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was forced to leave Paris, and shelter himself
among the Huguonots, in whose army he was at the battle of St. Denys. Peace having been concluded some months after, he was restored to his professorship; but, foreseeing that the war would foon break out again, he did not care too venture himself in a fresh storm, and therefore obtained the king's leave to visit the universities of Germany. He accordingly undertook this journey in 1568, and received very great honours wherever he came. He returned to France, after the third war in 1571 ; and lost his life miferably, in the massacre of St. Bartholomew's day, 1572. It is faid, that he was concealed in a cellar during the tumult; but dragged thence at the instigation of fome peripatetic doctors who hated him. He gave a good quantity of money to the affassins, in order to procure his escape, but in vain : for, after wounding him in many places, they threw him out of a window ; and, his bowels gushing out in the fall, some Ariftotelian scholars, encouraged by their masters, spread them about the streets; then dragged his body in a mnost ignominious manner, and threw it into the Seine.
He was a great orator, a man of universal learning, and endowed with very fine qualities. He was free from avarice, sober, temperate, chaste. His temperance was very exemplary. He contented himself with only boiled meat, and eat but little at dinner : he drank no'wine for twenty years, and would never have drunk any, if the phyficians had not prescribed it. He lay upon itraw; ufed to rise very early, and to study all day, and led a single life with the utmost purity. He was zealous for the Proteftant religion, but at the same time a little obftinate, and given to contradiction. The Protestant ministers did not love him much, for he made himself a kind of head of a party, to change the discipline of the Protestant churches; that is, he was for introducing a democratical government in the church : but his design was traversed and defeated in a national synod. He published a great number of books; but mathematics was chiefly obliged to hin. His writing was scarce legible, and gave the printers prodigious trouble. His feet flourished pretty much for some time : it was not known in Spain and Italy, made little progress in France, but spread very much in Scotland and England, and still more in Germany; as appears from many books, which several German Aristotelians puba, liihed against the Ramifts.
RANDOLPH (THOMAS), an English poet, was the Athen. son of a steward to Edward lord Zouch ; and born in Oxon. Northamptonthire, (Wood says, at Newnham near Daina Langbaine's
Account of try; Langbaine, at Houghton) in 1605. He was edu- the dramacated at Westminster-school, and thence elected in 1623, sic poets. as one of the king's scholars to Trinity-college in Cambridge ; of which he became fellow, and took a master of arts degree. He was accounted one of the most pregnant wits of his time, and greatly admired by all the poets and men of parts. He was distinguished early for an uncommon force of genius; having, when he was not more than ten years old, written “ The History of the Incarnation of
our Saviour,” in verse. Ben Jonson was fo exceedingly fond of him, that he adopted him one of his fons; on which account Randolph wrote a gratulatory poem to him, which is printed among his works. Like a true poet, Randolph had a thorough contempt for wealth, and as hearty a love of pleasure; and this drew him into excesses, which made his life very short. He died in 1634, when he had not compleated his 30th year. His “ Muse's ". Looking-Glass,” a comedy, is well known : he was the author of other dramatic performances, which with his poems were collected, and published in one volume, by his brother Robert Randolph; the fifth edition of which, with several additions, corrected and amended, was printed in 1664, 8vo. Robert was also a good poet, as appears from several copies of his verses printed in various books. He was a student of Chrift-Church in Oxford, where he took a bachelor of arts degree in 1627; and afterwards became vicar of Donnington in Lincolnshire, where he died in 1671, aged about 60.
Woodgives an accountofanother THOMAS RANDOLPH, a Kentish gentleman, who was made ftudent of ChristChurch, when Henry VIII. turned it into a cathedral; and principal of Broadgate-hall in 1549, being then a doctor of law. In the reign of queen Elizabeth, he was employed in several embassies to Scotland, France, and Russia ; and not only knighted, but preferred to some confiderable places. He died in 1590, aged 60. We have of his, “ An Account of his Emballage to the Emperor of “ Russia, anno 1568 ;” remitted into the first volume of Hakluyt's “ Voyages, Lond. 1598," and, - Instructions
given to, and Notes to be observed by, certain persons, “ for the searching of the sea and border of the coast. " from the River Pechora to the Eastwards, anno 1588.".
RAPHAEL, an illustrious painter of Italy, was born at Urbin, on Good Friday 1483.
His fatlier was an or dinary painter : his master, Pietro Perugino. Having a penetrating understanding, as well as a fine genius for painting, he foon perceived that the perfection of his art was not confined to Perugino's capacity, and therefore went to Siena, in order to advance himself. Here Pintura richio got him to be employed in making the cartoons for the pictures of the library ; but he had scarcely finished one, before he was tempted to remove to Florence by the great noise which Leonardo da Vinci's and Michael Angelo's works made at that time. As soon as he had considered the manner of those illustrious painters, he refolved to alter his own, which he had learned of Perugino, His pains and care were incredible ; and he succeeded accordingly. Ho formed his gusto after the ancient statues and bas reliefs, which he designed a long time with ex-treme application ; and, besides this, he hired people in Greece and Italy, to design for him all the antique pieces that could be found. Thus, he raised himself presently to the top of his profeflion. By the general consent of mankind, he is acknowledged to have been the prince of modern painters, and is oftentimes styled“ the divine Raphael;" as if, for the iniinitable graces of his pencil, and for the
excellence of his genius, he had something more than huDu Pres. man in his composition. He furpafled,” says a consoy's Art of noiffeur, "all modern painters, because he pofseffed more Painting, pocs of the excellent parts of painting than any other; and 7716.
so it is believed that he equalled the ancients, excepting so that he designed not naked bodies with so much learn
ing as Michael Angelo : but his guíto of design is
purer, and much better. He painted not with so good, “ fo full, and so graceful a manner, as Corregio; nor “ has he any thing of the contrast of the lights and “ Thadows, or so Itrong and free a colouring, as Titian : “ but he had without comparison a better disposition in “ his pieces, than either Titian, Corregio, Michael
Angelo, or all the rest of the succeeding painters to our days. His choice of attitudes, of heads, of ornaments, the suitableness of his drapery, his manner of
deligning, his varieties, his contrafts, his expressions, “ were beautiful in perfection ; but, above all, he pof" sefied the graces in so advantageous a manner, that he * has never since been equalled by any other.”
Raphael was not only the best painter in the world, but perhaps the best architect also : he was at least so adınirable a one, that Leo X. charged him with the building of St. Peter's church at Rome. He was one of the hand-Se- CASsomeft and beft-tempered men living : so that, with all thefe natural and acquired accomplishments, it cannot be wondered, that he was not only beloved in the highest degree by the popes Julius II. and Leo X. at home, but admired and courted by all the princes and states of Europe. He lived in the greatest state and splendor imaginable, most of the eminent masters in his time being ambitious of working under him ; and he never went out without a crowd of artists and others, who attended and followed him purely through respect. Cardinal bi. biano offered him his niece in marriage, and Raphael engaged himself; but, Leo X. having given him hopes of a cardinals hat, he made no hafte to marry her. His paision for the fair sex destroyed him in the flower of his agë : for one day, after he had abandoned himself to excessive venery, he was seized with a fever; and, concealing the true cause of his diítemper from his physicians, he was supposed to be improperly treated, and so carried off. He died upon his birth-day in 1520. Cardinal Bembo wrote his epitaph, which is to be seen upon his tomb in the church of the Rotunda at Rome, where he was buried. Here are two lines of it:
Ille hic est Raphael, timuit quo fofpite vinci
Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori. Raphael had many scholars; but Julio Romano was his favourite, because he did him most credit. Pouffin ufcd to say of Raphael, that “ he was an angel compared with “ the modern painters, but an ass in comparison of the
ancients :" but all such sayings are extravagant, and unmeaning.
RAPIN (RENATUS), a French jefuit, famous for his fkill in claffical learning, was born at Tours in 1521, and entered into the society at eighteen. He taught polite literature for nine years : he inade it his particular study, Dist. art. and shewed by somne Latin productions, that he was able RAPLU to write on the finest subjects with great art and eloquence. He excelled in Latin poetry, and published various pieces in it: the principal of which was, “ Hortorum • libri quatuor ;” a work, which has been much almired. and applauded. It was first printed at Paris 1655, and af. 6
terwards re-printed with alterations and corrections by the author. An English version of it was made and published at London in 1673, 8vo, by John Evelyn, esq. and again, in 1706, by Mr. James Gardiner of Jesus-college in Cambridge. All his Latin poems, consisting of odes, epitaphs, sacred eclogues, and these four books upon Gardens, were collected and published at Paris 1681, in 2 vols. 12mo. He applied himself afterwards to write in French, and succeeded very well in that language. He wrote in it several treatises upon polite literature, and upon pious subjects, which met with a good reception from the public. The treatises on polite literature, having been published at various times, were collected and published, 1684, in 2 vols. 4to, at Paris; and at Amsterdam, in 2 vols. 8vo. They were translated into English by Basil Kennet and others, and published in 1705, in 2 vols. 8vo, under the title of " The Critical Works of Mons. “ Rapin.” The first volume contains a comparison between Demosthenes and Cicero for eloquence, Homer and Virgil for poetry, Thucydides and Livy for history, Plato and Aristotle for philosophy: the second, are reflections on eloquence, on Aristotle's poetry, on history, on phi
lofophy. Rapin's general design in this work was, as he In the Pre-tells us himself, to restore a good taste among the ingeni
ous, which had been somewhat corrupted by a spirit of profound erudition, that had reigned in the preceding age: and indeed he was not altogether unqualified for the attempt; for he is a writer, as Bayle observes, who seems to have had more good taste and delicacy, than depth of erudition. He was not, however, wanting in learning; and, though many things are loosely said by him, and some that may deserve critical animadversion, yet his work abounds with excellent materials, and upon the whole is both useful and entertaining.
He died at Paris in 1687; and his clogium, written by father Bouhours, was published foon after. He is there represented, and there is realon to think defervedly, as possessed of the finest qualities, that can adorn a man of probity and a good Christian.
We find there, among other particulars, that zeal for the honour of his society made him undertake, above twenty years before, an History of Jansenism. He was a dangerous adversary of that party, and attacked them on their weakest side in a Latin work, published in 1658, under the title of, · Dissertatio de nova doctrina, feu Evangelium Jan