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TEXT. 5 But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him, that justifieth

the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. 6 Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto

whom God imputeth righteousness without works. ng Saying, Blessed are they, whose iniquities are forgiven, and

whose sins are covered. 8 Blessed is the man, to whom the Lord will not impute sin. 9 Cometh this blessedness, then, upon the circumcision only, or

upon the uncircumcision also ? for we say, that faith was reck

oned to Abraham for righteousness. 10 How was it, then, reckoned? when he was in circumcision, or in

uucircumcision? not in circumcision, but in uocircumcision. 11 And he received a sign of circumcision, a seal of righteousness

PARAPHRASE. receives as a debt that is duc, and not as a gift of favour. 5. But to hiin, that by his works attains not righteousness,

but only believeth on God, who justifieth him, being ungodlyệ, to him justification is a favour of grace: because

his believing is accounted to him for righteousness, or 6 perfect obedience. Even as David speaks of the bless

edness of the man, to whom God reckonetho righteous7 ness without works, Saying, “ Blessed are they whose

“ iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered.

« Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not reckon 9 “sin.” Is this blessedness then upon the circumcised

only, or upon the uncircumcised also? for we say that

faith wasî reckoned to Abraham for righteousness. 10 When therefore, was it reckoned to him? when he was

in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? not in circumci11 sion, but in uncircumcision. For he received the sign


NOTES. 5 Tor åsebo, “him being ungodly.” By these words St. Paul plainly points out Abraham, who was acons," ungodly,” i.e. a gentile, not a worshipper of the true God, when God called him. Vid. note, ch. i. 18.

6 d Aogicetan, " reckoneth.' What this imputing or reckoning of righteousness is, may be seen in ver. 8, viz. the not reckoning of sin to any one, the not putting sin to his account: the apostle, in these two verses, using these two expressions, as equivalent. From hence the expression, of blotting out of iniquity, so frequently used in sacred scripture, may be understood, i.e. striking it out of the account. sovicsola, signifies to reckon, or account, and, with a dative case, to put to any one's account; and accordingly, ver. 3, 4, 5, it is translated, counted, or reckoned; which word, for the sake of English readers, I have kept to in this, and ver. 9, 10, and 11.

TEXT. of the faith, which he had, being yet uncircumcised: that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them

also : 12 And the father of circumcision to them, who are not of the cir

cumcision only, but also walk in the steps of that faith of our

father Abraham, which he had being yet uncircumcised. 13 For the promise that he should be the heir of the world, was

not to Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith.

PARAPHRASE. of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith, which he had, being yet uncircumcised", that he might be the father of all those who believe, being uncircum

cised, that righteousness might be reckoned to them 19 also; And the father of the circumcised, that righteous

ness might be reckoned, not to those who were barely of the circumcision, but to such of the circumcision as

did also walk in the steps of the faith of our father Abra13 ham, which he had, being uncircumcised'. For the

NOTES. 11 e See Gen. xvii. 11.

11, 12 f What righteousness reckoned to any one, or as it is usually called, imputed righteousness, is, St. Paul explains, ver. 6—8. Whom this blessing belongs to, he inquires, ver. 9, and here, ver. 11, and 12, he declares, who are the children of Abraham, that from him inherit this blessing; ver. 11, he speaks of the gentiles, and there shows that Abraham, who was justified by faith, before he was circumcised, (the want whereof, the jews looked on as a distinguishing mark of a gentile) was the father of all those, among the gentiles, who should believe, without being circumcised. And here, ver. 12, he speaks of the jews, and says, that Abraham was their father ; but not that all should be justified, who were only circumcised: but those, who, to their cir. cumcision, added the faith of Abraham, which he had, before he was circumcised. That which misled those who mistook the sense of St. Paul here, seems to be, their not observing that sois in éx wepotouñs, is referred to, and governed by sis tò noyobgvas, which must be supposed repeated here, after ma tipa iputouñs. Or else the apostle's sense and argument will not stand in its full force, but the antithesis will be lost, by preserving of which the sense runs thus: and the father of the circumcised, that righteousness might be imputed to those who, &c. Another thing, very apt to mislead them, was the joining of móvor only, to ex not, as if it were s jóvou toãs, not only those who are of the circumcision; whereas it should be understood, as it stands joined to σεριτομής, and so περιτομής μόνον are best translated barely circumcision, and the apo tle's sense runs thus: “ that he might be the father of the gentiles that “ believe, though they be not circumcised, that righteousness might be im“ puted to them also: and the father of the jews, that righteousness might be TEXT. 14 For if they, which are of the law, be heirs, faith is made void,

and the promise made of none effect. 15 Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression.

PARAPHRASE. promises, that he should be possessor of the world, was not that Abrahain, and those of his seed, who were under the law, should, by virtue of their having and owning the law, be possessed of it; but by the righteousness of faith, whereby those who were, without the law, scattered all over the world, beyond the borders of Canaan, became

his posterity, and had him for their father", and inherited 14 the blessing of justification by faith. For, if they only

who had the law of Moses given them, were heirs of Abraham, faith is made void and useless', it receiving no benefit of the promise, which was made to the heirs

of Abraham's faith, and so the promise becomes of no 15 effect. Because the law procures them not justifica

tion", but renders them liable to the wrath and punishment of God', who, by the law, has made known to

NOTES. “ imputed, not to them who have circumcision only, but to them who also “ walk in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham, which he had being “ uncircumcised." In which way of understanding this passage, not only the apostle's meaning is very plain, easy, and coherent; but the construction of the Greek exactly corresponds to that of ver. 11, and is genuine, easy, and natural, which any other way will be very perplexed.

13 & The promise, here meant, is that which he speaks of, ver. 11, whereby Abraham was made the father of all that should believe, all the world over; and for that reason he is called xD.mpórou xóque," heir, or lord of the " world.” For the believers, of all nations of the world, being given to hin for a posterity, he becomes, thereby, lord and possessor (for so heir amongst the Hebrews signified) of the world. For it is plain, the apostle, in this verse, pursues the argument he was upon, in the two former. And it is also plain, that St. Paul makes circumcision to be the seal of the promise made to Abraham, Gen. xii. as well as of that made to him, Gen. xvii. and so both these to be but one covenant, and that of ch. xvii. to be but a repetition and farther explication of the former, as is evident from this chapter, compared with Gal. iii, In both which the apostle argues, that the gentiles were intended to be justified, as well as the jews; and that both jews and gentiles, who are justified, are justified by faith, and not by the works of the law.

h Gal. iii. 7.
14 i See Gal. iii. 18.
15 k Ch. viii. 3, Gal. iii. 21.

I See ch. iii. 19, 20, and v. 10, 13, 20, and vii. 7, 8, 10, 1 Cor. xv. 56, Gal. iii. 19, John ix. 41, and xv. 22.

TEXT. 16 Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the

promise might be sure to all the seed, not to that only, which is of the law, but to that also, which is of the faith of Abraham,

who is the father of us all. 17 (As it is written, “ I have made thee a father of many nations")

before him whom be believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things, which be not, as though they

were; 19 Who, against hope, believed in hope, that he might become the

to it.

PARAPHRASE. them what is sin, and what punishment he has annexed

For there is no incurring wrath, or punishment, 16 where there is no law that says any thing of it": There

fore the inheritance is of faith, that it might be merely of favour, to the end that the promise might be sure to all the seed of Abraham; not to that part of it only, which has faith, being under the law; but to that part also, who, without the law, inherit the faith of Abraham,

who is the father of us all who believe, whether jews or 17 gentiles, (As it is writteno, “ I have made thee a father

of many nations.") I say the father of us all (in the account of God, whom he believed, and who accordingly quickened the dead, i. e. Abraham and Sarah,

whose bodies were dead: and calleth things that are not, 18 as if they were?:) Who without any hope, which the na

tural course of things could afford, did in hope believe,

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NOTES. m on oux isiv róue, en apácaris, of that, concerning which there is no law, with the sanction of a punishment annexed, there can be no transgression, incurring wrath or punishment. Thus it may be rendered, it we read oŭ with an aspiration, as some do. But whether it be taken to signify where, or whereof, the sense will be the same. lapcfaciç here, to make St. Paul's argument of punishment, by the force and sanction of a law. And so the apostle's proposition is made good, that it is the law alone, that exposes us to wrath, and that is all the law can do, for it gives us no power to perform.

16 . The grammatical construct on does not seem much to favour “inhe. “ ritance," as the word to be supplied here, because it does not occur in the preceding verses. But he, that observes St. Paul's way of writing, who more regards things, than form of speaking, will be satisfied, that it is enough that he mentioned “heirs,” ver. 13 and 14, and that he does mean inheritance here, Gal. iii. 18, puts


17 • See Gen. xvii. 16.
p Gen. xvi. 5.

TEXT. father of many nations, according to that which was spoken,

“ So shall thy seed be.” 19 And being not weak in faith, he considered not his own body

now dead, when he was about an hundred years old, neither yet

the deadness of Sarah's womb. 20 He staggered not at the proinise of God, through unbelief; but

was strong in faith, giving glory to God: 21 And being fully persuaded, that what he had promised, he was

able also to perforin. 20 And, therefore, it was imputed to him for righteousness. 23 Now it was not written for his sake alone, that it was imputed

to him; 24 But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on

hirn that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead, 25 Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.

PARAPHRASE. that he should become the father of many nations, ac

cording to what God had spoken, by God's showing him 19 the stars of heaven, saying, So shall thy seed be. And

being firm and unshaken in his faitle, he regarded not his

own body, now dead, he being about an hundred years 20 old; nor the deadness of Sarah's womb; He staggered

not at the promise of God, through unbelief, but was 21 strong in faith, thereby giving glory to God; By the full

persuasion he had, that God was able to perform what 22 he had promised: And therefore it was accounted to 23 him for righteousness. Now this, of its being reckoned 24 to him, was not written for liis sake alone, But for ours

also, to whom faith also will be reckoned for righteous

ness, viz. to as many as believe in him, who raised Jesus 25 our Lord from the dead', Who was delivered to death

for our offences', and was raised again for our justification

NOTES. 24 ? St. Paul seems to mention this here, in particular, to show the analogy between Abraham's faith, and that of believers, under the gospel : see ver. 17.

25 - See Rom, iii. 25, and v. 6, 10, Eph. i. 7, 11, 14, and v. %, Col. i. 14, 20-22, 1 Tim. ii. 6, Tit. ii. 14.

1 Cor. xv. 17. I have set down all these texts out of St. Paul, that in them might be seen his own explication of what he says here, viz. that our Saviour, by his death, atone) for our sins, and so we were innocent, and thereby freed from the punishment due to sin. But he rose again, to ascertain to us eternal life,

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