated, French Flanders.
and agriculture so nearly so, that famine was a con