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TEXT.

8. So then they that are in the flesh, cannot please God. 9 But ye are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, if so be that the spirit

of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the spirit of

Christ, he is none of his. 10 And if Christ be in you, the body is dead, because of sin, but the

spirit is life, because of righteousness.

PARAPHRASE.

8 trary tendency. So then they that are in the flesh, i. e.

under the fieshly dispensation of the law', without regard9 ing Christ, the spirit of it, in it cannot please God. But

ye are not in that state, of having all your expectation from the law, and the benefits, that are to be obtained barely by that; but are in the spiritual state of the law, i.e. the gospel", which is the end of the law, and to which the law leads you. And so, having received the gospel, you have therewith received the spirit of God: for, as many as receive Christ, he gives power to become the 'sons of God:

and to those that are his sons, God gives his spirito. 10 And if Christ be in you, by his spirit, the body is dead

NOTES. 8 * This is a conclusion drawn from what went before. The whole argu. mentation stands thus: “ They that are under the dominion of their carnal lusts, “ cannot please God; therefore they who are under the carnal, or literal dis“ pensation of the law, cannot please God; because they have not the spirit of God: now it is the spirit of God alone, that enlivens men so, as to enable * them to cast off the dominion of their lusts." See Gal. iv. 3-6.

y Oi i cafxò oiles, " They that are in the flesh.” He that shall consider, that this phrase is applied, chap. vii. 5, to the jews, as resting in the bare, literal, or carnal sense and ob ervance of the law, will not be averse to the under. standing the same phrase, in the same sense, here, which I think is the only place besides in the New Testament, where is capri Blvær is used in a moral sense. This I dare say, it is hard to produce any one text, wherein eirar in capxi is used to signify a man's being under the power of his lusts, which is the sense wherein it is, and must be taken here, if what I propose be rejected. Let it be also remembered, that St. Paul makes it the chief business of this epistle (and he seldom forgets the design he is upon) to persuade both jew and gentile from a *subjection to the law, and that the arguinent, he is upon here, is the weakness and insufficiency of the law to deliver men from the power of sin, and then, per. haps, it will not be judged that the interpretation I have given of these words, is altogether remote from

the apostle's sense. 9oz See 2 Cor. iii. 6—18, particularly ver. 6, 13, 16. · See John i. 12. ► See Gal. iy. ,

TEXT. 11 But if the spirit of him, that raised up Jesus from the dead, dwell

in you: he ihat raised up Christ from the dead, shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his spirit that dwelleth in you.

PARAPHRASE. as to all activity to sin“, sin no longer reigns in it", but your sinful, carnal lusts are mortified. But the spirit of

your mind liveth, i. e. is enlivened, in order to righte11 ousness, or living righteously. But, if the spirit of God,

who had power able to raise Jesus Christ from the dead, dwell in you, as certainly it does, he, that raised Christ from the dead, is certainly able, and will, by his spirit that dwells in you, enliven even your' mortal bo

NOTES. 10 e See chap. vi. 1-14, which explains this place, particularly ver. 2, 6, 11, 12, Gal. ii: 20, Eph. iv. 22, 23, Col. ii. 11, and iii. 8-10.

á See Eph. iv. 23.

11 ' To lead us into the true sense of this verse, we need only observe, that St. Paul, having, in the four first chapters of this epistle, shown that neither jew nor gentile could be justified by the law, and in the 5th chapter how sin entered into the world by Adam, and reigned by death, from which it was grace and not the law that delivered men: in the 6th chapter, he showeth the convert gentiles, that, though they were not under the law, but under grace; yet they could not be saved, unless they cast off the dominion of sin, and became the devoted servants of righteousness, which was what their very baptism taught and required of them: and in chap. vii. he declares to the jews the weakness of the law, which they so much stood upon; and shows that the law could not deliver them from the dominion of sin; that deliverance was only by the grace of God, through Jesus Christ; from whence he draws the consequence, which begins this 8th chapter, and so goes on with it, here, in two branches relating to his discourse in the foregoing chapter, that complete it in this. The one is to show, “ that the law of as the spirit of life,” i.e. the new covenant in the gospel, required that those; that are in Christ Jesus, “ should not live after the flesh, but after the spirit.” The other is to show how, and by whom, since the law was weak, and could not en, able those, under the law, to do it, they are enabled to keep sin from reigning in their “mortal bodies," which is the sanctification required. And here he shows, that christians are delivered from the dominion of their carnal, sinful lusts, bý the spirit of God, that is given to them, and dwells in them, as a new quick. ening principle and power, by which they are put into the state of a spiritual life, wherein their members are made capable of being made the instruments of righteousness, if they please, as living men, alive now to righteousness, so to einploy them. If this be not the sense of this chapter to ver. 14, I desire to know how õpee võr in the 1st verse comes in, and what coherence there is in what is here' said ? Besides the connexion of this to the former chapter, contained in the illative, “ therefore,” the very antithesis of the expressions, in one and the other, shows that St. Paul, in writing this very verse, had an eye to the foregoing chapter. There it was, “ sin that dwelleth in me,” that was the acting and over-ruling principle: here it is “the spirit of God that dwelleck your

NOTE. « in you," that is the principle of your spiritual life. There it was, “who shall “ deliver me from this body of death ?" here it is, “ God, by his spirit, shall “ quicken your mortal bodies," i.e. bodies which, as the seat and harbour of sinful Justs, that possess it, are indisposed and dead to the actions of a spiritual life, and have a natural tendency to death. In the same sense, and upon the same account, he calls the bodies of the gentiles, “ their mortal bodies," chap. vi. 19, where his subject is, as here, “ freedom from the reign of sin," upon which account they are styled, ver. 13, "alive from the dead." To make it yet clearer, that it is deliverance from the reign of sin, in our bodies, that St. Paul speaks of here, I desire any one to read what he says, chap. vi. 1-14, to the gentiles on the same subject, and compare it with the thirteen first verses of this chapter, and then tell me, whether they have not a mutual correspondence, and do not give a great light one to another? If this be too much pains, let him at least read the two next verses, and see how they could possibly be, as they are, an inference from this 11th verse, if the “ quickening of mortal bodies," in it, mean any thing, but a “ quickening to a newness of life, or to a spiritual « life of righteousness. This being so, I cannot but wonder to see a late learned commentator and paraphrast positive, that ζωοποιήσει τα θνητα σώμαία υμών, « shall quicken your mortal bodies," does here signify, shall raise your dead “ bodies out of the grave," as he contends in his preface to his paraphrase on the cpistles to the corinthians, Swo mostiv, "quicken," he says imports the same with εγείρειν, “ raise." His way of proving it is very remarkable; his words are • {woronto and syeipes are as to this matter (viz. the resurrection) words of « the same iinport," i.e. where in discoursing of the resurrection, (wores, “ quicken," is used, it is of the same import with eyeípsıy,“ raise." But what if St. Paul, which is the question, be not here speaking of the resurrection? why then, according to our author's own confession, (woolriv, “ quicken," does not necessarily import the same with égzíperv, " raise.” So that this argument, to prove that St. Paul here, by the words in question, means the raising of their dead bodies out of the grave, is but a fair begging of the question, which is enough I think, for a commentator, that hunts out of his way for controversy. He might, therefore, have spared the (wonomiv, “ quicken," which he produces out of St. John v. 21, as of no force to his purpose, till he had proved that St. Paul here in Romans viii. 11, was speaking of the resurrection of men's bodies out of the grave, which he will never do, till he can prove that Sonia, “ mortal,” here signifies the same with youpa, “dead.” And I demand of him to show Gorlòx, “ mortal," any where in the New Testament, attributed to any thing void of life; Goolen, " mortal," always signifies the thing it is joined to, to be living; so that ζωοποιήσει και τα θνηλα σώμαλα υμών, « shall quicken even

your mortal bodies,” in that learned author's interpretation of these words of St. Paul, here signify, “ God shall raise to life your living, dead bodies," which no one can think, in the softest terms can be given to it, a very proper way of speaking; though it be very good sense and very emphatical to say, God shall by his spirit, put into even your mortal bodies, a principle of iminortality, or spiritual life, which is the sense of the apostle here; see Gal. vi. 8. And so he may find Save mooiñoas used, Gal. iii. 21, to the same purpose it is here. I next desire to know, of this learned writer, how he will bring in the resurrection of the dead into this place, and to show what coherence it has with St. Paul's discourse here, and how he can join this verse with the immediately preceding and following, when the words under consideration are rendered, “shall raise your “ dead bodies out of their graves, at the last day?" It seems as if he himself found this would inake but an aukward sense, standing in this place, with the rest of St. Paul's words here, and so never attempted it by any sort of paraphrase, but has barely given us the english translation to help us, as it can, to so uncouth a meaning, as he would put upon this passage, which must make St. Paul, in the

TEXT. 12 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh to live after

the flesh. 19 For, if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye, through the

spirit, do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.

PARAPHRASE. dies, that sin shall not have the sole power and rule there, but

your members may be made living instru12 ments of righteousness. Therefore, brethren, we are

not under any obligation to the flesh, to obey the lusts 13 of it. For, if ye live after the flesh, that mortal

part shall lead you to death irrecoverable; but if by the spi

NOTES. midst of a very serious, strong, and coherent discourse, concerning “walking not * after the flesh, but after the spirit,” skip on a sudden into the mention of is the “ resurrection of the dead ;” and having just mentioned it, skip back again into his former argument. But I take the liherty to assure him, that St. Paul has no such starts, from the matter he has in hand, to what gives no light or strength to his present argument. I think there is not any where to be found a more pertinent, close arguer, who has his eye always on the mark he drives at. This men would find, if they would study him, as they ought, with more regard to the divine authority, than to hypotheses of their own, or to opinions of the season. I do not say that he is every-where clear in his expressions, to us now: but I do say he is every where a coherent, pertinent writer; and wherever, in his commenta. tors and interpreters, any sense is given to his words, that disjoints his discourse, or deviates from his argument, and looks like a wandering thought, it is easy to know whose it is, and whose the impertinence is, his, or theirs that father it on him. One thing more the text suggests, concerning this matter; and that is, if by“ quickening your mortal bodies, &c.” be meant, here, the raising them into life after death, how can this be mentioned as a peculiar favour to those, who have the spirit of God? for God will also raise the bodies of the wicked, and as cer, tainly as those of believers. But that, which is promised here, is promised to those only who have the spirit of God: and therefore it must be something peculiar to them, viz, that "God shall so enliven their mortal bodies, by his spirit, “which is the principle and pledge of immortal life, that they may be able to yield “ up themselves to God, as those that are alive from the dead, and their members « 6 servants to righteousness unto holiness," as he expresses himself, chap. vi. 13 and 19. If any one can yet doubt, whether this be the meaning of St. Paul here, I refer him for farther satisfaction to St. Paul himself, in Eph. ii. 4–6, where he will find the same notion of St. Paul, expressed in the saine terms, but so that it is impossible to understand by (wototiv, or iyaçeve (which are both used there, as well as here) “the resursection of the dead, out of their graves." The full explication of this verse may be seen Eph. i. 19, and ii. 10. See also Col. ji. 12, 13, to the same purpose; and Rom. vii. 4.

& Zwowocu rejshall quicken even your mortal bodies," seems more agreeable to the original than “shall also quicken your mortal bodies;" for the of doth not copulate Sworoings with è iz sipaç, for then it inust have been my wozoinon; for the place of the copulative is between the two words that it joins, and so must necessarily go before the latter of them.

TEXT. 14 For as many as are led by the spirit of God, they are the sons

of God. 15 For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but

ye bave received the spirit of adoption, wbereby we cry, Abba,

Fatber. 16 The spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the

children of God. 17 And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-beirs with

Christ: if so be that we suffer with bim, that we may be also

glorified together. 18 For I reckon, that the sufferings of this present time are not

PARAPHRASE. rit, whereby Christ totally suppressed and hindered sin

from having any life in his flesh, you mortify the deeds 14 of the body, ye shall have eternal life. For, as many

as are led by the spirit of God, they are the sons of God,

of an immortal race, and consequently like their Father 15 immortal!. For ye have not received the spirit of bon

dage k again', to fear; but ye have received the spirit" of God, (which is given to those who, having received

adoption, are sons) whereby we are all enabled to call 16 God our Father". The spirit of God himself beareth

witness° with our spirits that we are the children of 17 God, And if children, then heirs of God, joint-heirs with

Christ, if so be we suffer' with him, that we may also 18 be glorified with him. For I count that the sufferings

NOTES. 13 h “ Deeds of the body:" what they are may be seen, Gal. v. 19, &c. as we have already remarked.

14 i In that lies the force of his proof, that they shall live. The sons of mortat men are mortal, the sons of God are like their Father, partakers of the divine nature, and are immortal. See 2 Pet. i. 4, Heb. ii, 13--15.

15 k What “ the spirit of bondage” is, the apostle hath plainly declared, Heb. ii. 15. See noie, ver. 21.

1." Again," i.e. now again under Christ, as the jews did from Moses, under the law.

m See Gal. iv. 5, 6.

1 " Abba, Father.” The apostle here expresses this filial assurance, in the same words, that our Saviour applies himself to God, Mark xiv. 36.

16 • See the same thing taught, 2 Cor. i. 21, 22, and v. 5, Eph. i. 11-14, and Gal. iv. 6.

17 P The full sense of this you may take, in St. Paul's own words, 2 Tim. ï. 11, 12.

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