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cerning'- as super hac re ad te scribam, I shall write to you about

this matter. In all other cases it governs the accusative. 4. Subter is generally construed with the accusative; but with the abla

tive its use is almost confined to poetry.

276. Verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, denoting extent of time or space, govern the accusative of the noun describing that extent. Adjectives of this kind are longus, latus, altus, crasSUS ; e. 8., hasta sex pedes longa,

a lance six feet long, Troja decem annos oppugnata est, Troy was besieged ten years. In like manner the participle natus, in the sense of 'old' is joined with the accusative of the number of years which a person has lived as viginti annos natus est, he is twenty years old; sex annos natus, six

years old.

277. Names of towns and small islands are put in the accusative without any preposition to express motion towards them, when the question, whither ? may be asked—as Romam profectus est,

he has gone to Rome. legatos Athenas misit,

he sent ambassadors to Athens. 278. In exclamations of wonder or grief at the state or condition of a person or a thing, the name of the person or thing is put in the accusative either with or without an interjection -as

heu me miserum! or me miserum! Oh, I, wretched man!

There are certain expressions in which the accusative, especially of neuter pronouns, stands for the genitive or ablative-as id temporis, at that moment of time, for eo tempore; id or illud aetatis for ejus or illius aetatis, of that age; id or hoc genus for ejus or hujus generis, of that kind.



279. The dative generally expresses the person or thing for which, or in regard to which, something is, or is done; it may therefore be termed the case of the remoter object. The English language generally expresses this relation by the prepositions 'to' or .for?Solon leges Atheniensibus scripsit, Solon wrote laws for the Athenians.

280. The dative accordingly is used with transitive verbs, when, besides their object, a person or thing is mentioned to which or for which the action is performed -as exercitum collegae tradidit,

he surrendered the army to his

colleague. viam tibi monstro,

I show you the way.

281. Many transitive verbs compounded with the prepositions ad, ante, circum, cum, ex, in, inter, ob, post, prae, and sub, have, besides their real object, another noun, the relation to which is indicated by the prepositions; and this other noun is put in the dative both with the active and passive of such compound verbs -as haec res mihi magnum commodum this affair affords me a great adaffert,

vantage. milites consuli circumfundebantur, the soldiers were crowding around

the consul. 282. If

, however, by such compound verbs, the idea of place contained in the prepositions is to be expressed more emphatically than the mere action contained in the verb, the preposition must be repeated with its proper case—as signa inferre in hostes,

to carry the standards against the

enemy. 283. The dative is joined with many intransitive verbs, such as those which denote benefiting, pleasing, injuring, and others.

The principal verbs of this kind are prosum, obsum, noceo, incommodo, expedit, conducit; adversor, obtrecto, officio, cedo, suffragor, refragor, intercedo, gratificor; faveo, studeo, ignosco, indulgeo, invideo, insidior; auxilior, opitulor, patrocinor, consulo, prospicio, medeor, parco; placeo, displiceo; impero, obedio, obsequor, obtempero, pareo, servio, famulor; assentior, adulor, blandior, irascor, succenseo, convicior, maledico, minor; suadeo, persuadeo; credo, fido, confido, diffido; desum, nūbo, propinquo, appropinquo, supplico, videor (seem or appear); accidit, contingit, evenit; libet, licet ; obviam eo, praesto sum, dicto audiens sum.

284. Intransitive verbs compounded with the prepositions ad, ante, cum, in, inter, ob, post, prae, (re or red), sub, and super, follow the same rule as the compound transitives mentioned in number 282; e. g., adesse amicis,

to succour one's friends. antecellere omnibus,

to surpass all. 285. The verb esse governs the dative in the sense of “to be,' or 'to exist for a person's use;' and in such construction it must be rendered into English by the verb 'to have'- as mihi sunt multi libri,

I have many books. mihi nomen est,

I have a name, or I am called. In the last-inentioned instance, when the name is added, it may either be put in the nominative, so as to stand in apposition to nomen - as nomen ipsi erat Romulus — or the name may be a sort of attraction to the dative ipsi and be put in the dative-as nomen ipsi erat Romulo.

286. Adjectives generally govern the dative when they express qualities which exist for some person or thing; e. g., pax reipublicae utilis erat,

the peace was useful to the re

public. res tibi facilis, ceteris difficilis, a thing easy for you, difficult for

others. But the dative is joined in particular with those adjectives denoting a certain relation to something or somebody ; such as those expressing a kindly or unkindly disposition, similarity, proximity; e. g., amicus, inimicus, aequus, iniquus, propitius, infensus, infestus, obnoxius ; par, impar, dispar, similis, dissimilis, consentaneus, contrarius, aeqnalis; propinquus, propior, proximus, ricinus, finitimus, conterminus, affinis, cognatus, e. g., hic locus urbi propinquus est, this place is near the city.

287. Names of towns and small islands are put in the dative, to denote the place where anything is or happens—as


at Rome. Capuae,

at Capua. Athenis,

at Athens. 288. When the name belongs to the second or third declension, it takes the termination i-e. g., Corinthi,

at Corinth. Carthagini, at Carthage. Instead of the termination i in names of the third declension, we sometimes find e, which is only a corruption for i as Carthagine, at Carthage; Lacedaemone, at Lacedaemon. 289. The dative is used to denote the



anything serves, or the effect it produces. This is the case especially with esse (in the sense of 'to serve the purpose of'), do, habeo, mitto, venio, pono, duco, verto, tribuo. It not unfrequently happens that such verbs are also accompanied by their ordinary dative-as eui bono est ?

to whom is it (does it) any good ? est mihi et honori et utilitati, it does me honour and is useful to


290. With passive verbs the agent is sometimes expressed by the dative instead of the ablative with the preposition a or ab. This, however, is done more frequently in poetry than in prose, and oftener with the compound tenses of the passive than with the simple ones---as quidquid mihi (a me) susceptum est, whatever has been begun by me. non intelligor ulli (ab ullo),

I am not understood by any one. 291. The gerundive is regularly construed with the dative instead of the preposition a or ab—as hoc mihi faciendum est,

this must be done by me. non omnibus eadem facienda sunt, not all mon must do the samo



292. The genitive serves principally to denote that relation between two substantives by which the two conjointly express only one idea, the genitive supplying the place of an adjective


castra hostium,

the camp of the enemy- that is,

the hostile camp. domus patris,

the house of the father--that is,

the paternal house. In speaking of the temple of a god, the words aedes and templum are often omitted, especially after the prepositions ad and ab--as ad Opis (aedes), near the temple of Ops; ad Vestae, near the temple of Vesta.

Substantives which are derived from transitive verbs, and have an active meaning, like all other substantives, govern a genitive; but this genitive may be of a twofold nature-namely objective, wben it denotes the person or thing affected by the action implied in the substantiveas amor patriae, love for one's country; or subjective, when it denotes the person or thing from which the action implied in the governing substantive proceeds—as amor parentum, the love which parents entertain (for their children.)

One substantive is sometimes followed by another in the genitive, which contains in reality the same idea, and gives only a more specific explanation of it.

-as arbor fici, a fig-tree; arbor abietis, a fir-tree; nomen regis, the name of king (but it may also be the name of the king.') In cases of this kind, the genitive is little more than one noun in apposition to another.

293. The genitive denotes the whole of which anything is a part, and is governed by the noun which expresses the part -as magnus numerus militum,

a large number of soldiers. magna vis auri,

a great quantity of gold. 294. When the nature, quality, size, or extent of anything is described by a substantive accompanied by an adjective (numeral, participle, or pronoun), the latter is put in the genitive (genitive of quality), which is governed by the substantive which they explain -as vir magni ingenii,

a man of great talent. res magni laboris,

an undertaking of great iabour. Such a genitive of quality cannot be used when the substantive is not accompanied by a adjective; we cannot, therefore, translate 'a man of talent' by homo ingenii, but, using the adjective, by ingeniosus homo.

295. The genitive is governed by several adjectives denoting a quality existing in reference to certain things — that is, by relative adjectives, the meaning of which is not complete with

out the thing being added in regard to which it exists. Adjectives of this kind are1. All present participles of transitive verbs, when used as real adjec

tives, and all adjectives ending in ax, which are derived from transi.

tive verbs - as amans patriae ; capax aquae. 2. Adjectives denoting desire, knowledge, experience, remembrance,

and their opposites -- such as avarus, avidus, cupidus, studiosus, conscius, inscius, nescius, gnarus, ignarus, peritus, imperitus, prudens, rudis, insolens, insuetus, memor, immemor, and others; and sometimes also those which denote foresight and want of care — such as providus, diligens, curiosus, incuriosus — as cupidus gloriae, desirous of fame; ignarus omnium rerum, ignorant of all things; memor beneficii,

remembering an act of kindness. 3. Adjectives denoting power over a thing, or the contrary, such as

compos, impos, potens, and impotens - as compos mentis, in possession

of one's mind; impotens equi regendi, unable to control the horse. 4. Adjectives denoting participation, such as particeps, expers, consors,

exsors, reus, a finis, insons -- as particeps consilii, partaking in a plan

or design ; expers periculorum, not sharing the dangers. 5. Adjectives denoting abundance, fulness, or want, may govern either

the genitive or the ablative; but inops (poor) is construed with the genitive only, and plenus more commonly with the genitive than with

the ablative. 6. The adjectives similis and dissimilis are joined with both the geni

tive and dative; the same is the case with proprius, though the neuter in the sense of property' or 'peculiarity' is generally joined with the genitive

as proprium est oratoris, it is peculiar to an orator; but tempus agendi mihi fuit proprium, the time of action was convenient to me.

296. The verbs sum and fio, when they connect two substantives, and signify “to belong to' and 'to come to belong to,' govern the genitive of the person to whom anything belongs—as domus est patris,

the house belongs to the father. omnia viri fiunt,

all things come to belong to the


The genitive with sum often denotes the person or thing to which any. thing belongs, is proper or becoming, or whose duty anything is - as ista oratio non est hujus temporis, that speech is not suited to this time; non est mearum virium, it is not proper for my strength — that is, I have not strength enough.

When the person to whom anything is a duty or becoming, is expressed in English by a personal pronoun, the Latins use the neuter of the possessive - as meum est pro republica pugnare, it is my duty to fight for the republic.

297. Verbs of remembering, forgetting, and reminding--as memini, reminiscor, (recordor, rarely), obliviscor, admoneo, commoneo, and commonefacio, govern the genitive of the person or

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