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Mr. BATES. What it shows, Chief, is that a substantial part of that increase is due to personnel, and personnel increase is not due to additional personnel, because you have only added 25, during that period of time, so it must be due to the 40 percent increase in wages.

Mr. MURPHY. That is correct, Mr. Bates.
Mr. BATES.. I think that is a very creditable situation.

Do any of the members of the committee have any questions to ask the Chief of the Fire Department?

Mr. Smith. I was wondering if the Chief had any comparable figures on the salaries paid fire departments in other cities of comparable sizes.

Mr. MURPHY. The cities of comparable size, in general, pay about the same salaries. There are cities which pay larger salaries than are paid in Washington. Mr. SMITH. That is what I had in mind.

Mr. MURPHY. I think our salaries, Mr. Smith, are about in line on an average with the cities of comparable size. Will you permit me to make one short statement, Mr. Bates ?

Mr. ĎATES. You go ahead, Chief; that is all right, we are glad to hear anything you have to say.

Mr. MURPHY. We furnish fire protection to the Federal Government. We do not compile records. We do have reports submitted by the commanding officers, who respond to these fires, and we file them away. We have never, in any of our justifications that I know of, before the Congress presented those figures and records in the prosecution of our budget. And we do a great amount of such work.

Mr. BATES. You could summarize simply in a brief statement for the benefit of the committee just what services the fire department renders to the Federal Government in respect to the protection of their properties.

Is there anything you could compile that would give us an idea of that?

Mr. MURPHY. Yes, sir. Mr. Bates. Not now, but I mean in a brief that you might submit. Mr. MURPHY. Later Í will submit that to the committee, Mr. Bates. Mr. BATEs. Chief, is your personnel, in numbers sufficient, in your opinion, to operate the department at the present time?

Mr. MURPHY. We have fewer engine companies, I think, than any city in the United States of the same population, or within a close range. Of course, Washington is a little different from other cities. The hazards are not as great as in manufacturing cities.

Our wide streets are fire stops, and the work of a fireman is easier here than it is in a great many of our large industrial cities.

That, I think, accounts for us being able to operate as efficiently as we do with less companies than other cities.

Mr. Bates. Is your equipment pretty well up in quality? Mr. MURPHY. Our first-line equipment, I think, is the best of any city in the country.

İt is generally recognized that a fire department should have about one-third the number of its first-line equipment as reserve equipment. We do not have that. We are practically without reserve

We have tried to overcome that in recent months by taking our hose wagons and equipping them as pumpers. We have 19 which


we have done that with, so that in case we have three or four large fires in Washington at the same time, we will be able to take the 19 hox wagons and set them up as separate engine companies.

Mr. BATES. That is fine. Chief, I think you have given the committee about all we need. It is a very creditable situation, at least from my viewpoint, existing in the Fire Department in the District,

Instead of asking every department head, Mr. Commissioner, for a brief statement as to the type of services they render to the Federal Government, I wish you would contact your department heads and ask them to submit that in brief form so that we would have that for the benefit of the committee's information.

Thank you a lot, Chief.
Mr. MURPHY. Thank you very much, Mr. Bates.

Mr. BATEs. Now we can hear from the Police Department, perhaps, following along the discussion of the fire chief, and do you have in mind about what we want, Chief?

(Statement later received for the record by the Fire Department covering a 10-year period.)

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1943 : 43 privates to carry on the additional work caused by the increased population, details to the White House, navy yard, and inspections, Public Laws 22 and 49 providing a bonus for overtime work, 1 per diem mechanic to permit adequate maintenance of appartus, longevity increases for privates, and Wage Scale Board adjustments for per diem employees.

1944 : 2 privates to be used in placing new Truck Company No. 16 in service, longevity increases for privates, Public Laws 22 and 49 providing for a bonus for overtime work, and Public Law 297 adjusting officers salaries with those of the Police Department.

1945: Longevity increases for privates, and Public Laws 253 and 49 providing a bonus for overtime work.

1946: Longevity increases for privates, and Public Laws 106 and 151 providing a bonus for overtime work.


Mr. THOMAS. Yes, sir.
Mr. BATES. Just brief it as far as you can.

Now, I notice here, Chief, just to lay the basis for this discussion, that in 1937 your total expenditures were $3,715,580 and this year in the budget for 1948, $6,215,000. That is a pretty substantial increase in the police budget in the District in that period of time.

You go on from here, Chief.

Mr. THOMAS. Mr. Bates, if you wish, I could submit a statement here to begin with.


Mr. BATEs. Yes, sir.

Mr. THOMAS. In the fiscal year 1938 this Department had a total force of 1,391 policemen and -95 civilian employees. At this time we have 1,739 policemen and 127 civilians, and are requesting that the force be increased to 1,850 policemen and 132 civilians in 1948. This will effect an increase of approximately 30 percent in the Department's rolls in the 10-year period. This, we feel to be essential, as it is generally conceded that the population of the District has doubled during this period, and crime is on the increase.

Any justification of the expenses of operating the Police Department naturally hinges on personnel, as all other operating expenses comprise only 6 percent of the total. Therefore, it leaves personnel salaries at 94 percent as we figure it. Mr. BATES. 94 percent. That increase over a period of 10 years? Mr. Cox. Actually, the increase was 95 percent, but the ratio to

expenses is 94 percent of the total. Mr. Thomas. There was no appreciable increase in the number of employees or in the Department's appropriations until 1942 when the war forced us to enlarge the force to meet the demand for more intensified control. During that fiscal year Congress authorized, in the annual appropriation and two supplemental appropriations, the addition of 274 men. In the regular appropriation for 1943, 125 men were added, though recruiting difficulties prevented our attaining our authorized strength of 1,836 policemen.

In 1943, Congress passed Public Laws 22 (police and fire salaries) and 49 (classified services) granting an increase of $300 per person to all employees of the Department. This scale lasted until June 30, 1945, when Public Laws 106 and 151 became effective. These scales were in effect until June 30, 1946, when Public Laws 390 and 491, 14 percent increase went into effect.

It would be difficult to give a detailed explanation of each increase in operating expenses; however, most increases are attributed to either increases in the size of the force or to increase in prices of equipment and material. The following items, which show the greatest climb, are explained separately:

Crime travel: $1,340 to $2,940—up $1,600. This cost is largely due to increases in crime and increases in the detective-force travel. It is a variable figure, dependent upon the needs as they arise.

Communication service: $13,776 to $30,100—up $16,324.

This rise is directly attributable to increased activities of the force. In 1945 the Metropolitan Police Department joined the Interstate Police Teletype System, which now covers the greater part of the eastern seaboard. Rental on this equipment is approximately $2,500 per year, but its benefits have thoroughly justified its installation. The greatest rise is in telephone service, which is impossible to control as the department must be in a position to accept all calls regardless of Printing and binding: $6,000 to $14,000—up $8,000.

Approximately $4,000 of this increase can be attributed to increased activity of the Department and increased cost of labor and material. The other $4,000 is required for the printing of the annual list of automobile registrations, which is an essential item. Prior to the war the present contractor supplied these lists in exchange for the privilege of having access to official records. However, his income from outside

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sources practically disappeared during the war, and he was forced to charge us $4,000 per year for the assembly and printing of this list.

Prevention and detection of crime: $5,524 to $16,000—up $10,476.

This item, known as the confidential fund, is designed to permit the major and superintendent of police to carry out certain confidential functions, such as the undercover surveillance of suspected gambling and liquor establishments, payment of rewards, hiring of informers. et cetera. To date it has not been necessary to expend the full amount in any fiscal year. However, it is essential that this sum be provided for any contingency which might arise.

Police training classes: 0 to $3,000.

This fund was set up by Congress in 1941 to provide for specialized training of policemen and for participation in pistol matches throughout the country. During the war very little of this amount was expended, but with the return to normal conditions it is anticipated that it will be extensively used.

Repairs to motor vehicles: $19,665 to $44,792—up $25,127.

This rise is attributed to an increase in the number of vehicles and to the increased cost of mechanics' labor and automobile and motorcycle parts. It is expected that this cost will be reduced in direct proportion to our replacement of worn-out vehicles by new equipment; although the 1938 figure cannot be used as a true basis for future needs.

Police training school: Incident to this police training school and the academy, and so forth, we have been extremely blessed in that Congress granted that appropriation because it has given us a training course for the force to keep them abreast of all of the laws and regulations that Congress, from time to time, makes for us.

Police training school:0 to $1,500—up $1,500.

In 1944 Congress authorized the establishment of the Washington Police Academy for the within-service training of policemen. This school provides an intensified course in advanced police procedure and has been very beneficial.

I was very much interested to note in the press recently a report from Mr. Hoover regarding the within-service training of policemen, after they had been on the force for a number of years to keep them abreast of changing conditions. He says that is one of the main things that keeps the police departments advanced throughout the country, and that they had been neglected in some cities. I agree with this statement.

Miscellaneous supplies and materials: $9,542 to $16,350—up $6,808.

Approximately half of this increase can be attributed to higher costs and the other half to increased consumption of miscellaneous supplies, such as stationery, other office supplies, cleaning supplies, et cetera.

Uniforms: $49,557 to $87,400—up $37,843.

Although the cost of uniforms has increased by about 30 percent, it is found that the greatest factor in this rise is directly chargeable to increased force.

Gasoline, oil, and lubricants: $20,260 to $30,000—up $9,740.

Cost of gasoline has increased by some 30 percent. In addition the Department is using more equipment than in 1938.

Miscellaneous equipment: $8,339 to $15,000—up $6,661.

This figure does not represent a normal increase, as the request for 1948 covers the replacement of a considerable quantity of equipment, such as typewriters, revolvers, water colors, et cetera, which have not been replaced throughout the war, and which are beyond an economical repair. Once this obsolete and worn-out equipment is replaced, the figure will reduce by approximately $5,000.

Motor vehicle replacement: $22,526 to $41,625—-up $19,099.

Cost of motor vehicles to the Department has increased approximately 75 percent. A light cruiser, which in 1938 cost between $600 and $700, now costs between $1,000 and $1,100, taking the very lowest bid on cars. In addition, we are requesting a considerable number of replacement in order to reduce our cost of maintenance.

Once we have obtained new equipment and replaced these old cars, We will be in better shape; some of them have 150,000 miles on them. We have worked on them, and tried to keep them going during the war, and we reached the point where it is really unsafe for two officers in a scout car to proceed on emergency calls. Mr. BATES. How old are those ? Mr. Thomas. They vary between 4 and 5 years. Mr. BATEs. What is the maximum mileage? Mr. THOMAS. We have 17, and a few of them are being used as extra cars with the regular scout cars when they are out of service, and there is a maximum of 150,000 miles and most of them are around 160,000 miles or better. Mr. BATEs. They are pretty well used up? Mr. Thomas. The difficulty has been in getting replacements for them. Auto replacement parts are also scarce.

Mr. Cox. A car is really not suitable for police work after it has passed 60,000 miles.

Mr. Bates. Have you got good repair crews in the Department? Mr. Thomas. Yes, we do have service under the District Government.

Mr. Bates. Probably it would be cheaper to replace them every few Vears, at the most. Mr. Thomas. Yes, sir. Mr. BATES. Chief, are you finished with your statement? Mr. THOMAS. With the statement; yes.

Mr. BATES. I notice that your officers and members, not the clerks and the administrators and the House of Detention men, increased from 1,367 in 1937 to 1,850 men in the budget of this year. That shows an increase of about 35 percent in personnel.

Mr. THOMAS. The authorized strength for this year is 1,739. Mr. BATEs. I have no doubt that this year you are operating with about 1,584 men, but the budget for 1948 calls for 1,850 men, which is about 270 more men.

Mr. THOMAS. Our roll as of today is 1,647. We are asking for 111 additional to bring us to 1,850. We now have an authorized strength of 1.739. We have 35 servicemen still away in the service, members of our force, and we are holding the vacancies open, naturally.

There are 57 actual vacancies which we hope to fill by the 1st of


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