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24. Matthew Arnold says that Burke “is so great because, almost alone in England, he brings chought to bear upon politics; he saturates politics with thought.” Of what passage in this speech does this statement seem to you to be especially true?

25. “Burke bases his reasoning on facts in human nature.

Verify this. 26. Professor Goodrich says that the secret of Burke's richness of thought "consisted, to a great extent, in his habit of viewing things in their causes, or tracing them out in their results.' Verify.

27. Report the steps in the reductio aa absurdum in (70-73).

28. What form of argument is used in (81) and (? (88)? Notice the use of words of comparison, more, less, as, as much.

29. Do you find evidences of a powerful imagination in this speech? Do you find any poetic touches?

30. Which of the following adjectives might be used truthfully in speaking of the style of Burke's Speech on Conciliation? Cite passages in support of your answer. Suggestive, picturesque, pathetic, sublime, serious, sincere, keen, judicious, ironical, beautiful, grand, clear, emphatic, precise, simple, colloquial, harsh, intense, diffuse, repetitious,

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One reading, preferably the second or the third, may profitably be devoted exclusively to a study of the logical structure of the speech, to an examination of the arguments separately and in their inter-relations. Experience has shown that the arguments will be best appreciated if the paragraphs are condensed into sentences and these sentences are arrayed according to their rank in the argumentative scheme. This kind of work is difficult, but rewards the pupil by giving him a comprehension of the argument such as he can hardly gain in any other way. Fully onehalf of the time devoted to this speech may profitably be spent in the making of a Brief. The following suggestions are intended to afford the pupil needed help towards making his Brief. A Brief of Burke's introduction to the speech is given in full in order to illustrate the form preferred. Complete sentences, reading as reasons, should everywhere be insisted upon. The numbers given below in parentheses refer to paragraphs of the speech. Directions to the pupil are in brackets. Material not in brackets stands as part of the final Brief. It will pay to



adhere to the form and system of numoering suggested, and to draw off a complete Brief. Before beginning to make the Brief Proper, let the pupil read the first fourteen paragraphs of the speech, comparing them one by one with the Brief of the introduction given below. Let him note that the main thought of paragraph (1) may be expressed in a single, complete sentence, as (I) below; that the same is true of (2); but that (3) and (4) belong together, forming a contrast; that (5), (6), (7), and (8) also belong together, since they give Burke's excuses for speaking; that (9) gives Burke's proposition; that (10), (11), (12), and (13) belong together because they contrast Burke's plan with Lord North's and show what advantage the former gains from the fact that the latter has been presented; that (13) also adds a new thought (VII below); that (14) closes the introduction by dividing the subject preparatory to the argument proper. Arranging this material in the orderly form of a brief, we have the following.

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INTRODUCTION I. The return of the grand penal bill gives Parlia.

ment another opportunity to choose a plan for

managing the American colonies (1). II. Having studied the subject, Burke has arrived at

fixed ideas of imperial policy (2). III. Burke's sentiments have not changed (3); but

Parliament has frequently changed its policy, with disastrous results (4).


IV. Burke ventures to address the House, for,
A. Those opposing the ministry must now pro-

duce their plan (5).
B. Though Burke is reluctant (6), the awful

situation makes it his duty to do good

if he can (7). C. Burke's insignificance will ensure a discus

sion of his plan wholly on its merits (8). V. Burke's proposition is to

peace by removing the grounds of difference (9). VI. Burke's plan, simple and very different from

Lord North's (10), derives advantages from
the latter's presentation (11), for,
A. By accepting Lord North's plan, the House

has voted that the idea of conciliation is

admissible (11). B. By accepting Lord North's plan, the House

has voted that the idea of conciliation is admissible previous to submission by the

colonies (12) C. By accepting Lord North's plan, the House

has voted that complaints in regard to taxation not wholly unfounded

(12). D. Burke's plan is based upon the same prin

ciple as Lord North's, that of concilia

tion (13). VII. The proposal for peace ought to originate with

England, the superior power (13). VIII. The two leading questions are: Whether Eng

land ought to concede; and, What the concession should be; the determination of which depends upon the actual condition and circumstances of America and not upon abstractions or theories (14).




COLONIES (15-64), FOR, I. The nature and condition of America require

conciliation (15), for-[Read (15-30), and having discovered A, B, C and D, set them down in complete sentences reading as reasons for I.

Follow the form of the Introduction V.I]. II. Those who advocate force against America are

wrong (31), for-[Read (32-35), and having

found the reasons, set them down as before). III. [Express (36) in form similar to I above. A (37

is followed by reasons, which should be marked

1, 2, etc.) IV. This unnatural contention las shaken all fixed

principles of government (45-46), for--[Mark

the three evil effects A, B and C). V. Of the only three ways of dealing with America,

we must adopt the third (47), for,
A. The first way (to remove the causes of the

American spirit) is impossible (48-57) for
—[Find the reasons, marking them 1, 2,
etc., and if reasons for 1, or 2, etc., are

given, mark them a, b, c, etc.]. B. [Supply the thought. Keep the form of

sentence used for A just above.] C. The third way, to comply with the Ameri

can spirit, we must, therefore, adopt (64).



TAXATION (65-88), FOR,
I. To please any people, you must give them the

boon they ask (65). II. To refuse satisfaction on the ground of a legal

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