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patron Clement VIII. gave also the strongest manifestations of his high esteem for Lombard, by nominating him his domestic prelate and

assistant. His work on Lombard was the author of some theological works, the most famous Ireland. of which is his De Regno Hiberniæ Sanctorum Insula Commentarius,

which was republished after his decease at Louvain, in the year 1632, with a preface by the author addressed to his patron, Pope Clement. The work having excited the wrath of the British government, King James gave orders to the Lord Deputy Strafford to suppress it, and

prosecute the writer. But the prelate had escaped the power of all His death, earthly tribunals, having died previously at Rome, about A.D. 1626, cir. A.D.

or according to De Burgh (p. 628) in 1625. So long before as in May 1, 1625. 1614, King James had spoken of him in parliament as a nominal bishop

and doctor, who had endeavoured to excite the youth of the country,

educated in foreign colleges, to disturb the public peace.* H. Mac 4. The next titular primate was HUGH MACCAGAWELL, said to Caghwell, have been a man of singular piety, humility, and learning; the latter FOURTH of which is proved from several published works of his, that we need primate not here enumerate. One of them, a posthumous work, entitled “the of the new Mirror of Penitence," was in the Irish language. Mac Caghwell stuorders in died at the university of Salamanca in Spain; became a Franciscan Ireland. friar ; was instrumental in founding a College (that of St. Anthony of A.D. 1626.

Padua) in Louvain; was president of this institution for many years, and also divinity professor there, as well as at another College in Rome : until at length about A.D. 1626, the pope made him titular archbishop of Armagh. But after having made preparations for his journey to Ireland, and taken leave of his Italian friends, he was seized with sudden illness, and expired on the 22nd of September, 1626. His life was written by his intimate friend Patrick Fleming, a Franciscan

friar. Said to have In a printed listt of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, been suc- mentioned already in a preceding page, the name of Patrick Fleming is ceeded by entered as that of Mac Caghwell's immediate successor. It seems P. Fleming. however almost certain that no such individual ever occupied this

post. Mac Caghwell on his death-bed had written to the pope, recommending Richard Chamberlain a native of Ulster, and lecturer in the Irish College at Louvain, as his successor : but before his letter came to hand, the pontiff had already appointed a different person, Hugh O'Reilly to the office. And the learned Dr: Mac Mahon, in speak.

Hib. Dom., p. 628. Jus Prim. Armac., c. 93, Athen. Oron., vol. i., p. 481. Stuart, pp. 271, 272.

+ p. 295 of the “ Life of St. Patrick, &c.," mentioned in the note, p. 1226 sup.

ing of his predecessors at Armagh, makes no mention of such a per. son as Fleming between the names of Mac Caghwell and O'Reilly, of both of whom he speaks in distinct terms.*

5. HUGH O'REILLY, succeeding as aforesaid, occupied the titular H. O'Reilly, primacy at a period when Ireland was rent and wasted with all the Fifth titus horrors of civil war : and in the political turmoils of his day, he was lar primate far from being an inactive spectator of passing events. In the year of Ireland. 1642 he summoned his clergy to a synod in which the war then carried A.D. 1626; on by the Irish was declared lawful and pious. But plunderers and murderers were denounced in terms of execration, such as have been promoted applied by modern agitators to ribbonmen and other like minor spe

the great reculators in civil and political disturbances.

bellion, In the month of May, a general synod of all the Roman Catholic A.D. 1642. clergy was assembled at Kilkenny, where numerous acts were so- Titular sylemnly passed. The war, said to be maintained by the Catholics nod of Kilagainst sectaries, and in defence of religion and of the king, was kenny. again declared just and equitable. It was determined that an oath of association should be taken by the confederates, and that all who should reject it, or remain neuter, should be excommunicated. It was decreed also that provincial councils of the clergy and laity, as well as a general national council, should be formed, to which the minor ones were to be subordinate ; and that embassies should be sent to foreign potentates to solicit aid.

The various acts of the “national" assembly which met at Kil- Appointkenny may be found in the historians of that period. Among other ment of measures which it adopted, was the appointment of a supreme coun- “Supreme cil of 24 persons, allowing six for each province. Those nominated Council," for Ulster were, Hugh O'Reilly, titular primate, the titular bishop &c. of Down, and four others who were laymen. Nine of the entire number were necessary to compose an efficient council. And by their body sheriffs were to be chosen out of such persons as should be nominated by county councils. All civil magistrates were to have been subordinate to their command; and a guard of 500 foot, and 200 horse was assigned for the protection of the assembly. I

It seems probable that whatever power Dr. O'Reilly possessed in An agent right of his titular primacy soon became subordinate to that of Peter comes from Scaramp, who appeared at the assembly of Kilkenny as minister of the the pope, pope, from whom he brought letters to the supreme council and to the with ammuprelates, with a supply of money and ammunition, as well as a bull for a nition.

• Soe No. XXX. inf. Paul Harris's “ Fratres Sobrii estote." Ware's Writers, book i., p. 115. Stuart, pp. 352, 353.

+ Hib. Dom., cap. 6, p. 109; also p. 489. Leland, 3, 181, seqq. i Leland, ut sup. ; Borlase ; Cox, p. 125, &c.

money, jubilee ; and also a plenary absolution for those who had armed thembulls, &c. selves in defence of the Roman Catholic religion. Arrival of

Soon after came that mischief-making firebrand, the pope's nuneio Rinuncini;

Rinuncini, archbishop of Fermo ; under whose fatal influence O'Reilly and the clergy, of his persuasion were induced to adopt measures greatly conducive to the overthrow of the king's interest in this kingdom, and the final establishment of the party connected with the usurper Cromwell. Under the guidance of this Rinuncini, they on the 12th of August, 1646, decreed that every member of the Catholic association " who should adhere to a treaty of peace which had been trans mitted to them by the supreme council, should be deemed perjured and excommunicated; a decree which was signed by O'Reilly's proxy

and procurator Edmund O'Teig, he himself not having been present who is sup- in person at the meeting which passed it. + His own signature however ported by in the assumed form Hugo Armacanus is annexed to various doctTitular ments executed about this period by the most active of the Romish O'Reilly. leaders. For instance, on the 10th of January, 1646–7, the assembly of

Roman Catholics met at Kilkenny and drew up a form of oath of as sociation, by which they swore to maintain faithful allegiance to the king and his successors; to defend the fundamental laws of the king dom, the free exercise of the Romish religion, and the lives and pro perties of their associates; to obey the edicts of the supreme council, and not to make or adhere to any peace concluded without the cone sent of a general assembly, &c. And at the head of the list of ecclesiastics who subscribed this document, the first name that occurs is

that of Hugh O'Reilly. I Colgan's It was to this prelate, who appears to have been of the distinguished AA. SS. de family of the O'Reilly's, lords of Cavan, that Colgan dedicated his dicated to learned work, the Acta Sanctorum Hibernia. Previously to his elethis prelate. vation to the titular primacy, he had been titular bishop of Kilmore,

his native district. The following notice of him as Romish primate of Ireland occurs in a letter of the excellent bishop Bedell, describing

to bishop Laud the state of his diocese, and bearing date April 1, 1630. Notice of "A popish clergy, more numerous by far than we, and in full exhim in a let. ercise of all jurisdiction ecclesiastical by their vicar general and offiter of Bp. cials ; who are so confident, as they excommunicate those that come Bedell. to our courts, even in matrimonial causes : which affront hath been

offered myself by the popish primate's vicar-general, for which I have begun a process against him. The primate himself lives in my parish, within two miles of my house ; the bishop in another part of my diocese, further off."

• Leland, 3, 298. Stuart, p. 354.
1 App. Hib. Dom., pp. 882, seqq.

+ Cox, App. 30, pp. 122, 123 $ Mant, i. 436.

The exact period of H. O'Reilly's death is not known. It is sup. posed to have occurred in the Co. Cavan, circ. A.D. 1656..

6. To him succeeded EDMUND O'REILLY, concerning whom we Edmund have but little information supplied to us. He seems to have been of O'Reilly, much the same kind of spirit with his namesake and predecessor; and sixta Primuch of his time was spent either abroad or in prison. He was a na- mate of the tive, it appears, of the county of Dublin, and had discharged for some new race. time the pastoral office in that archdiocese ; after which he was ap- A.D. 1657. pointed rector of the Irish College in Louvain, about A.D. 1637. În 1640 he returned to his native country, and was received with marks of high esteem by Thomas Fleming, titular archbishop of Dublin, who shortly after appointed him his vicar-general. At Rome also his me rits were so highly thought of, that when the titular dignity in the archiepiscopal see of Armagh became vacant by the death of H. O'Reilly, he was the person selected to fill the office, in order to which he was consecrated at Brussels about A.D. 1657. Shortly after he came into Ireland, and remained there until A.D. 1662.

This titular archbishop stands accused of having endeavoured to Various exeite in parliament an interest for the Ulster Irish, “because," said acts of treahe, "they never had an affection for the king, nor his family, and as for son attrime, Inever was a friend or well-wisher to any of the four," meaning of the buted to king, the Dukes of York and Gloucester, and the Marquis of Ormond, him. He had been charged also with having, at a former period, carried on a treasonable correspondence with the Earl of Tyrone and others in Flanders, concerning an intended invasion of Ireland ; for which he had been for a short space of time imprisoned in the castle of Dublin. He is said likewise to have issued precepts, commanding the people to pray for the success of Cromwell. Altogether his recorded acts have more connection with politics than with religion.

It seems however that on the failure of ine Romish party, and the His opposimassacre of their clergy by Cromwell's people, he was forced to flee tion to the the kingdom, and take refuge in exile. ' But after the Restoration, Irish Rehaving solicited, by letter, permission from the king to come back to monstrance, his native land, he was allowed this liberty by the monarch, Charles A.D. 1666 ; II. without any difficulty: as it was hoped that he would support a recognition of loyalty, the celebrated Irish Remonstrance, which was then expected from the Roman Catholic bishops. The document, which not only expressed strong attachment to the king, but even disclaimed the pope's temporal supremacy, was signed by the titular bishop of Dromore, 54 regulars, i7 seculars, 10 Ř. Catholic noblemen,

• Brennan, ii. 204, IX., p. 90, ib. Stuart, p. 356.

Cox, Charles II., p. 54, App.

and many of the gentry. But Ed. O'Reilly, in a synodical meeting of the clergy, A.D. 1666, opposed the adoption of this remonstrance

with all his powers. Shortly after, he and all the other R. Catholic which is fol- bishops

in Ireland connected with him, except two that were decrepid lowed by his and unable to escape, fled from the kingdom. O'Reilly however failed imprisone, in attempting to make good his escape to the continent; and having ment. been taken prisoner in September, 1666, he was sent to England. In

1670, during the government of Lord Berkeley, the anti-remonstrants His death, were taken into favour. But O'Reilly did not live to witness their A.D. 1669.

triumph, having died in A.D. 1669. 0. Plunket, 7. OLIVER PLUNKET was the next titular primate, a prelate SEVEXTA whose chief distinction, as will be seen from what follows, was his unPrimate fortunate end. He had studied at Rome, and there became D.D., and of the mo- also public professor of divinity in the College De Propaganda Fide, dern Romish which had been instituted in A.D. 1621, as an effective instrument for connection exercising jurisdiction in the affairs of missions and foreign churches. in Ireland. At length, in A.D. 1669, he was promoted by Pope Clement IX. to the

title of the archbishopric of Armagh.t His dealings In the days of this Plunket, Peter Talbot, the titular archbishop of with P. Tal- Dublin, a man of some talent, and of a restless, aspiring disposition, bot, titular sought to assume a superiority over his primate, as well as to direct the abp. of political movements of the Irish Romanists. He had been the means Dublin. of exciting persecution against those of the clergy who had signed the

"remonstrance of their loyalty to the king," and had even denounced them excommunicated. But Archbishop Plunket not only took measures to restrain him in his proceedings, but also reproved him for having “the reputation of intermeddling too much in affairs of state, contrary to the canons and orders of the

pope." For this Plunket has been described as “a man of loyal principles, who on all occasions expressed his abhorence of political intrigues, and recommended peaceable submission to the government," and he is characterised by bishop Burnet as a “wise and sober man, who was for living quietly

and in due submission " to the lawful authorities of the state. I Heisaccused Notwithstanding however the character thus given of him, Archbiof high

shop Plunket, after he had filled for some years the office of titular treason:

primate, was arraigned on a charge of holding a treasonable corres

. Cox, Charles II. Ware's Writers, p. 195. Hib. Dom., 710. Stuart, p. 357.

| Hib. Dom., pp. 130, 499. Ardeskin, Theologia Tripart., Venetis, 1700, p. 227. Stuart, p. 358.

Burnet's Hist. of his own Times, vol. i, f. 230. Stuart, pp. 358, 859. Leland, 3, 481. Ware's Writers. 192.

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