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French galleys; the old hierarchy ruled in Scotland. There Reformation was under foot; in England its friends were supreme. Accord was impossible. There was one more shock of arms, and a defeat of Scots at the Battle of Pinkie.

Of Sir David Lindsay there is little more to tell. He had written, probably before the accession of Edward VI., his Historie of Squire William Meldrum, umquhile laird of Cleische and Bynnis, a whimsical burlesque romance that is not all burlesque, of a valiant Scottish squire of Lindsay's own time, with a taste in it of Chaucer's Sir Thopas, or rather of the Italian half-mocking treatment of heroic song, and an after relish of strong national self-satisfaction. This is the best of Lindsay's lighter strains. His last work was his longest, and supremely grave— The Monarchie : a Dialogue betwixt Experience and a Courtier, of the Miserable Estate of the World -finished in 1553. The first line of its Epistle to the Reader called it a “lytil quair of mater miserabyll.” There was, alas, no king to dedicate it to, but it was submitted to the rulers and priests, praying them to Christianise the laws, and remember that Scotland suffered war, famine, and pestilence for sin. The Word of God must be taught, and the people repent of sin, before their enemies could have no might against the Christian banner. He divided his poem into a Prologue and Four Books. The Prologue, in Chaucer's stanza, told how the poet went into a park on a May morning, and, delighted with the beauty of Nature, dwelt upon the miseries of man.

He invoked no pagan muse, for he had never slept upon Parnassus, or drunk with Hesiod of Helicon, the source of Eloquence. If any Muse were invoked it might be Rhamnusia, Goddess of Dispute ; but, he said:

I mon go seik ane muse more confortabyll,
And sic vaine superstitioun to refuse,

Beseikand the gret God to be my muse." The mount to which he betook himself was not Parnassus but Calvary; his fountain was the stream that flowed, and flows yet through the world from wounds of Christ upon the Cross. In that stream bathe me, he prayed, and make me clean trom sin

And grant me grace to wrytt nor dyte no thing
Bot tyll his heych honour and loude louyng ;
But” (i.e., without) “whose support thare may na gud be wrocht
Tyll his plesùre, gude workis, word nor thocht."

A.D. 1553.)



After such Prologue, Lindsay told in his first book-this and the rest of the poem being in octosyllabic rhyme-how there came to him, the Courtier, walking in the park, an old man named Experience, of whom he asked comforting counsel. Experience taught that the love of God and of Christ, who died for men, gave comfort among the troubles that have come by sin. After an exclamation to the reader, on his writing in his mother tongue, which led to a requirement that the clergy should teach, and that the books necessary to the spiritual life of men should be translated into the language of the people, Lindsay made Experience tell the Courtier in the rest of Book I. how Adam fell, and the Flood came, through sin; in Book II., how in the great monarchy of Nineveh the first war was begun “by cruel, prideful, covetous kings ” seeking wrongfully to plunder one another. There were four great monarchies--the Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman. Ninus also invented imageworship; and thus Lindsay passed to long lament for the idolatry in Scotland of his time. Of Ninus and his burial, and of the miserable ends of Semiramis and Sardanapalus, Lindsay told in his second book. In his third book he told of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities of the plain, and shortly of the second, third, and fourth monarchies, with the miserable destruction of Jerusalem ; and lastly, of the spiritual and papal monarchy. Under this head appeared again the grief of the poor man whose three cows would be taken by the Church if he, his wife, and their eldest child should die, so that the little children would be left orphan and destitute. Lindsay's third book of the Monarchy ended with a description of the court of Rome. The fourth book, after dialogue on duty and on death, described Antichrist, the day of judgment, bliss of heaven, and the final monarchy of Christ. David Lindsay was a poet of the same national type as John Gower. He had not the artistic genius of Dunbar, as Gower had not the artistic genius of Chaucer ; but Gower and Lindsay had a like sense of God and duty, a depth of eartnestness that was itself a power, a practical aim, and a directness in pursuit of it, that caused each in didactic poetry to write the ills he saw.” The points of difference are manifest; especially there was in Lindsay a vein of humour, which also belongs to the people whom he represented, but of which Gower seems to have had less than his share.

Sir David Lindsay, as Lion King of Arms, held a chapter of heralds in January 1555, and that is the last record of his life. It is not known when he died, or where he was buried; but it may be added that in that year 1555 his “Satire of the Three Estates” was acted again before Queen, Court, and Commons.

58. The general pardon usual at a coronation ended at the coronation of Edward VI. the persecution under the Six Articles. A Book of Homilies, which had been suggested in the preceding reign to secure uniformity of preaching, was now executed by Archbishop Cranmer and his colleagues. Twelve Homilies were produced and “appointed by the king's majesty to be declared and read by all parsons, vicars, or curates, every Sunday, in their churches where they have cure.” There was an English visitation during the Scotch war to ascertain how far in each parish images were removed; pilgrimages, offerings, and superstitious holidays abolished; the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, and the Articles of Faith taught to the young; and the great Bible, in English, made accessible in some convenient part of every church. Some associated the two facts that ten thousand Scots fell at Pinkie, and that there was a great destruction of images in London upon the same day. Cranmer had chosen Erasmus's Paraphrase of the New Testament for translation. It had been for some time in hand, and was now to form two folio volumes produced at the public expense, and set up in churches for an aid in the instruction of che people. Upon this work we left Nicholas Udall busy ($ 48). The first volume, containing the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles, appeared in January, 1548. Udall, who had translated the Paraphrase of St. Luke's Gospel, placed the texts throughout that Gospel, and the others (except Mark), to show how they corresponded with the Paraphrase. He wrote also an Introduction to the Gospels, in three letters, one to King Edward, one to the Reader, and one to Queen Catherine Parr. The other volume appeared in August, 1549, with a preface by Miles Coverdale ($ 26, 29) and John Olde. Coverdale was now Almoner to Queen Catherine, and in 1551 was made Bishop of Exeter.

The first measure of the Parliament of 1549 was an Act for Uniformity of Service, which established the use of an English Book of Common Prayer (known as “The First Service Book") in English Churches. Richard Grafton ($ 50) was one of its two authorised printers, and the issue began in March, 1549.

With some variations made in an edition of 1552, called “The Second

TO A.D. 1549. ]



Service Book,” this volume was in its main features that which is still used by the Church of England. In the First Book the service began with the Lord's Prayer. All that now stands before this was added in the Second Book. The reading of the Ten Commandments was placed in the Communion, and there were other occasional changes, such as that in the Burial Service, of prayers for the dead into thanksgivings.

On Whit-Sunday, 1549, the Act for Uniformity of Service came into operation. In Devonshire the people forcibly opposed the disuse of the old method of religious service, which had become associated with their daily sense of God. Exeter itself was besieged. There was armed insurrection, cruelly suppressed. In Norfolk rebellion began in July, and under Robert Ket, tanner, of Wymondham, there was war against the system of enclosures that oppressed the poor. Sir Thomas More had dwelt on this evil in his “ Utopia ;” Simon Fyshe had touched upon it in his “Supplication for the Beggars ”-men made beggars by the religious orders ($ 22). A supplication to Parliament in Henry VIII's time showed that in Oxfordshire there were fewer ploughs by forty than there had been. A plough kept six persons; and where those forty ploughs had fed 240 persons there were only sheep. The disuse of tillage and the throwing of fields together into large pasturages was to a small class a source of wealth, obtained by the service of few shepherds, instead of many ploughmen and field-labourers. Old farm-servants were turned out, and their homes were levelled. It was said that in each of fifty thousand towns, villages, and hamlets, there was an average loss of one plough since the beginning of the reign of Henry VII. That, it was argued, meant three hundred thousand broken men, some driven to beg, others to steal and die upon the gallows. When the religious houses had joined lands together, and helped to create the suffering, they yet, by their systematic almsgiving, and by serving as hospitals, chance lodgings and asylums for the sick and destitute, allayed the pain of wounds that were in part of their own making. The breaking up of such houses destroyed their charitable organisation, and though laws were made to require employment of field-labour, these were evaded, and the people suffered on without assuagement of their griefs. This was what caused the poor people of Norfolk to feel that they were being devoured by the rich; to pull down the enclosures to which they attributed their misery, gather themselves into


camp on Mousehold Heath and Mount Surrey, there holding rude council under an oak, which they called “The Tree of Reformation." Their hopeless protest ended in disaster on the 27th of August. Upon the clain of the Devonshire men for restoration of the Mass, of the abbey lands, and of the law of the Six Articles, Nicholas Udall (§ 48) published in 1549 “An Answer to the Articles of the Commoners of Devonshire and Cornwall, declaring to the same howe they have been seduced by evell persons, and howe their consciences may be satysfyed and stayed concerning the sayd artycles, sette forth by a countryman of theirs, much tendering the wealth bothe of their bodyes and solles.” Udall at this time preached actively. He translated in 1551 Peter Martyr's tract on the Eucharist, and in the same year was admitted to a Prebend of Windsor. He published Latin letters and poems; edited also a folio of T. Geminie's “ Anatomy;" still preaching constantly: and in March 1553, was made rector of Calbourne, in the Isle of Wight.

Thomas Sternhold ($ 54), who died in 1549, published in 1548 Certayne Psalms, only nineteen in number. In 1549 there appeared, with a dedication to Edward VI., a new edition of All such Psalms of David as Thomas Sternhold, late grome of the Kinges Majestyes robes, did in his lyfe time drawe into Englysshe metre. This contained thirty-seven Psalms by Sternhold, and seven by John Hopkins, a Suffolk clergyman and schoolmaster, who joined in his labour. To an edition of 1551, Hopkins added seven more psalms of his own. Hopkins and others then worked on with the desire to produce a complete version of the Psalms of David into a form suited for congregational singing.

59. Hugh Latimer ($ 28, 29), when Edward VI. came to the throne, was released from the Tower, and preached at Paul's Cross his first sermon after an eight years' silence, on the first of January, 1548. A few days later the House of Commons proposed his restoration to the Bishopric of Worcester ; but this he declined. In March of the same year Latimer began to preach before larger audiences, from a pulpit set up in the king's private garden at Westminster. His extant Sermon on the Ploughers—the teachers and preachers of religion—was delivered at St. Paul's, in January, 1549. In March and April of the same year--on the Fridays in Lent—he preached Seven Sermons before Edward VI., two on “The Duty of a King," one on “The Unjust Judge,” two on “The Lawfulness of Kings," and one on “The Agony in the Garden.” These were followed by his

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