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The most interesting objects of atten- ancient architecture which were connect whosdilapidated walls and moss-grown tion at Malmesbury (says Britton, in his ed with the religious institutions once so towers at present serve to give only a faint Beauties of Wiltshire) are those relics of numerous and Aourishing in this country, idea of their former magnificence. Among


these, the Abbey Church is the most pro- from the history of the Old and New bunter, would spend his life with her, and minent and important. The present re- Testaments; and though many of them secure to her comfort and subsistence, while mains of this oncé spacious and noble are distorted and ill-designed, yet, as the warrior would be constantly absent, intent edifice consist of a part of the nave and specimens of early art, they are very were, however, of no avail; and her parents,

martial exploits. Winona's expostulations aisles of the church, the grand southern curious. The inner doorway, without having succeeded in driving away her lover, porch, and a wall belonging to the south columns, is also ornamented with sculp- began to use harsh measures, in order to comtransept. Imperfect and decayed as this ture. Below the arch is an impost, on pel her to unite with the man of their choice. structure is, enough is left to show the which is a basso-relievo, which seems to To, all her entreaties, that she should not be peculiar character of its architecture. The have been intended for a representation forced into an union so repugnant to her feelprevailing style is Norman, with an inter- of the Deity, supported by two angels. ings, but rather be allowed to live a single mixture of the English, or pointed. The On the left hand of the door is a large all times enjoyed a greater share in the affec

Winona had at western front, the original lower tier of piscina in the wall. On each side of the tions of her family, and she had been indulged windows, the massive pillars between the porch is an arcade, above which are more than is usual with females among Innave and aisles, and the southern porch, seated six large sculptured figures, sup- dians. Being a favourite with her brothers, display the semicirculararch, exemplifying posed to be designed for the apostles, they expressed a wish that her consent to this the earliest species of architecture in this with human figures over their heads in the union should be obtained by persuasive means, building. The next variety occurs in the attitude of flying. The western front is rather than that she should be compelled to it intersecting arches which ornament the much mutilated ; but enough of it remains against her inclination. With a view

to remove lower part of the wall on the western and to show that it must have had an im- vide for her future maintenance, and presented southern sides. The arches springing posing effect in its original state. In

to the warrior all that, in their simple mode of from the pillars which divide the nave 1732, the doorway appears, from draw- living, an Indian might covet. About that from the aisles are pointed. Above them ings, to have been perfect; but at present time, a party was formed to ascend from the is a tier of broad semicircular arches, only one side remains. One of the capi- | village to Lake Pepin, in order to lay in a store each of which includes four others, with tals which support the arch is charged of the blue clay which is found upon its banks, an open colonnade to the roof of the with a figure of Sagittarius, and it is pro- ment. Winona and her friends were of the aisles; and over these is a series of long, bable that the other signs of the Zodiac company. It was on the very day that they narrow, pointed-arch windows, with mul- were continued round the arch. The run- visited the lake that her brothers offered their lions and tracery.

ning scrolls are gracefully formed, and presents to the warrior. Encouraged by these, Such are the great characteristic fea- resemble some Grecian and Roman oma- he again addressed her, but with the same ili tures of this edifice, which, whether con- ments. The only ancient sepulchral success. Vexed at what they deemed an unsidered as a whole or examined in detail

, monument remaining is an altar tomb, justifiable obstinacy on her part, her parents affords ground for some interesting reflec- placed within the chapel; upon it is a used threats to compel her into obedience. tions.

recumbent statue in royal robes, said to « Well,” said Winona, “ you will drive me to The earliest notice relative to this Ab- be that of King Athelstan, to whom the despair; I said I loved him not, I could not bey Church appears to be the statement tomb has been assigned. But, if it was live with him; I wished to remain a maiden, of its dimensions, contained in the “ Iti- intended to commemorate that prince, it but you would not. You say you love menerary of William of Worcester,” who must have been erected long after his that you are my father

, my brothers, my wrote in the reign of Henry the Sixth. death, and on a spot distant from the relations ; yet you have driven from me

The account given by Leland of the state place of his interment, which William of the only man with whom I wished to be of the building, in the time of Henry the Malmesbury states to have been in the from the village ; alone he now ranges


you have compelled him to withdraw Eighth, is more interesting. He says, choir beneath the high altar.

through the forest, with no one to assist him, the Abbey was “a right magnificent

none to spread his blanket, none to build his thing; where were two steples, one that

lodge, none to wait on him; yet was he the had a mightie high pyramis, and felle THE MAIDEN'S ROCK ON THE man of my choice. Is this your love? But daungerously, in hominum memoriá, and

even it appears that this is not enough; you

MISSISSIPPI. sins was not re-edified. It stode in the

would have me do more; you would have me middle of the transeptum of the chirch, passed near the base of the rock) when this with another man--with one whom I do not

There was a time (our guide said, as we rejoice in his absence; you wish me to unite and was a marke to al the countre about. spot, which you now admire for its untenanted love-- with whom I never can be happy. Since The other yet standith : a greate square beauties, was witness to one of the most melan- this is your love, let it be so; but soon you toure, at the west ende of the church.” choly transactions that has ever occurred will have neither daughter, nor sister, nor relaBoth the towers which Leland mentions among the Indians. There was in the village tion, to torment with your false professions of have been long since destroyed, leaving of Keoxa, in the tribe of Wapasha, during the affection.” As she uttered these words she no traces of their forms or architectural time that his father lived and ruled over them, withdrew, and her parents, heedless of her characters. Indeed, so great has been

a young Indian female, whose name was complaints, resolved that that very day Winona the dilapidation of this building, that not had conceived an attachment for a young were engaged in busy preparations for the

Winona, which signifies the first-born." She should be united to the warrior. While all more than a sixth part of it remains hunter, who reciprocated it; they had fre festival, she wound her way slowly to the top standing; and the preservation of this quently met

, and agreed to an union, in which of the hill. When she had reached the sumwas owing to its being fitted up for the all their hopes centred; but, on applying to mit, she called out with a loud voice to her use of the inhabitants of the town after her family, the hunter was surprised to find friends below; she upbraided them for their the Reformation. At that period it pro- those of a warrior of distinction who had sued she, “ were not satisfied with opposing my

himself denied, and his claims superseded by cruely to herself and her lover. “ You,” said bably underwent some repairs ; the east for her. The warrior was a general favourite union with the man whom I had chosen; you and west ends were walled up, some of with the nation ; he had acquired a name by endeavoured, by deceitful words, to make me the windows enlarged, the area pewed, the services which he had rendered to his vis faithless to him; but, when you found me re&c.

lage when attacked by the Chippewas; yet, solved on remaining, single, you dared to The exterior and interior portals of the notwithstanding all the ardour with which he threaten me.

You knew me not; if you grand southern porch are elaborately de- pressed his suit

, and the countenance which thought I could be terrified into obedience, corated with sculptures. The former dis- / he received from her parents and brothers, you shall soon see how well I can defeat your plays eight enriched mouldings, continued the usual commendations of her friends in dirge; the light wind that blew at the time

Winona persisted in preferring the hunter. To designs.” She then commenced to sing her all round from the base on each side. favour of the warrior, she replied that she had wafted the words towards the spot where her The subjects of them are apparently taken made choice of a man, who, being a professed frieuds were; they immediately rushed, some

No. of Indi


towards the summit of the hill to stop her,


in Europe ; excepting that it is monarchical others to the foot of the precipice to receive

and hereditary; that the power of the chief her into their arms, while all, with tears in The following very comprehensive and ruler or emperor is absolute; and that he detheir eyes, entreated her to desist from her interesting article, illustrative of the pre- legates it to viceroys in the several provinces, fatal purpose. Her father promised that no sent condition of the Chinese, has been some of which provinces, it may be observed, compulsive measures should be resorted to: handed to us by Mr. Fisher, the gentle contain each of them more inhabitants than the words of her song, she threw herself from former articles on this subject, and forms mediately to the emperor for the whole of their man to whom we are indebted for our

the whole of the British empire in Europe ;

and that all the viceroys are accountable imthe precipice, and fell a lifeless corpse near her distressed friends. Thus (added our guide) part of one inserted in the last number of conduct. has this spot acquired a melancholy celebrity the Gentleman's Magazine.

LANGUAGE. -The language written and It is still called the Maiden's Rock; and no As the relations of Great Britain with the spoken by the inhabitants of this region differs, Indian passes near it without involuntarily subjects of the Emperor of China are now in its whole form and structure, from the lancasting his

eye towards the giddy height, to about to undergo parliamentary revision, a few guages in use in other parts of the world. For contemplate the place whence this unfortunate statistical notices of the population, govern- many years this peculiarity of language intergirl fell, a victim to the cruelty of her relent- ment, language, literature, arts and sciences, posed, although not an insuperable barrier, a less parents.—Keating's Expedition.

religion, and jurisprudence of the immense very great obstacle in the way of European dominions of that potentate, may not be alto- | intercourse with the Chinese ; an obstacle gether unacceptable to your readers.

which, to the honour of our country, has been They are derived chiefly from the commu- removed by the industry and exertions of the POMPEII.

nications, either written or printed, of that individual already referred to, who, as a ChrisTHERE are few things so strange as a walk eminent Chinese scholar and valuable Christian missionary, felt himself stimulated to the through the silent streets of a town which, for tian missionary, the Rev. Robert Morrison, necessary, exertion by a conscientious wish to 1700 years, has been hid from the light of the author of the Chinese Dictionary, &c.; or of fulfil his important trust. To him the literary world, when the manners and every-day scenes his son, Mr.John Robert Morrison, who is with world is indebted for a grammar of the Chiof so remote an age stand revealed, unchanged, his father in China.

nese language, a dictionary of the same in six after so long an interval. It appears that, six

volumes quarto, together with other philologiteen years before the shower of sand and ashes The following is a statement of the PopulaTION cal writings. There is nevertheless reason to from Vesuvius occurred, an earthquake had

of China and its Colonies, according to a believe that but very few either of Europeans nearly ruined the town; so that the houses are

Census taken in the 18th year of the reign of or Americans are qualified, even at the present roofless, partly from this cause, and partly from Kea-king, A. D. 1813, and under the autho-hour, for personal communication with the the weight of ashes which fell, otherwise rity of his Imperial Majesty.

natives of China in the language of the latter. they stand just as they were left. The streets

Of that language, so little known to the are narrow, but paved, and the marks of the Provinces, &c.

Families. natives of other regions, Dr. Morrison observes carriage wheels in the lower pavement are


27,990,871 that it is “read by a population of different evident. In Murat's time, 4000 men were Sbantung

28,958,764 nations, amounting to a very large proportion employed in excavating; and so a great num


14,004,210 of the human race, and over a very extensive ber of houses, perhaps one-third of the town,



geographical space; from the borders of Rushave been uncovered. The houses were small

, Keangsoo

37,843,501 sia on the north, throughout Chinese Tartary generally of two stories, but beautifully painted, Ganhwuy

34,168,059 in the west, and in the east as far as Kamsand the figures of horses, peacocks, &c., are as Keangse

30,426,999 chatka ; and downwards through Corea and bright as the day they were painted. There Fuhkeën

14,777,410 Japan ; in the Loo Choo Islands, Cochinare two theatres standing, and one amphithe Formosa (natives)

1,748* China, and the Islands of that Archipelago, atre, all nearly perfect. At one time we Chekeang

26,256,784 on most of which are Chinese settlers, till you walked up a street, called the Strata de Mer- Hoopih

27,370,098 come down to the equinoctial line at Penang, cantis. On either side are the shops of Mosaic Hoonan

18,652,507 Malacca, Singapore, and even beyond it on sellers, statuaries, bakers, &c., with the owner's Shense

10,207,256 Java. Throughout all these regions, however name painted in red, and the sign of the shop


15,193,125 dialects may differ, and oral languages be rudely carved above the door. The mill in the Barkoul and Oroumtsi 161,750 confounded, the Chinese written language is baker's shop, and the oven, amused us much. Szechuen

21,435,678 understood by all. The voyager, the merchant, At another time we passed through the hall Kwangtung or Canton 19,174,030 and the traveller, as well as the Christian misof justice, the temple of Hercules, the villa of Kwang-se

7,313,895 sionary, if he can write Chinese, may make Cicero, and the villa of Sallust. The only villa Yunnan

5,561,320 himself understood throughout the whole of of three stories we observed, belonged to a



Eastern Asia.” man called Arius Diomedes (this name was at Shing-king or Leaoutung 942,003

LITERATURE AND SCIENCE.-The Chinese the side of the door); and in the cellar, beside Kirin

307,781 appear to have been a literary and, to a certain some jars of wine still standing, was the skele- Kihlung-keang, or Teit

extent, a scientific people for several ages. It ton of this poor fellow, found with a purse in

cihar, &c.

2,398 is now known that they have possessed the art one hand, and some trinkets in his left, fol- Tsinghae or Kokonor, &c.

7,842 of printing books from wooden blocks during lowed by another bearing up some silver and Foreign tribes under Kan

more than 800 years; that is, long before the some bronze vases. From the ticket of a sale,


26,728 invention of printing and revival of letters in stuck upon the wall of a house, it appears thał Ditto, ditto, Sze-chuen

72,374 Europe. “ During the tenth century, the art one person had no less than nine hundred Thibetan colonies

4,889 of taking off on paper an impression from an shops to let. The street of the tombs is the Ele and its dependencies

69,644 engraving was discovered in China, and hence most impressive; one for the gladiators has a

Turfan and Lobnor

700* 2,551 the Chinese acquaintance with the art of printrepresentation of the different modes of fight- Russian Border

1,900 ing arose.” This art of printing from wooden ing carved upon it; and from this it seems

blocks is now practised by the Chinese with so that they occasionally fought on horseback,

Individuals 361,693,879 188,326 much facility, that a MS. Gazette or newswhich, before the discovery of Pompeii , was

4 paper, transferred to blocks or plates of wood, unknown.-Edinburgh Philosophical Journal.

is, in the course of a very few hours, prepared Individuals at 4 in each family 753,304 for printing by the expert use of gouges or

Add Individuals 361,693,879 chisels, employed in removing the wood from CORPOREAL IDENTITY.

the blauk parts, so as to leave the characters

Total Individuals 362,447,183 standing up, in precisely the same way as they Some have considered a change of corporeal

would appear in this country in wood-cuts. identity to be effected every three, others every GOVERNMENT.-Upon this subject compa

The art of printing having been so long seven years. Letters marked on the skin, ratively little has hitherto been made known known in China, it has followed, as might however, last during life; and there are some

reasonably have been expected, that the lite diseases of which the constitution is only once These are the numbers, not of individuals, rature of the country has become extensive. susceptible. but of effective men.

There are two collections of Chinese literature


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in this country; the one in the library of the feelings of men, and that “none can govem | will be satisfactory to most of your readers to East India Company in Leadenhall-street; the well, or durably, but those who win the peo- learn that the lithographic art seems destined other, which is the property of Dr. Morrison, ple's hearts, by an adherence to the principles to be instrumental in promoting a happy in the Mission House, Austin Friars.

of equal rights and a clement justice.". The change. That invaluable invention, in the The following sketch, abridged from the Chinese have nothing that can be called epic success of which, on its first arrival in Engdoctor's notes, may afford some idea of the poetry. The most ancient poetical composi- land, I ventured, as may be shown by a refercharacter of Chinese literature ; which com- tions were a collection of popular songs, made ence to your pages, to feel and to express a prehends books of the following descriptions:- at the request of government, in order to ascer- strong interest, and to advocate it when the

Writings deemed sacred, or held'in high tain the popular feeling, which it is stated the artists of this country thought fit to reject it, veneration, including a compilation of the Chinese monarchs have generally thought it has not only surmounted the opposition of preworks of the ancient moral philosophers of the right to consult. Although the ladies of China judice here, but has been at length introduced age of Confucius (B. C. 800 years), with are not usually literary, there are exceptions; into China ; and its first effort there has been numerous notes, comments, and paraphrases and, in an educated family, the writing of the circulation of Christian truth, in connection on the original text, and“ with controversies verses, from a theme given at the moment by with a new, and, compared with that with concerning its genuineness, the order of parti- one of the party, is practised as an amusing which the Chinese were previously acquainted, cular words or phrases, and the meaning of trial of skill.

a very superior mode of diffusing knowledge obscure passages," as follows :-“ The text of Geographical and topographical works abound by the multiplication of copies of books. This the Woo King, which name denotes Five Sa- in China; together with a species of law, de- association I regard as a most happy one for cred Books, and of the Sze Shoo, or Four nominated Collectanea, consisting of collec- the interests of religion. The first work printed Books, which were compiled by four of the tions of appeals and remonstrances, and opi- in Chinese at a lithographic press, and of disciples of Confucius, and from which circum- nions of philosophers, and controversialists, which I have a copy, is entitled “Good Words stance the books receive their title; these con- with the endless et cætera of compilers. to admonish the Age," published in nine tain the doctrines and precepts which their Astronomy.-In China, this branch of science volumes by Leangafa, a native convert, and master, Confucius, approved and communi- and literature extends to a correct calculation now a Christian missionary. cated to them. In respect of external form, of eclipses and some other celestial pheno- The Arts of Design (which are in England the Five Books (Woo King) of the Chinese, mena; but it is greatly mixed up with the denominated the Fine Arts) appear to be correspond to the Pentateuch of Moses ; and dreams of astrology, calculating, with weari- among the Chinese in an immature state. All the Four Books (Sze Shoo), in respect of being some minuteness, lucky and unlucky, felicitous their productions, and particularly their staa record of the sayings of a master, compiled and infelicitous, days and hours for bathing, tuary, manifest great care and neatness of by four disciples, have a slight resemblance to for shaving, for commencing a journey, or be execution, with ingenuity; but in their paintthe Four Gospels.". But the contents of these ginning to sow, or to plant, or to make a bar- ings they display very little, and in some of sacred writings of the Chinese are described as gain, or to visit a friend, &c.

them not any, acquaintance with the rules of altogether dissimilar to the Christian Scrip- Medicine. In the science and practice of drawing in perspective. tures; containing, “ with the exception of a this art the Chinese appear to have acquired The Mechanic Arts appear to be in very few passages in the most ancient part of the great proficiency, and much acquaintance with considerable perfection among the Chinese, Woo King, which retain seemingly something natural history, whether belonging to the who work in metals with ease; and their long of the knowledge which Noah must have com- animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdoms. “The acknowledged superiority to the natives of municated to his children,” nothing but “per- theory of the pulse is in China carried by Europe in earthen wares is a fact which cansonal, domestic, and political moralities, with practitioners to a degree of exactness that not be forgotten by any persons who have posout the sanction of an eternal and Almighty baffles the most careful attention of European sessed or who possess China. It is scarcely God, arrayed with every natural and moral surgeons to discriminate. When Chinese and necessary to add, that they have bridges, and perfection—wise, good, just, and merciful; English practitioners have been seated at the houses, and halls, and palaces, and other conand without presenting the fears and the hopes same table, and felt the pulse of the same veniences and contrivances for domestic and of immortality, or revealing the grace of the patient, the one has professed to ascertain social life, in great variety, very much like our Saviour.”. Such is the character which Dr. symptoms, of which the other was unable to own; and that these things they have had for Morrison has given of the sacred writings of ascertain any thing. The Chinese are not at many years, and that they import none of the Chinese.

all convinced, by the reasoning of the west, them. Histories.—Those of the Chinese are de- that pulses, being simultaneous in all parts of RELIGION.- As is notorious, the Chinese scribed as voluminous, containing, of course, the body, the feeling of one pulse is therefore are addicted to the grossest idolatry; woraccounts of their domestic and foreign wars, equal to the feel of more than one; for they shipping, with great cost and parade of pubespecially with the Huns and Tartars ; often suppose that local disease may make a dif- | lic processions, the statues of their deceased tracing, with great gravity, effects to their sup- ference.”

emperors, with such creatures of their imagiposed causes in the operation of the dual sys- There are other departments of Chinese nation as the following :—the Gods of the tem of the universe, which the Chinese histo- literature; a sort of family record called Wau Southern, Northern, Eastern, Western, and rians assume to be true, "and by which system Chang, consisting of the prize essays of many Central Mounts; the God of Furnaces, with a of materialism they imagine both the physi- generations, which are preserved and published thank-offering on the day of his ascension ; cal and moral world to be influenced.” The with care; also the moral and religious essays the Budhi, on their days of ascent and descent; Chinese historians place their deluge about of different sects; those in particular of the the God of Spring; the Gods of Wealth and 2200 years before Christ, and carry back their Confucian school of atheistical materialists; Wine (in which, perhaps, a few British Chrisantediluvian traditions, concerning a great an- those of the visionary alchymic school of tians may sympathise with the Chinese); the cestor of the Chinese nation, “who melted Laoukeun ; and those of the Hindoo Polythe Gods of Learning, of Happiness, of Land and stones and repaired the heavens,” to about istic school of Buddha; in addition to which Grain, of the Small-pox, of Thunder, War, and 3200 years before Christ; but these historians may be named the essays of a sort of eclectic Fire; also of the Southern and Northern Seas are described as not professing to be very cor- school, which picks and chooses from, and and of the South Pole; the Queen of Heaven, rect in dates, and the principal facts stated by sometimes blends, the other three.

who is considered the Goddess of Sailors; the them are regarded as mere traditions.

“ The Mahommedan and Christian writers Goddess of Childbirth ; and the God of CarIn every other department of literature, Dr. in China have been too few to produce any penters. These gods are worshipped on their Morrison represents the Chinese press as having very sensible impression, beyond now and then several days in the Chinese calendar, which is been for ages prolific, and the accumulations a little scorn and philippic, such as is conveyed replenished with them ; together with the anvast.

in the political sermons, read by an official niversaries of the airing of clothes, the exhiHistorical Novels appear to constitute a person on the days of the new and full moon, bition of paper lanthorns, and the births and favourite department; but, owing to the licen- in the several provincial imperial halls, before deaths of their deceased emperors, to which tiousness of some of them, they have been the governor, deputy-governor, and magistrates they add the birth of Confucius, and the demade the subjects of legal, although ineffectual, in each province."

cease of their own respective ancestors, whom prohibition.

Such is the brief sketch which I have been they commemorate by offerings their tombs. Dramatic Works and Poetry. In these the enabled, by reference to the respectable auChinese abound; and we are informed that the thority already named, to offer you of the litecandidates for public employment are ex- rature of the Chinese. In the last-mentioned amined in poetry, on the ground that poetry and the most important department of that leads to an acquaintance with the passions and literature, viz. that connected with religion, it

1695, which engaged him in the imme-
diate business of the state. With regard
to the church, he published a treatise the
same year, to promote the scheme which
King William had much at heart, of a
comprehension with the Dissenters. This,
however, drew him into a controversy,
which was scarcely ended when he en-
tered into another, in defence of his
essay, which continued till 1698; soon
after which, the asthma increasing with

he became so infirm that, in 1700, he resigned his seat at the board of trade, as he could no longer bear the air of London sufficiently for a regular attendance upon it. After this he continued constantly at Oates, where he employed the remaining years of his life entirely in the study of the Holy Scriptures. He died in 1704, aged seventythree. Whoever is acquainted with the barbarous state of the philosophy of the human mind, when Mr. Locke paved the way to a clear notion of knowledge, will be able to appreciate this great man's abilities, and discover how much we are indebted to him for the improvements that have since been made. His Discourses on Government, Letters on Tole

ration, and his Commentaries on some of JOHN LOCKE.

St. Paul's Epistles, are justly held in the

highest esteem.
John Locke, F.R.S., was the son of November, 1684, he was deprived of his
Mr. , ,
setshire, and was born at Wrington, near 1685 the English Envoy at the Hague

Bristol, in 1632. He was sent to Christ demanded him, and eighty-three other
Church in Oxford, and here became ac- persons, to be delivered up by the States

We shall extract, for the sake of an quainted with the works of Des Cartes, General, upon which he lay concealed instructive contrast, two accounts from which first attracted his attention to phi- till 1686, and during this time formed an the last report of the Prison Discipline losophy. He applied himself with vigour acquaintance with Limborch, Le Clerc, Society-the one of prisons in the West to his studies, particularly to physic, in and some few other learned men at Am- | Indies, the other of prisons in America. which he gained a considerable know- sterdam. In 1689 he returned to England The latter must, from its length, be inledge, though he never practised it. In in the Aeet which brought over the Prin- serted in our Supplement. 1664 he went to Germany as secretary cess of Orange. Being esteemed a suf- In Jamaica, an act was passed by the legisto Sir William Swan, Envoy from the ferer for the principles of the revolution, lature in January, 1830, for the better regulaEnglish Court to the Elector of Branden- he obtained the post of commissioner of tion of the prisons. There is a public gaol in burgh, and some other German princes. appeals, worth £200, and was offered to island has a particular place of confinement In 1665 he returned to Oxford, where he be sent abroad as envoy at the court of for offenders who are to be tried at the Quarapplied himself to natural philosophy, the Emperor, the elector of Brandenburg, ter Sessions and Slave-court. Many of the and became acquainted with Lord Ash- or any other where he thought the air prisons are of a temporary nature, and very ley, who introduced him to some of the most suitable to him ; but he waived all incommodious and insecure. For want of most eminent persons of that age. In these, on account of the infirm state of room, untried prisoners are frequently confined 1670 he began to form the plan of his his health, which led him to prefer an

with convicts, and males and females are Essay on Human Understanding. About offer made by Sir Francis Masham and placed together. There is no labour or emthis time he became F.R.S. In 1672 his lady, of an apartment in their coun- of solitary confinement.

ployment in any of the gaols, and no means

The limited space, his patron, Lord Ashley, now Earl of try seat at Oates, in Essex, twenty-five and want of ventilation, the neglect of inShaftesbury, and Lord Chancellor of miles from London. This place proved spection, and, above all, the entire absence of England, appointed him secretary of the perfectly agreeable to him in every re- public interest with which these prisons seem presentations. In 1673 he was made spect. He found in Lady Masham a to be regarded, render confinement in them a secretary to a commission of trade, worth lady of a contemplative and studious grievance of no ordinary character to such of £500 a-year; but that commission was turn, inured from her infancy to deep But to the slave the imprisonment is one of

the free population as are committed to them. dissolved in 1674. The Earl of Shaftes- speculations in theology, metaphysics, aggravated cruelty. Slaves, seized in execubury, after his discharge from the Tower, and morality. In this family Mr. Locke tion of their masters' debts, are dragged, for retired to Holland in 1682, and Mr. lived with as much ease as if the whole no criminal offence whatever, from the planLocke followed his patron thither. He house had been his own; and he had the tation to the gaol, and there kept crowded had not been absent from England a additional satisfaction of seeing this lady together-men, women, and children-until written certain tracts against the govern- plan which he had laid down for the best house for personal chastisement. The ordinary year when he was accused of having bring up her only son exactly upon the liberated for sale. Slaves charged with slight ment, which were afterwards discovered method of education. He was made a punishment on these occasions is thirty-nine to have been written by another; and in commissioner of trade and plantations in lashes; and it is frequently inflicted with great

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