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office, for refusing to change his religion; but on the accession of Elizabeth, was again sworn privy counsellor and secretary of state, which offices he retained till his death.

He obtained also in 1561 the office of master of the wards. In 1571 the queen created him baron of Burleigh; the year following, knight of the garter; and about three months after, raised him to the office of lord high treasurer. He had the additional honour of being chancellor of the university of Cambridge. He died in 1598, at the age of 77.

Lord Burleigh, as Mr. Walpole has observed, " is one of those great names, better known in the annals of his country, than those in the republic of letters.”

His works consist chiefly of letters and state papers.

1. When (as sir William Cecil) lie accompanied the duke of Somerset on his expedition into Scotland, he kept a Diary," which was afterwards published by William Patten, under the title of Diarium Expeditionis Scotica, Lond. 1541, 12 mo." and which furnished materials for an account of that war. This is

probably the reason why he is classéut by Holinshed

among the English historians.


2. “The first Paper or Memorial of Sir W. Cecil, anno primo Eliz.” This is merely a paper of memorandums, and has been printed in Somers's Tracts.

3. A Speech in Parliament, 1592;" first published by Strype in his Annals, and since inserted in the parliamentary history, vol. 4, p. 356363.

4. “ Lord Burleigh's Precepts or Directions · for the well ordering and carriage of a Man's Life,”. 1837.

These Precepts were addressed to his son Robert Cecil; and furnish perhaps the most curious specimen that could be selected of his manner as a writer, of his personal character, and in some sort of the character of the age in which he lived. The extract is taken from Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, vol. 1. p. 47-49; edit. 1779.

Son Robert,

The virtuous inclinations of thy matchless mother, by whose tender and godly care thy infancy was governed; together with thy education under so zealous and excellent a tutor; puts me in rather assurance than, that thou art not ignorant of that summum bonum, which is only able to make thee


happy as well in thy death as life; I mean, the true knowledge and worship of thy Creator and Redeemer: without which all other things are vain and miserable. So that thy youth being guided by so sufficient a teacher, I make no doubt but he will fur. nish thy life with divine and moral documents. Yet, that I may not cast off the care of beseeming a parent towards his child; or that thou shouldst have cause to derive thy whole felicity and welfare rather from others than from whence thou receivedst thy breath and being; I think it fit and agreeable to the affection I bear thee, to help thee with such rules and advertisements for the squaring of thy life, as are rather gained by experience than by much reador ing. To the end, that entering into this exorbitant age, thou mayest be the better prepared to shun those scandalous courses whereunto the world, and the lack of experience, may easily draw thee. And, because I will not confound thy memory, I have reduced them into ten precepts; and next unto Moses' tables, if thou imprint them in thy mind, thou shalt reap the benefit; and I the content. And they are these following:

1. When it shall please God to bring thee to man's estate, use great providence and circumspection in chusing thy wife. For from thence will spring all thy future good or evil. And it is an action of life, like unto a stratagem of war; wherein a man can err but once. If thy estate be good, match near home and at leisure; if weak, far off and quickly. Enquire diligently of her disposition, and how her parents have been inclined in their youth. Let her not be poor, how generous soever. Por a man can buy nothing in the market with gentility. Nor chuse a base and uncomely creature altogether for wealth; for it will cause contempt in others, and toathing in thee. Neither make choice of a dwarf, or a fool; for, by the one thou shalt beget a race of pigmies; the other will be thy continual disgrace, and it will yirke thee to hear her talk. For thou shalt find it, to thy great grief, that there is nothing more fulsome than a she-fool.

And touching the guiding of thy house, let thy hospitality be moderate; and, according to the means of thy estate, rather plentiful than sparing, but not costly. For I never knew any man grow poor by keeping an orderly table. But some consume themselves through secret vices, and their hospitality bears the blame. But banish swinish drunkards out. of thine house, which is a vice impairing health, consuming much, and makes no shew. I never heard praise ascribed to the drunkard, but for the well-bearing of his drink; which is a better commendation for a brewer's horse or a dray-man, than for either a gentleman or a serving-man. Beware thou spend not above three of four parts of thy re

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venues ; nor above a third part of that in thy house. For the other two parts will do no more than defray thy extraordinaries, which always surmount the ordinary by much: otherwise thou shalt live like a rich beggar, in continual want. And the needy man can never live happily nor contentedly. For every disaster makes him ready to mortgage or sell. And that gentleman, who sells an acre of land, sells an ounce of credit. For gentility is nothing else but ancient riches. So that if the foundation shall at any time sink, the building must need follow-So much for the first precept.

2. Bring thy children up in learning and obedience, yet without outward austerity. Praise them openly, reprehend them secretly. Give them good countenance and convenient maintenance according to thy ability; otherwise thy life will seem their bondage, and what portion thou shalt leave them at thy death, they will thank death for it, and not thee. And I am persuaded that the foolish cockering of some parents, and the over-stern carriage of others, causeth more men and women to take ill courses, than their own vicious inclinations. Marry thy daughters in time, lest they marry themselves. And suffer not thy sons to pass the Alps. For they shall learn nothing there, but pride, blasphemy, and atheism. And if by travel they get a few broken languages, that shall profit them nothing more than

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