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The princi- “Yes, a systematic disregard to the rights of our felples which low-creatures, when covered with the mantle of religion, led to these crimes an

is terrible in its operations. Its watchword is no quar. aggravation ter ; it spares not either friends or foes, if they should of their ever manifest a symptom of opposition; every obstacle atrocity.

to its remotest views must be crushed, whatever evils may ensue !_Yes, he who is barbarous by nature, may sometimes be overtaken with compunction, and review his crimes with detestation and horror; but he who destroys his fellow-creatures, or exposes them to destruction for the sake of personal advantages, sanctifying his impiety with the name of religion, imposes a false conscience on himself, by casuistical quibbles, considers the crimes he occasions, and the blood he sheds, as necessary evils ; with unfeeling indifference, under the influence of a system, reared by pride, and supported by sophistry. he sees humanity outraged, and religion violated, and he

glories with savage exultation in both. How Dr. Well, says a smooth-faced barrister theologue from would have Maynooth, what conduct would you pursue, Columbaacted, if nus, were you one of those eleven prisoners in Newgate? placed him- Would you encounter the obloquy of the [R.] Catholics, self in the

and carry the stigma of apostacy to your grave? I position of the impri- hope in the mercy of God, that he would enable me to soned carry that cross, not only with patience, but with cheerpriests ; fulness also._.Blessed are they who suffer for righteous

ness.' Yes, I might be abandoned even by my friends, but the desert in which I might be condemned to take my solitary walk, would smile around me, and I would offer up my humble prayer in the gladness of my heart.

“I know well what a pang is that of affectionate regard, which experiences no return, but that of calumny and desertion. But sursum corda! I would look up to Him, the Mighty One, who will crown the invisible martyrdom of a worried spirit; to Him who will sooth the

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troubles of a heart which desires no consolation from present popularity, and which looks only to futurity for posthumous reward.

To my companions in Newgate, I would read S. Ber- and how far nard's book de consideratione, in which he shews that he would popes, and much less bishops, have no absolute autho- have re rity over God's heritage, but are themselves subject to

garded pa

pal opinions. the laws of the Church. I would read for them the letter of Gerbert, who was afterwards Pope Silvester II., to the Archbishop of Sens, in which he says-Does it follow that because Pope Marcellinus apostatized to Paganism we are to follow his example.' I say decidedly, that if a pope offend against a brother Christian, and being repeatedly admonished, hearken not to the Church, he ought to be held as a pagan: the bigher his rank, the more tremendous his fall. What if he should declare us unworthy his communion, unless in obedience to him we violate the rules of justice, he cannot therefore separate us from the communion of Jesus Christ."

Rome not


may be necessary for the sake of some The discireaders to observe here, that the Doctors of the ples of Church of Rome are by no means the only ones the only who claim for the sovereign spiritual authority in their communion this power of deposing secu- grounds, lar princes. The true scriptural and catholic doc

with the

rights of trine, that the great KING OF KINGS AND LORD of royalty. LORDS, " from whom All power is derived,” is also the only ruler of princes,” is not less unsavoury in the nostrils of others far removed in many respects from any liking for the general doctrines of Rome. The truth of this remark will be sufficiently obvious from a reference to the murder

of King Charles the First of England. And it may likewise be very strikingly illustrated from the sentiments expressed in a Declaration, publicly set forth by some of the Covenanting party in Scotland a few years afterwards. A portion of it, as a specimen of the views of that party on the subject in question, is here subjoined. The original document itself was read aloud, and then posted up at the cross of Sanquhar, by Mr. James Renwick, a most eminent preacher and leader of the Covenanters, on the 28th of May, 1685.

Specimen of “Afew wicked and unprincipled men having proclaimed a “Cove- James Duke of York, though a professed Papist and expanter's" Bull of de

communicated person, to be king of Scotland, &c., we position of the contending and suffering remnant of the pure Presa king of byterians of the Church of Scotland, do here delibeEngland. rately, jointly and unanimously protest against the

foresaid proclamation, in regard that it is choosing a
a murderer to be a governor, who hath shed the blood
of the saints; the height of confederacy with an idola-
ter, which is forbidden in the law of God; contrary to
the Declaration of the Assembly of 1649, and to many
wholesome and laudable acts of Parliament; and incon-
sistent with the safety, faith, conscience, and Christian
liberty of a Christian people to choose a subject of Anti-
christ to be their supreme magistrate. And further,
seeing bloody Papists, the subjects of Antichrist, are
become so hopeful, bold, and confident under the perfi
of the said James Duke of York, and Popery itself like
to be intruded again upon these covenanted lands; and
an open door being made thereunto by its accursed and

abjured harbinger Prelacy, which these three kingdoms are equally sworn against, we do in like manner protest against all kinds of Popery in general, and particular heads, &c. &c. &c," all which expressions of sentiment Mr. James Renwick's biographer justifies by asking, “ Was not the Revolution Settlement founded on the very principles contained in these declarations ? And did not the whole nation do, in 1688, on a larger scale, what the Covenanters did on a small scale?"_Life of Mr. Renwick, pp. 88, 89. Vid. No. IV. sup.


We have neither space, wish, nor need to en- The parallel ter on these questions here. Only it may be re- and similar marked, that, making full allowance for the dif- manifestoes ferences existing between the relative positions of the Church of Rome and the Covenanters, towards the Crown of these realms, there will remain, after all, a curious analogy between the recorded sentiments of these respective parties on the subject of regal excommunication, deposing power, &c.: in order to see which very clearly, it is only necessary to read over the words of the preceding declaration, substituting for “ James, Duke of York, &c.," " the Princess Elizabeth, although a professed Protestant;" for “we the pure Presbyterians, &c.,” we “Pius V., &c. ;” for “idolater," "heretic;" for “acts of parliament, &c.,” “ decrees and canons of the universal Church, or judgments and sentences of her most famous doctors, universities, &c. ;" for "prelacy,” the oath of allegiance,” &c. &c.





Circumstances of

In that useful and interesting collection the the times in Desiderata Curiosa, (Dublin, 1762,) we find, (in which oc

vol. i. p. 394,) a very authentic and sufficiently curred the transaction remarkable notice of the Sunday proceedings of below recorded,

one of the primitive congregations of the modern Romish ecclesiastical organization in Ireland ; proceedings which took place just at the time when arrangements were in a forward state of progress for extending their newly introduced episcopacy and priesthood throughout this island, and which, as illustrating in a very striking manner the condition of ecclesiastical affairs in the country at that time, appears well deserving

of a place in this collection of records. The noas described tice we refer to occurs in the form of deposiin the depo sition of tions taken before Sir Toby Caulfield, an indiO'Donnelly.

vidual well known to the reader of the history Oct.22,1613. of Ireland at that period, as member for Armagh

in the parliament of 1613, as one of the grantees who obtained lands in the Plantation, &c. &c. This document is transferred by Mr. Phelan to a note in his “Policy,(pp. 262, 263,) in his


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