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Before we consider the evidence particularly, it may be well to attend to the following general observations :

The pauper is a competent witness for either party ; and (according to the practice of some courts of quarter sessions) the appellants are bound to produce him.

A parishioner is a competent witness for or against his parish, whether rated or holding office or not, and whether maintained by the parish or not; and this, in almost all cases (h). (d) 54 Geo. 3. c. 170. s. 9.

Neither hearsay evidence of the declaration of the pauper, nor the exparte examination of him upon oath, taken in writing by the magistrates, relative to his settleinent, are arlmissible evidence of such settlement, although the pauper die or abscond before the appeal (i).

(i) R. v. Ferry Frystone, 2 East, 54. ii. 234. R. v. Abergwilly, 2 East, 63. ii. 235. R. v. Nuneham Courtney, 1 East, 373, ii. 236; and see R. v. Eriswell, 3 T. R. 707. ii. 237. K. v. St. Sepulchre's, 2 Bott, 362. ii. 238.

But in the case of a soldier, having a wife or child, any justice of the peace may summon hin before him, in the place where he is billetted, and take his examination in writing, upon oath, touching the place of his last legal setilement; and such justice shall give an attested copy of such exaunination to the person so examined, to be by him delivered to his commanding officer; which said examination and attested copy shall be admitted in evidence as to such settlement, before any justice or sessions, al. though such soldier be dead or absent from the kingdom (k). And the saine, as to officers, suldiers and marines, setting up trades (1).

(k) 10 Geo. 4. c. 6. s. 68 (Mutiny Act). 3 Geo. 3. c. 8. 8.2, 3. See R. v. Clayton le Moors, 5 T. R. 704. ii. 239. R. v. Bilton with Harrow gate, 1 East, 13. ii. 240. R. v. Warminster, 3 B. & A. 121. ii. 241. R. v. Warley, 6. T. R. 534. ii. 242. (1) 56 Geo. 3. c. 67. s. 2. 3 Geo. 3. c.8. s. 2. 3.

Except also, partly, in the cases of prisoners: any justice of the peace may take, in writing, the examination



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wardens and overseers of the poor of the certifying parish, or the inajor part of them (p); or, where a parish contains many townships, &c. each maintaining its own poor, then under the hands and seals of the overseers of the township, and the persons acting as churchwardens of the same, (although really sworn in as churchwardens of the entire parish,) or the major part of them (9); or under the bands and seals of two persons, acting or purporting to act in the double capacity of churchwardens and overseers (r); or under the hands and seals of the overseers only, where there are no churchwardens (s).

(0) 8 & 9 W.3. c. 30. 8. 1. See 1 & 2 Geo. 4. c. 32. s. l. 13 & 14 C. 2. c. 12. s. 3. R. v. Tamworth, Burr. S. C.770. ii. 246. R. v. Margam, I T.R. 775. ii. 247. R. v. Wymondham, 6 T. R.552. ii. 248. R. v. Whitchurch, 7 B. & C. 573. ii. 249. R. v. Austrey, I Phil. Ev. 453. ii. 250. R. v. Catesby, 2 B. & C. 814. ii. 251. R. v. St. Margaret, Leicester, 8 East, 332. ii. 252. R. y. Clifton, 2 East, 168. ii. 253.

(9) 54 Geo. 3. c. 107. s. , 2. See R. v. Samborn, 8 T. R. 609. ii. 254. () 51 Geo. 8. c. 80. s. 1. (8) 8 & 9 W.3. c. 30. s. l.

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It must be attested by two or more credible witnesses (1), one of whom shall make oath, before the justices who allow the certificate, that the overseers, &c. signed and sealed the same in his presence; and this oath being certified by the justices upon such certificate, the certificate shall be received in evidence without further proof (u).

(1) 8 & 9 W.3. c. 30. s. I. See R. v. Boston, 1 Str. 94. ii. 255. Barleycroft v. Coleoverton, Str. 402. ii. 256. R. v. Ashton Keynes, Burs. S. C. 725. ji. 257.

(u) 3 Geo. 2. c. 29. s. 8. See R. v. Farringdon, 2 T. R. 466. ii. 258. R. 5. St. Maurice, Burr. S. C. 296. ii. 259. R. v. Ryton, 5 T. R. 259. ii. 260. R. v. Debenham, 2 B. & A. 185. ii. 261. R. v. Netherthong, 2 M. & S. 337. ii. 262. R. v. Stanley cum Wrenthorpe, 15 East, 350. ii. 263.

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ners whereof we have hereunto set of —

in the


of our Lord our hands and seals, the day

A. B.
Attested by A. W.

€:B:} Churchwardens.
B. W,

E. F.

Overseers of the Poor.
We, J. P. and K. P., esquires, of aforesaid, whose names
two of his majesty's justices of the and seals are hereunto subscribed
peace in and for the said county of and set, severally sign and seal the

- do allow of the above-writ- same; and that the names of A.W.
ten certificate. And we do alsu cer- and B. W., who are the witnesses
tify, that A. W., one of the wit- attesting the said certificate, are
nesses who attested the same, hath respectively of their own proper
this day made oath before us, the hands' writing.
said justices, that he, the said A. Given under our hands, this
w, did see the church wardens and day of
overseers of the poor of the parish

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a third parish (d), he cannot gain a settlement in the parish to which the certificate is directed (e), by any act of his own (f), except by renting a tenement of the annual value of 101.(g), or by executing an annual office (h); nor can his yearly servant or apprentice'i).

(d) See R. v. Petham, 2 Str, 1147. ii. 279. Harrison v. Lewis, 3 Salk. 23. u. 278. R. v. Horsley, Burr. S. C. 385. ii. 280.

(e) 13 & 14 Car. 2 c. 12, s. 3. (1) R. v. Great Driffield, 8 B. and C. 684. ii. 295. See Burclear v. Eastwoodhay, 1 Str. 163; Burr. S. C. 221. ii. 296. Ivinghoe v. Stonebridge, 1 Str. 266. 11. 297. R. v. Stanfield, Burr. S. C. 205. ii. 135. R. v. Deddington, Str. 1193, ii. 248. R. v. Cold Ashton, Burr. S. C. 444. ii. 299. R. v. Shenstone, Burr. S. C. 468. ii. 300. R. v. Wivelingham, Doug. 767. ii. 301. R. v. Stapleford, 2 Bott, 114. ii. 302. (8) 9 & 10 W. 3. c. 11. See R. v. Findern, 2 Bott, 582. 605. ii. 292.

i 9 & 10 W. 3. c. 11. See R. v. St. Mary, Berkhamstead, 2 Str. 942. ii. 303. R. v. Melburne, Burr. $. C. 244. ii. 304. (12 Anne, st. 1. c. 18. 8. 2. And see R. v. Hinkley, 4T. R.371.ii. 305.

The certificate extends, not only to the pauper and his wife (k), but to his children (whether born before or after it ()), so long as they continue a part of his family (m); or if the children be named in the certificate, they will continue under its operation, even after they are emancipated, and become heads of families (n). But it does not extend to a child intentionally omitted in it (0); and the parties may in other respects narrow the extent of it. (!) See R. v. Hampton, 5 T. R. 266. ii. 306.

(1) R. v. Sherborne, Burr. S. C. 182. ii. 307. R. v. Bray, Burr. S. C. 259. ii. 308. R. v. Letchdale, Burr. S. C. 380. ii. 309. (m) R. v. Darlington, 4 T. R. 797. ii. 310. R. v. Bugden, 1 Wils.

183. 2.311. R. v. Thwaites, 1 M. & S. 669. ii. 312. R. v. Mortlake, 6 East, 396. ii. 313. R. V. Alfreton, 7 T. R. 471. ii. 314. And see Wingham v. Sellinge, Burr. S. C. 225, ii. 471.

(*) R. v. Testerton, 5 T. R. 258. ii. 315. See R. v. Batheaston, 8 T. R. 446. ii. 316. But see R. v. Leek Wootton, 16 East, 118. ii. 317. (0) R. v. Storrington, 7 T. R. 133. ii. 318.

As to the removal of certificate-men, see 8 & 9 W.3. c. 30. 8. 1 (p).

(D) And see 13 & 14 Car. 2. c. 12. s. 3. R. v. Hayder, 2 Bott, 566. ii. 48. Little Kire v. Woudfall, 2 Salk. 530. ii. 319. R. v. St. Martin at Oak, 16 East, 303. ij. 55.

2. Relief: Relieving the pauper or his family, resident in another parish, is evidence (though not conclusive) of a settlement in that parish which gives the relief (9).

(9) R. v. Wakefield, 5 East, 335. ii. 320. R. v. Stanley.cum Wrenthorpe, 15 East, 350. ii. 263. Ř. v. Edwinstowe, 8 B. & C. 671.

But relieving a pauper resident in the parish, is no evi

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