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4. The city capitulated the same night, and the troops dispersed in every direction.--Alison.

5. The Druids punished with the severest tortures whoever dared to secrete any part of the consecrated offering.--Hume.

6. But intellectual movement in itself is a thing which few care for.–Arnold.

7. Are we to suppose that it was a miserable piece of spiritual legerdemain, this which so many creatures of the Almighty have lived by and died by ?-Carlyle.

8. I never saw the hard rock yet that some green flowery thing would not grow upon.-M'Cullagh.

9. These doctrines I protest against.-Channing.

10. He was forbidden access to the sacrifices or public worship ; he was debarred all intercourse with his fellow-citizens.-Hume. 11.

And fast before her father's men

Three days we've fled together. Campbell, 12. Thee I revisit now with bolder wing Escaped the Stygian pool.

Milton. 13.

She wished
That Heaven had made her such a man.

Shakspeare. 14. “ I will speak of thy testimonies,” &c. is a text which the Anglican church seems never to have caught the spirit of.- Arnold (Letters).

15. Thus departed this life, if not in the maturity of years, at least in the fulness of glory, Edmund Burke.-Alison.

SENTENCES TO BE CORRECTED.-215-220. 1. He that can doubt whether he be any thing or not I speak not to.-Locke. 2.

Which of ye will be mortal to redeem
Man's mortal crime.

Milton. 3.

You must ride
On horseback after we.

Couper. 4. He observed that the rest of my family were not to be sacrificed to the peace of one child alone, and she the only one who had offended me (?)—Goldsmith.

5. The true composition of a counsellor is rather to be skilful in their master's business than in his nature.-Bacon's Essays.

6. Who do you speak to ?-Shakspeare. (This mode of expression is so common among good speakers as to render it doubtful if grammarians are justified in reckoning it an error.)

7. It is not sufficient to say that they submit now without a thought of resistance to the grossest oppression of their governors or whomsoever is placed in authority over them.--Alison.

RULE IV.-PRONOUNS. 221. Pronouns agree in gender, number, and person

with the nouns for which they stand, and are in all respects to be treated as the nouns would have been, had they been used. In the sentence, “ The master instructs his pupils,” the pronoun supplies the place of the possessive case of the noun master, which is of the singular number, third person,

and masculine gender; we therefore use his, which corresponds to all this. Again, “ John and James learn their lesson :" here their stands for two nouns, and so must be plural.

222. The Relative Pronouns, who, which, that, and as, should come immediately after the word to which they refer. The want of inflection renders this rule necessary in our language in a greater degree than in inflected languages such as the Latin.

223. The Relative sometimes refers to a thing implied rather than expressed, as in the phrase, “ The cities who aspired to liberty ;" where cities is personified or made to represent “ citizens.” This construction, however, is not to be imitated.


1. Men of great and stirring powers, who are destined to mould the age in which they are born, must first mould themselves upon it. -Coleridge.

2. In the same year he recommends the study of that law to another of his correspondents in such terms as bespeak his own attention to it.-Hallam.

3. It rests on a combination of physical strength with diplomatic address, of perseverance in object with versatility in means, which was never before exhibited on the theatre of the world.-Alison. 4.

Towards the house
Together we returned ; and she inquired
If I had any hope :—but for her babe
And for her little orphan boy, she said,
She had no wish to live, that she must die
Of sorrow. Yet I saw the idle loom
Still in its place ; his Su garments hung
Upon the self-same nail ; his very staff
Stood undisturbed behind the door. Wordsworth.

5. Free is the heart who for his country fights.—Home's Douglas.

6. I have done the state some service, and they know it.Shakspeare.

7. Difficulties arose, from the very outset, as to the form in which, and the parties by whom, they should be conducted.-Alison.

8. Be a man's vocation what it may, his rule should be to do its duties perfectly, to do the best he can, and thus to make perpetual progress in his art.-Channing.

9. All who wished for a change met with a gracious reception in her court, and their spirit of disaffection was nourished by such hopes and promises as in every age impose on the credulity of the factious.-Robertson.

SENTENCES TO BE CORRECTED.-221-223. 1. Nothing now presented themselves but the most mortifying prospects.—Goldsmith.

2. The inculcation of virtue and reprobation of vice, in Scripture, are in such a tone as seem to presuppose a natural power to distinguish them.- Whately.

3. The less one reads the more time we have to read it well. F. Horner.

4. The Duke of Wellington is not one of those who interferes with matters over which he has no control.- Wellington.

5. It seemed to confirm his love of the absolute and the eternal, by comparison with the imperfection and error that besets the world.- Hallam.

6. A pretext was only wanting to unsheath the sword; and this was furnished by the Achæan states who insulted the deputies of imperial Rome.-Tytler.

7. Pious presbyters could not possess the power and pomp which now encircles the tiara of the Roman pontiff.–Gibbon.

8. There are so many advantages of speaking one's own language well, and being a master of it, that let a man's calling be what it will, it cannot but be worth our taking some pains in it.-Locke.

9. It is a gratification to me to express the profound veneration with which I am filled for the memory of the one [Burke), and the warm affection which I cherish for the other [Fox), who no one ever heard in public without admiration, or knew in private without loving.–Mackintosh. 10. My brother's timeless death I seem to mourn, Who perished with thee on that fatal day.

Home's Douglas. 11. That general distrust and depression prevailed which is at once the cause and the effect of public misfortune.-Alison.

12. Winter, in our temperate regions, exhibits very few phenomena in comparison with what is visible in the arctic circle.Blair's Class-book.

13. The greater part of them [Britons) raised no corn; they subsisted on milk and flesh, and were clothed in the skins of the beasts whom they destroyed for food.-Mackintosh.

14. In their conduct towards the native race, the Spaniards have exhibited a model which other nations would do well to imitate who are louder than them in their professions of philanthropy.Alison.

15. Nor is the reason difficult to be discerned which has led to the establishment of this moral law.-Idem.

16. His reception by the Emperor Francis was not less flattering, who publicly thanked the conqueror of Hohenlinden for the moderation he had displayed.Idem. 17. And many a holy text around she strews That teach the rustic moralist to die.

Gray. 18. Locke speaks of “the practice of talking Latin with a tutor who speaks it well,”—a phenix whom he has not shown us where to find.--Hallam.

19. In general, we find in them neither imagery nor sentiment that yield us delight.- Idem.

20. He possessed in an eminent degree that intrepid spirit which delights in pursuing bold designs, and was no less master of that political art and dexterity which is necessary for carrying them on with success.- Robertson.


224. One verb governs another in the Infinitive : as, “ He loves to study,” where to study is the object of the verb loves.

225. This is the rule generally laid down for the use of the Infinitive. It might perhaps be better to express it more generally, in some such way as this : “ The Infinitive comes after another verb for the most part, but sometimes after adjectives and nouns." “ He was desirous to go," and “ His desire to go was known,” are expressions as well authorized as “ He desired to go."

226. Before the verb denoting the object of the predicating verb, the preposition to is generally put; and it is in this case called the sign of the infinitive. But as we already saw that the infinitive is nothing but a noun, the utility of this rule may well be questioned.

227. The sign to is omitted after the following verbs :Bid, can, dare, feel, hear, let, make, may, must, need, shall, see, and will. We do not say, “ He bade me to go,” but, He bade me go.” The list we have given is not to be considered complete, for the sign to is beginning to be omitted after several other verbs. The ejection of the sign of the infinitive is a process we now see in operation. It is no business of the grammarian to say how far it should simply to record how far it has gone.

go, but


1. I wished, by compliance, to express my sympathy with this large portion of my race.-Channing.

2. I shall endeavour to illustrate a few of these advantages.. Stewart.

3. It is pleasing to dwell on the contemplation.-Alison.

4. It is needless to dwell upon, and idle to cavil at, the physiological theories to which Malebranche has had recourse.--Hallam.

5. Literature is apt to form a dangerous occupation.-Carlyle. 6. Fear to do base unworthy things is valour ;

If they be done to us, to suffer them

Is valour too.-Ben Jonson. 7. Let Truth and Falsehood grapple; who ever knew truth put to the worse in a free and open encounter ?-Milton.

8. Let us not disparage that nature that is common to all men, for no thought can measure its grandeur.-Channing. 9. If you do meet Horatio and Marcellus, The rivals of my watch, bid them make haste.

Shakspeare. 10. Serious and thoughtful, Napoleon beheld the vast array defile before him.-Alison.

SENTENCES TO BE CORRECTED.-224.227. 1. We are now poor, and wisdom bids us to conform to our humble situation.-Goldsmith.

2. Sylla obliged them submit to such terms as the senate were pleased to impose.- History of Rome, Lardner's Cab. Cyclopædia.

3. It is of I would especially bid you to drink. -M‘Cullagh.

4. They entreated to read to me, and bade me not to cry, for I was now too old to weep.--Goldsmith.

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