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ed at Cambridge, by Buck and Daniel. This was the alteration of the word we into ye, in Acts vi. 3. The error was continued in several editions, till 1685, when it was corrected.
In 1677, a Bible was printed by Hayes, at Cambridge, with many references added to the first edition; and in 1678, a Bible also was printed at Cambridge, with still more references, the labour of Dr. Scattergood, rector of Wilwick and Elverton, in Northamptonshire, and one of the compilers of the Critici Sacri. A new edition of the Bible, in folio, was printed at London, in 1701, with a great addition of parallel texts, and a new chronological index, by Dr. Tenison, archbishop of Canterbury, and Dr. Lloyd, bishop of Worcester. To this edition was added Bishop Cumberland's Tables of Scripture-measures, weights, and coins. Drs. Tenison and Lloyd transmitted the additional parallels, &c. to the printer, but did not correct the press; the edition, therefore, was so full of typographical errors, that when it appeared, a complaint was exhibited against the printers, by the clergy of the lower house of convocation, A. D. 1703. The printers continuing to print the Bible carelessly, with a defective type, on bad paper ; and when printed, to sell them at an exorbitant price ; his Majesty George I. issued the following order to the patentees, dated Wbitehall, 24th April, 1724: “1. That all Bibles printed by them hereafter, shall be printed upon as good paper, at least, as the specimens they had exhibited."
“2. That they forthwith deliver 4 copies of the said specimens to be deposited and kept in the two secretaries' offices, and in the public registries of the archbishop of Canterbury, and the bishop of London, to the end recourse may be had to them.”
"3. That they shall employ such correctors of the press, and allow them such salaries, as shall be approved from (64) Lewis, pp. 340, 341.
time to time, by the archbishop of Canterbury, and bishop of London, for the time being.”
“4. That the said patentees for printing Bibles, &c. do print in the title-page of each book, the exact price at which such book is by them to be sold to the booksellers.”
The most complete revision of the authorized version of the English Bible, since its translation in the reign of James I., was made in 1769, by Dr. Benj. Blayney, Rector of Polshott, in Wiltshire, and afterwards Regius professor of Hebrew, in the university of Oxford, under the direction of the vice-chancellor and delegates of that university. In this edition, 1. The punctuation was thoroughly revised ; 2. The words printed in Italics were examined and corrected by the Hebrew and Greek originals ; 3. The proper-names, to the etymology of which, allusions are made in the text, were translated, and entered in the margin ; 4. The heads and runningtitles were corrected; 5. Some material errors in the chronology were rectified; and, 6. The marginal references were re-examined, corrected, and their number greatly increased.6
Returning to the consideration of the state of Bibli. cal literature in England, in the seventeenth century, the patronage afforded by Archbishop Laud to learning in general, and especially to Oriental pursuits, claims our grateful recollection. During a period of uncommon agitation, in the affairs both of church and state, the archbishop constantly endeavoured to promote the cultivation of the Oriental languages. He employed the most learned men to purchase Greek and Oriental MSS. for him, in foreign countries ; he founded an Arabic lecture at Oxford, which began to be read August 10th, 1636, by the celebrated Dr. Edward Pocock, the first
(65) Lewis, pp. 349–351.
Crutwell's Preface to Bishop Wilson's Bible.
professor ; he erected a library adjoining the Bodleian, with other elegant buildings; and beside many other valuable donations and bequests, presented to the university at several times, 1276 MSS. in Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, Egyptian, Ethiopian, Armenian, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Greek, Latin, Italian, French, Saxon, English, and Irish ; an invaluable collection, procured by great exertion, and at vast expense. His great attachment to books appeared even from the articles of impeachment exhibited against him by his enemies, who, irritated by his violent bigh-church principles, brought him to the block, in 1644–5; for amongst them are the following:
“Art. 5. Receiving a Bible, with a crucifix embroidered on the cover of it by a lady."
“Art. 6. A book of Popish pictures, two Missals, Pontificals, and Breviaries, which he made use of as a scholar.”
“Art. 7.His [own] admirable Book of Devotion, digested according to the ancient way of canonical bours, &c."
In the library of St. John's College, Oxford, there is still preserved a Salisbury Primer, or Missal, printed by Pynson, upon vellum ; and a beautiful copy of the Aldine Aristophanes of 1498; both of which formerly belonged to the archbishop.
About the same time, a singular instance of attachment to the Word of God was shown by a poor and illiterate, but pious and excellent man, the servant of John Bruen, Esq. of Stapleford, in Cheshire. His name was Robert PASFIELD, but he was most commonly called Old Robert ; and though he could neither write nor read, he became mighty in the Scriptures, by means of a curious invention, by which he assisted his memory. He framed a girdle of leather, long and large, which went twice about him.
(66) Heylio's Cyprianuus Anglicus, pp. 299, 379,
Chalmers, XX. pp. 35. 64.
This he divided into several parts, allotting every book in the Bible, in their order, to some of these divisions then for the chapters, he affixed points or thongs of leather to the several divisions, and made knots by fives or tens thereupon, to distinguish the chapters of that book; and by other points he divided the chapters into their particular contents, or verses, as occasion required. This he used instead of pen and ink, in hearing sermons, and made so good a use of it, that, coming home, he was able by it to repeat the sermon, quote the Texts of Scripture, &c. to his own great comfort, and to the benefit of others. This girdle Mr. Bruen kept after Old Robert's death, hung it up in his study, and used pleasantly to call it The Girdle of Verity.®?
It is, however, to be regretted, that the general permission which was given to all persons to read and print the Old and New Testaments during the former part of this century, was unfortunately rendered the cause of debate and uneasiness, by different parties disseminating their particular opinions, in the notes which they appended to such editions of the Holy Scriptures, as they published. The notes of the Genevan translation were considered, by the loyal and episcopal adherents of the government, as peculiarly exceptionable and dangerous. King James I. personally expressed his disapprobation of the Genevan version; and under the reign of Charles I. measures were adopted to suppress any translations or notes, or other writings deemed inimical to the safety of the church or state. In 1637, Archbishop Laud procured a decree to be passed in the Star Chamber, dated July 1st, by which it was ordered, “that the master printers should be reduced to a certain number; and that if any other should secretly, or openly, pursue the trade of printing, he should be set in the pillory, or whipped through the streets, and suffer such other pu(67) Brook's Lives of the Paritans, Il. p. 297, note.
nishment as the court should inflict upon him ; that none of the master printers should print any book or books of divinity, law, physic, philosophy, or poetry, till the said books, together with the titles, epistles, prefaces, tables, or commendatory verses, should be lawfully licensed, on pain of losing the exercise of his art, and being proceeded against in the Star Chamber, &c.; that no person should reprint any book without a new license; that every merchant, bookseller, &c. who should import any book or books, should present a catalogue of them to the archbishop or bishop, &c. before they were delivered, or exposed to sale, who should view them, with power to seize those that were schismatical; and, that no merchant, &c. should print, or cause to be printed abroad, any book, or books, which either entirely, or for the most part, were written in the English tongue, nor knowingly import any such books, upon pain of being proceeded against in the Star Chamber, or High Commission Court.” The latter part of this decree was specially designed to prevent the importation of the Genevan Bible from Holland, where it had been printed with the objectionable notes; and where some had been seized by the care of Boswell, the British resident at the Hague, who had also received intimation of a new impression designed for England, but which probably was prevented being sent, by the decree now noticed. 68
An English translation of the Old Testament was published at Douay, in France, in 1609-1610, 2 vols. 4to. by the English college of the Roman Catholics. The New Testament of this translation had been printed at Rheims, (from whence the college had been removed,) in 1582; and a second edition at Antwerp, by Daniel Verveliet, in 1600, 4to. The translators were the same of both the Old and New Testaments; and the Annotations which accompanied the translation are said to (68) Heylyn's Cyprianus Anglicus, pp. 341, 342.