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9. Adjectives ending in a change w into se. Ex. Masc. douloureux, Fem. douloureuse,
painful, dolorous. heureux,
heureuse, happy. jalour,
jalouse, jealous, &c. 10. The following are excepted :
FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES.
11. The French adjectives form their plural by adding an s to the singular, as un grand homme, a great man ; de grands hommes, great men.
12. Adjectives ending in French in s or x, are the same in the singular and in the plural. Ex. un homme gras,
a fat man. des hommes gras,
fat men. un enfant heureux,
a happy child. des enfants heureux, happy children. 13. Adjectives ending in au form their plural by the addition of an x; those ending in al change al into aux : as, beau, fine, beaux ; nouveau, new, nouveaux ; général, general, généraux.
14. But most of the adjectives ending in al have no plural for the masculine, as, conjugal, conjugal; fatal, fatal ; filial, filial; final, final; frugal, sober; jovial, jovial; pectoral, pectoral; nasal, nasal ; natal, natal ; naval, naval; total, total,
RULES ON THE ADJECTIVE.
1. The adjective must agree in gender and number with the substantive which it qualifies, as, un bon dictionnaire et une bonne grammaire, a good dictionary and a good grammar.
2. If an adjective qualifies two or more substantives, it must be put in the plural ; and if the substantives be of different genders, the adjective must be put in the masculine plural. Ex. Son père et sa mère sont morts, his father and mother are
OF THE PLACE OF ADJECTIVES.
3. In French the adjective is generally placed after the substantive ; as, un cheval blanc, a white horse.
4. We place after the substantive all participles used as adjectives ; as, une boîte peinte,
a painted box. de la viande rôtie,
roast meat. 5. Also adjectives ending in esque, il, ic, ique, or ule. Ex.
un style burlesque, a burlesque style.
une femme crédule, a credulous woman.
a round table. une chambre carrée,
a square room, 7. All those which express colour or taste; as, un chapeau noir,
a black hat. une liqueur amère, a bitter liquor. 8. Those which express the names of nations; as, l'empire romain,
the Roman empire. un livre français,
a French book. 9. But the following are generally placed before the substantive :
beau, bel, handsome. joli, pretty. bon, good.
méchant, wicked. brave, brave.
mauvais, bad. cher, dear.
meilleur, better. chétif, mean.
moindre, less. galant, well-bred.
petit, little. grand, great.
saint, holy. gros, big.
tous, all. honnête, honest.
vieux, old. jeune, young
10. When a substantive is qualified by two or more adjectives, these adjectives must all be placed after the substantive. Ex, Une femme bonne, aimable, et à good, amiable, and virtuous
ON ADJECTIVES EXPRESSIVE OF MEASURE.
The idea of size, length, breadth, &c. is always expressed in English by an adjective; but in French it may be rendered either by a substantive or an adjective.
1. When a French adjective is used in such a case, it must be placed immediately after the substantive, and be followed by the preposition de. Ex. A table ten feet long and une table LONGUE DE dix pieds, eight broad;
et LARGE DE huit ; which may be rendered literally in English by,- A table LONG OF ten feet and BROAD OF eight.
2. But if the English adjective is expressed by a French substantive, the order of the words must be altered according to the following example: A table ten feet long and une table de dix pieds de loneight broad;
gueur, et de huit de largeur ; which may be literally rendered in English by,- A table of TEN FEET OF LENGTH and OF EIGHT OF BREADTH.
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
ON THE ADJECTIVE.
What change does the adjective undergo in French ?
What place does the adjective generally occupy in French ?
Name those which usually precede the substantive.
What classes of adjectives are always placed after the substantive?
Where are the adjectives placed when several qualify a substantive ?
How are English adjectives, expressive of measure, rendered in French ?
EXERCISES ON THE ADJECTIVE.
I. EXERCISE ON RULE 1, P. 31. The tall man, the little woman, and the pretty chilgrand petit
joli dren, whom I met yesterday with their grandmother
que je rencontrai hier, adv. leur (were going) to London : they were all very hungry allaient
GRAND' faim and thirsty.-The polite inhabitants of that fine city
cette treat all strangers (in a) civil and frank manner. traitent étranger, m. d'une
manière', f. Lean grow fat in good
pastures.-ConMaigre brebis, f. deviennent dans pâturages, m. stant study, joined to a great application, makes men étude, f. joint
application, f. rend learned. The new
coat which you (gave me) is savant. neuf t habit, m.
m'avez donné better than the old great-coat which my father had meilleur que, c. redingote, f.
avait bought at his tailor's.- We went yesterday to the high achetée chez son tailleur. allâmes hier court, where we found all the judges already assembled. où trouvámes
déjà, adv. assemblé. * In the following instances the adjective grand loses the e in the feminine, and, instead of it, takes the apostrophe : grand faim,
very hungry. Avoir grand' soif,
very thirsty. grand' peur,
very much frightened. la grand mère,
the grandmother. la grand' messe,
the high mass. la grand' chambre,
the high court. + New must be translated by neuf, when applied to a thing which has not been used, or worn; and by nouveau, when speaking of a new fashion, of something neu.
II. EXERCISE ON RULE 2, p. 32. The book, paper, pencil, and penknife, which you papier, m. crayon, m. canif, m.
que lent me, are excellent.--The pen, ruler, desk, avez prétés ? mei excellent
règle, f. écritoire, f. and grammar,
which brother has bought, are very
très, adv. good. The king, queen, prince, and princesses, were
princesse, étaient gone.—The corn, wheat, rye, peas, and beans, in a sorti.
fève, f. en word, all the grains which were on the ground were mot, m.
grain, m. qui étaient sur terre, f. furent frozen.—My father's house and my uncle's (country-seat) gelé. Mon
château, m. are (very much) alike.--He studies with an incredible bien, adv. semblable. étudie
incroyable, adj. application and courage. She left the trunk, the
laissa coffre, m. room, and the closet open.-I found
the doors, chambre, f. cabinet, m. ouvert. ai trouvé
porte, f. the windows and the shutters, shut.-We found the fenêtre, f.
volets, m. fermé. trouvámes children, father, and mother, quite recovered. When
tout-à-fait rétabli. Quand arrived on the frontiers, we found the soldiers, arrivâmes sur
frontière, f. trouvâmes soldat the officers, and the general in chief, assembled, and officier
chef, m. assemblé (drawn up) in (battle array). rangé
bataille, f. III. EXERCISE ON RULES 3 AND 4, P. 32. I have seen a handsome lady, who (was speaking) to an
parlait old gentleman.—He had a fine hat and a pretty sword. monsieur. Il avait chapeau, m.
épée, f. -Your little sister deserved a better fate.--I know a Votre méritait
destin, m. connais young man who has a good horse, but a bad stable.-He
écurie, f. Il