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27,000 in Egypt, 30,000 in Abyssinia, 10,000 in of the crop of the previous year, and the qual. Tunis and Tripolis.
ity of much of that gathered was very poor, Protestantism prevails in Liberia, in the Cape possessing no fattening properties. As a result Colony, and other English possessions. In of this, the number of hogs fattened was very Madagascar, where the missionaries have been much smaller than the previous year, and the able to gather again the dispersed native con- larger part of those slaughtered were not in gregations, the number of Protestants is suppos- such condition as to furnish the best grades of ed to reach fully 10,000. Altogether the num. mess pork. The same frost materially diminber of the population connected with or at least ished the potato crop, which, in consequence, under the influence of Protestant denomina- was 13 millions of bushels less than the pretions is estimated at about 730,000.
vious year, and the buckwheat crop, which fell Of other Christian bodies, there are in Africa off nearly three millions of bushels, or about the Abyssinian Church with a population of one sixth of the crop. 3,000,000; the Copts in Egypt, whose number The grain crops of England and France is estimated by some at 150,000, by others at were much better than they had been for 250,000; Syrian Christians (in Egypt), 5,000; two years previous, and hence the export deGreeks (in Egypt), 5,000; Armenians, 2,000. mand was not as heavy; but the large de
The negro tribes in the interior of Africa mand for the army and navy, and the short have, since the beginning of the present cen- crop of corn, enhanced the price of all descriptury, adopted to a large extent the Mohamme- tions of bread stuff, and at the close of the year, dan creed. More recently it has been reported they were from twenty to twenty-five per cent. that Islamism is making some inroads in re- higher than in 1862. Provisions of the higher gions which have been hitherto regarded as grades had advanced, mainly from the falling secured to Christianity. On the west coast of off of the corn crop, about 30 per cent. ; but Africa it has proselyted many of the lib- the exports of these, owing in part, perhaps, to erated Africans, and is now extending south- the higher rates of exchange, had increased durerly on the coast. In the Cape Colony the ing the year over any previous year. The acMohammedan working people are accounted companying tables will exhibit the estimated among the most orderly part of the population, amount of the principal crops in each of the and many of them find wives among the Eng- Northern States in 1862 and 1863, and the exlish girls, who do not scruple to adopt the re- ports of agricultural produce. ligion of their husbands.
The following crops and products are estiAGRICULTURE. The crops of the year mated in the aggregate by the Agricultural 1863 were not generally equal to those of 1862. Department from the
monthly returns of their The wheat crop exceeded that of 1862, in the correspondents, as follows, in 1862 and 1863: quantity produced, about one million of bushels; but this was owing to the considerably
Crop or Product. greater breadth sown, and not to the number Hay.................tons...... 21,500,000 20,000 noo of bushels grown to the acre. The quality of Flax seed........... bushels... the grain was somewhat inferior. The amount
Clover seed.........busbels... 1,084,790 606 443
Sorghum molasses...gallons.... 10,203,728 6,97652 of rye produced was nearly half a million of Louisiana sugar.....hogsheads.
60.000 bushels less than in 1862, and of barley about a million bushels less; while the production of
Exports of Breadstuffs and Prorisions in 1862 and
1863 from New York. oats (though the grain itself was lighter) was about two and one third million bushels more. Breadstuffs and Provisions. The great falling off, however, was in the fall
2,484.736 crops-corn, buckwheat, and potatoes, and
14,567,086 was due to two severe frosts: one occurring on
11,081,819 70726149 Rye..
1,099,636 the 28th, 29th, and 30th of August; the other Oats on the 18th of September. These frosts were Beel
, from all ports.... .tierces. $5,961 most severe in a tract extending from Lake
.tierces. Superior southward as far as Tennessee, and, Do.
.......barrels 243,854 222.386 perhaps, five hundred miles in width. In the Hams and bacon..
1,459,040 1.32-315 northeast, the second frost did not appear till the 22d of September, and in New York not The culture of the grape, both as a table fruit until the 24th, and was much less severe than and for the purpose of producing wine, has rein the Mississippi valley. The corn, at the ceived a new impulse the past year. The comtime of the first frost, was not sufficiently for- parative merits of different varieties have been ward to have formed much of its starch prin- very thoroughly ascertained. For table porciple, and as the sap flowed but little after the poses it seems to be settled that, in the northfirst frost, and not at all after the second, it ern tier of States, the Delaware, Concord, and was prevented from any complete development, Hartford Prolific are the most desirable, ripenand dried up in a shrivelled condition. The ing earlier than others, and producing fruit of falling off in the amount of the crop, notwith- a good quality. For the region lying south standing the much greater breadth planted, was of 40° N. latitude, the Catawba, Diana, Union over 134 millions of bushels, about one fourth Village, Isabella, and Allen's Hybrid are re
2,9-9,619 24, 90,341
414.869 123 16
AMOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL CROPS IN EACH OF THE NORTHERN STATES AND TERRITORIES IN 1862 AND 1863.
Compilod from the Roporta of tho U. 8 Agrioultural Department
bushels, bushels. bushels. bushels. bushels. bushels, bushels, bubbels, bushels, bushole. Maine
350,815 215,734 184,389 165,951 1,002,636 1,002,636 3,788,423 3,364,581 1,855, 285 1,855,285 N. Hampshire. 318,954 255, 163 162,033 145,830 141,287 127,159 1,495,365 1,345,829 1,668,285 1,835,113 Vermont 502,981 452,683
130,976 130,976 94,102 94,102 4,389,506 3,950,556 1,585,020 1,743,522
1,413 33,911 33,911 51,241 46, 117 253,990 203, 192 458,912 413,021
Maryland...... 6,553,480 7,208,828 608,901 548,011 21,8871 19,699 4,524,912 4,072,421 14,444,922 14,444,922
5,105 1,308,637 1,570,864 3,892,337 3,892,337
30,776,032 28, 742,963 1,079,040 863,232 1,512,525 1,399,086 10,930,935 12,024,028 71,792,253 57,433,802
10,541,506 12,649,807 111,266 122,392 544,939 599,432 7,055,583 7,701,141 49,340,393 34,538,276
2,927,749 2,634,975 151,323 179,791 156,412 156,412 2,934,067 2,053,848 3,983,426 2,756,898 202,232 262,953 4,713 5,184 4,953
5,448 96,892 116,270 6,814,601 8,518,251 Nebraska Ter. 150,000 180,000 2,000
2,000 2,486 5,446 159,954 267,939 1,846,785 1,292, 750 California... 8,805,411 11,664,203 15,505 15,505 5,293,442 5,293,442 1,057,592 1,057,502 478,169 478,169
* The returns of the Crops in these States showing very littlo variation in the two years, the returns of 1862, which wero made with great care, have been adopted for 1863.
garded as best. The To Kalon, Creveling, Adi- the yield was not more than one half an averrondac and Ionia, new varieties, have also a age one. Lower down on the Mississippi, as fair reputation. The Clinton, a small grape, well as on the coast of South Carolina and but prolific and of fair quality, has some good Florida, the abandoned plantations of persons fruits. Loomis's honey grape, a remarkably who had joined their fortunes to the Confedersweet, large, black fruit, has begun to attract at- ates, were taken up, and cotton raised with tention. The establishment of vineyards for considerable success. The desire to substitute wine making is increasing with extraordinary some other textile material for cotton, led also rapidity. For some years past the vineyards to the greatly increased production of flax, and on the Ohio, in the vicinity of Cincinnati, have the introduction of machines for dressing it furnished considerable quantities of wine of with greater facility and less labor, and for refair quality, though not well calculated to re- ducing it to a condition analogous to that of place foreign wines. The production of this cotton. The Sanford and Mallory flax-dresswine, which was made mostly from the Cataw- ing machine, invented the year before, but not ba grape, has been constantly increasing. With- introduced into market to any considerable exin the past year or two, large quantities of wine tent till 1863, has already wrought a great revfrom California have been brought into the East- olution in the formerly difficult and laborious ern markets. This was at first produced from business of flax breaking, accomplishing as the Los Angeles and Savanna, both called the much in one day, with the aid of two boys, as mission grape, varieties cultivated by the Jesuit could be done with far greater labor by four Fathers at their missions on the coast; but as men in five days. The attempt to produce a the wine from these grapes was somewhat ob- flax cotton, suitable for use on cotton-spinning jectionable on account of an earthiness of taste, machinery, though greatly multiplied during the Catawba, Isabella, and many European the year, can hardly be regarded as successful varieties have been introduced, and are now on a large scale, probably from an erroneous used in the making of wines. The interest view of the nature of the flax fibre. in the subject in California is so great, that an The lack of cotton has stimulated the growth agent (Col. A. Haraszthy) was sent to Europe of wool, and the production of that staple has to investigate the methods of cultivating the greatly increased, while its quality is somewhat grape for wine, and the process of wine mak. improved. There are now nearly eight huning, and has published, during the last year, an dred woollen factories in the United States, emelaborate and very interesting report, entitled ploying 3,000 sets of cards. The heavier broad“Grape Culture and Wine Making”. (N. Y., cloths, satinets, and cassimeres, and most vaHarper and Brothers). The California wines rieties of woollen goods for female wear, are gaining a good reputation. Recently, shawls, blankets, under clothing, &c., are manalso, Missouri has become largely engaged in ufactured from American wool in American the production of native wines. The vine- factories. The finest broadcloths are still imgrowers in that State are for the most part, ported, but the manufacture of woollen goods though not wholly, Germans,
and the grapes has received such an impulse from the great most cultivated are Norton's Virginia, the Ca- demand of the Government, that it cannot be tawba, Concord, Herbemont, and Delaware. long before the American goods will equal the The cost of the investment for a first-class vine- foreign in the beauty and perfection of their yard (aside from the value of land), including manufacture. The great excellence attained in trenching, larger root planting, stakes, posts, the breeding of sheep in this country received &c., is about $100 per acre, and there are no a striking illustration at the International Agrireturns till the third year, when the crop should cultural Fair, held at Hamburg, July 14th, 1863, be sufficient to pay the expenses of that year's where a flock of twelve merino sheep from the cultivation, and after the ihird year, the aver estate of George Campbell, Esq., of Vermont, age annual value of the crop should not be less took three of the highest prizes, viz.: the first than $500 per acre, and, in favorable years, will prize for the buck of the best quality; the first be nearly or quite double this.
prize for the buck yielding the greatest quanAnother region, in which the grape culture tity of wool; and the second prize for the best for wine has already attained a considerable ewe, considering both quantity and quality. prominence, is on the Lake shore and the These prizes were obtained in competition with Islands of Lake Erie, where the soil is ad- 1,761 Other sheep from all parts of Europe, mirably adapted to its cultivation. A large sixty of them being from the flock of the Emproportion of the vine-growers are Canadians, peror of the French. At the close of the Exand the grapes principally grown are the Dela: hibition, the twelve sheep were purchased by ware and Concord. At Croton Point, on the Count Sher Thoss for $5,000. At the same fair, Hudson, and at Georgetown, D. O., are exten- eleven other American inventors or manufacsive vineyards, from which, of late years, wine turers received gold, silver, or bronze medals of good quality has been made.
for Agricultural implements, including McCor. The scarcity of cotton led to the attempt to mick’s and other mowers and reapers, ploughs, raise it in Southern Ilinois, Indiana, and Mis- harrows, cultivators, seed sowers, fanning mills, souri, as well as in Kentucky. The frosts, al- root cutters, horse powers, &c. ready noticed, affected this crop severely, and The Agricultural Fairs, National, State, Coun
ty, and Town, throughout the Northern States of horses, cattle and sheep, and agricultural during the autumn of 1863, were largely attend. implements, but in some, lately, fruits have ed, and gave, to some extent, an additional been exhibited with advantage. A few parstimulus to the development of agriculture. ticulars concerning the agricultural products
The grants of land, by the Government, an- of Sweden, a country which has furnished so der the Agricultural College Act of 1862, have large a body of farmers to the Northwestern been accepted by all the Northern States, and States, may be of interest to the readers of the arrangements made by most of them either to Cyclopædia. They were collected by the Uniorganize Agricultural Colleges, or to add an ted States consul at Gottenburg. Agricultural Department to colleges already The crop of 1863, which at one time promised established. In New Hampshire, Dartmouth to be unusually large, was damaged by rainy College receives the endowment, and is to or- weather during harvest time, and thus reduced ganize an Agricultural School in connection to an average amount, of which the figures in . with the Chandler Scientific School; in Mas- the table below may be taken as a fair statesachusetts there is a vigorous competition be- ment. tween the prominent towns of the common- About 1,500,000 Swedish acres, equal to 48,wealth, for the location of the Agricultural 600,000 English acres, are devoted to growing College; Rhode Island bestows the lands grain, and 100,000 Swedish acres, or 3,200,000 upon Brown University, which is to have an English acres, to potatoes; yet the yield of Agricultural Department; Connecticut donates potatoes is so large, that it stands in the ratio them to the Agricultural Department of Yale of 3 to 5. The potato can be raised in the College, connected with the Sheffield Scientific short summer of these high latitudes, when no School; New York divides hers between the grain, save barley, can live, and thus becomes Agricultural College at Ovid, New York, and the staff of life” to the Swedish peasants. the People's College, at Havana. Pennsyl- Fine crops of potatoes, and occasionally of barFania bas handed over her share to her ex- ley, are raised far within the arctic circle, and cellent Agricultural College in Central County, even above 70° north latitude, the highest culthe most efficient institution of its class in the tivated land in the world. United States, and which, by this grant, will be The Alsike clover is the most productive placed in a condition of still greater efficiency. clover in Sweden; cuts about five tons to the In most of the Western States, where Agricul- Swedish acre, can be made to yield two crops tural Colleges have been already chartered, the in the short Swedish summer, and has been ingrant has been bestowed upon them, and will, troduced into Scotland to great advantage. in most instances, secure their speedy organi- There is a kind of egg plant called “Gula zation, or if already organized, aid in their rapid Plummon," which is produced in the middle derelopment.
and southern districts of Sweden in considerForeign agriculture offers but little of special able quantities. This plant is of a light straw interest at the present time. The crops of color, firm, juicy, and of a peachy flavor. It is cereals in 1863, in Great Britain and on the thought it would flourish in the northern councontinent, were generally good, and were forties of New England and New York. the most part successfully harvested. The This table is the average yearly product of price of wheat, in England, which, in Septem- Sweden, taking the figures for five years to 1861: ber, 1860, had been $1.62 per American bushel, in 1861, $1.45, and, in 1862, $1.40, was in Sep
Amount after deducting eeed. tember, 1863, $1.16-a very marked reduction; Wheat, tunn*.
609,148 66,829 576,077 and the potato crop was generally good in Bye, tann.
8,763, 766 668,891 4,882,657 Great Britain, though almost a failure in Ire- Oats, tunn....
2,668,419| 474,722 8,143,141
4,677,204 979,124 5,656,829 land. In France, the crop, though injured in Mixed Oats and Barley, tunn.. 1,208,944 210,663 1,424,897 some quarters by the drought, was on the
Peas and Beans, tunn..
891,850 Potatoes, tunn..
7,985,607 1,271,148 9,258,752 whole a fair average. The practice of holding Other edible roots, tunn....... 826,301 regional agricultural expositions in the differ- Flax and Hemp, centnert. 46,249
Rape, tunn.. rapidly into favor. For the most part these The following table shows the exports and have been confined thus far to the exhibition imports of grain for seven years :
14,537) ent departments of France, annually, is coming
1997 1988 1879 1980 1981.
86,147 99,844 80,668 71,811 17,416 87,765 89,769 20,488 84,319 24,815 98,444
89,914 74,802 Overplus of exports.......
83,677 69,176 58,895 2,004 63,881 78,129 87,888
40,622 744,428 497,886 294,431 891,942
84,862 63,079 189,192 41,954 148,607 70,787 285,572 620,403 20,926 Overplus of exports...
703,806 203,455 857,080
36,113 101,659 164,785 899,477 812,311
* One tann equals four bushels English.
+ One centner equals 98 pounds English.
1855. 1856. 1857. 1858. 1859. 1860......................... 1861.
25,811 19,918 7,805
87,470 120 25,630 25,510
6,039 4,439 12,863
7,914 Overplus of exports.....
Overplus of exports.... 6,473 The table is made out in tunns—1 tunn = 4 bushels. ALABAMA.—The details of the Census of crowd to help themselves to what they liked, 1860, additional to these published in previous which they did accordingly, giving preference volumes, have not yet been issued by the Gov- to the bacon, until they had taken about $200 ernment.
worth. They went out, and on being quesThe changes which took place in the State tioned by some gentlemen as to what they of Alabama during 1863 present no new aspect. meant, they related their suffering condition. Immediately after the occupation of the penin- “Seeing what was going on, and feeling & sula, opposite Vicksburg, by General Grant's deep, sympathy for these ladies, a number of army, in January, measures were taken to cut gentlemen, of very moderate means, who off the communication between the inhabitants themselves have families to support, set to in the east and west sides of the Mississippi work to raise a subscription in their behalf." through Red River. From that stream the in- This was one of several instances of distress habitants on the east side of the Mississippi which occurred at Mobile. The famine existed had access to vast supplies, particularly of salt, chiefly in the families of absent soldiers. sugar, and molasses. A large portion of the The scarcity of provisions was such as to inConfederate army was supplied from the same duce all the authorities to wisely prepare for source. This communication was destroyed the ensuing winter. The Confederate Con. by the gunboats of Admiral Porter, which were gress urged the people to plant less cotton and below the batteries at Vicksburg, and by ves- more corn; and the Governors of the States resels of Admiral Farragut's fleet at New Orleans. peated the request. In April a scarcity of provisions prevailed in Governor Shorter issued an appeal to the the southern part of the State, which created planters of the State at this time, urging the an advance in prices. This was attended with importance of raising articles necessary to keep a depreciation of the currency, and food soon the people froin starving. He said: "Failing advanced almost beyond the reach of the poor. to accomplish our subjugation by the force of About the 15th of April a scene occurred in arms and the power of numbers, the enemy Mobile, which was thus described :
has called to his aid the terrible appliances of "A number of ladies, perhaps a dozen, com- want and starvation, and is carrying out this posed of the wives and daughters of soldiers' savage and inhuman policy by the wholesale families, who represented themselves and their larceny of slaves, the seizure of provisions, and families to have been deprived of anything to even the destruction of agricultural implements. eat in the last few days, save a small portion of Are you, the planters of Alabama, prepared to corn bread, were seen perambulating our streets aid in this policy by pursuing a course which until they came up to a provision store on may tend to its accomplishment? Look around Whitehall street. They all entered it, being you this moment, when the crop upon which preceded by a tall lady, on whose countenance the poor must mainly depend is not yet planted, rested care and determination. She asked the and behold the want and destitution which, merchant the price of bacon. He replied, stat- notwithstanding the munificent provision made ing that it was $1.10 per pound. She remon- by public and private benevolence, are to be strated with him as to the impossibility of fe- found at the hearthstones of many whose legitmales in their condition paying such prices for imate protectors have fallen in battle, or are the necessaries of life. He remaining inexora- now fighting in defence of your homes and propble in his demand, the tall lady proceeded to erty. Let us not deceive ourselves. "The draw from her bosom a long navy repeater, and failure to raise the largest possible quantity of at the same time ordered the others in the supplies in the pre • ir may bring disaster