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years was about ten, and of an African, according to Bancroft, vol. 1, p. 115, about twenty-five pounds.

In 1688 about one in twenty of the inhabitants of Virginia were of the African race. Vigorous efforts were made by pains and penalties to prevent the intermingling of the white and black races. The Anglo Saxon and the African was to be kept pure, the one as master, and the other as slave. The result of servitude, beyond the present gain, and the possible intermingling, of the two races, in some small degree, appears never to have been anticipated. The gain from the African labour outweighed all fears of evil from the intermixture. There appears to have been no question about the morality and right of purchasing them for life, any more than of purchasing for a term of years those servants that come from England, who ultimately became freemen.

When a mixed breed appeared, it was enacted in 1662, in order to render all such connexion opprobrious, that—“Negro womens children serve according to the condition of their mother.” Greater severity in the management of Negroes was judged advisable, and in 1669 it was enacted—“Whereas the only law in force for the punishment of refractory servants resisting their master, mistress or overseer cannot be inflicted upon Negroes, nor the obstinacy of many of them by other than violent means supprest, -Be it enacted and declared by this Grand Assembly, if any slave resist his master (or other by his masters order correcting them) and by the extremity of the correction should chance to die, that his death shall not be accompted ffelony, but the master (or that other person appointed by the master to punish him) be acquit from molestation, since it cannot be presumed that prepensed malice (which alone makes murther ffelony) should induce any man to destroy his own estate.”

Act 3d, 1667 declares that “Whereas some doubts have arisen whether children that are slaves by birth, and by the charity and piety of their owners, made partakers of the blessed sacrament of baptisme, should in virtue of their baptisme be made ffree. It is enacted and declared by the Grand Assembly, and the authority therof, that the conferring of baptisme doth not alter the condition of the person as to his bondage or ffreedom ; that divers masters ffreed from this doubt may more carefully endeavour the propagation of Christianity by permitting children, though slaves, or those of greater growth if capable to be admitted to that sacrament.

What persons were to be held as slaves is thus set forth by Act 12th, 1670—“Whereas some dispute having arisen whether the Indians taken in warr by any other nation, and by that nation that taketh them sold to the English, are servants for


life or term, of years,-It is resolved and enacted that all servants not being Christians imported into this colony by shipping shall be slaves for their lives; but what shall come by land shall serve, if boyes or girles until thirty yeares of age; if men or women twelve yeares and no longer.

But in the year 1682 the Legislature went at length into this subject, and determined what persons shall be held slaves for life in Virginia. Act 1st, after reciting the act of 1670, goes on to say—“and forasmuch as many negroes, moores, mullatoes and others borne of and in heathenish, idollatrous, pagan, and mahometan parentage and country have heretofore, and may hereafter be purchased, procured or otherwise obtained of, from or out of such their heathenish country by some well disposed christians, who after such their obtaining and purchasing such negroe moor or molatto as their slave, out of a pious zeale have wrought the conversion of such slaves to the christian faith, which by the laws of the country doth not manumit them or make them free, and afterwards seeck their conversion, it hath and may often happen that such master or owner of such slaves being by some reason inforced to bring or send such slaves into this country to sell or dispose of for his necessity or advantage, he the said master or owner of such servant which notwithstanding his conversion is really his slave, or his factor or agent must be constrained either to carry back or export againe the said slave to some other place where they may sell him for a slave, or else depart from their just right and tytle to such slave, and sell him here for no longer time than the English, or other christians are to serve, to the great losse and damage of such masters or owners; and the great discouragement of bringing in such slaves for the future and to no advantage at all to the planter or buyer;-and whereas also those Indians that are taken in warre or otherwise by our neighboring Indians confederates or tributaries to his majestie, and this his plantation of Virginia are slaves to the neighbouring Indians that soe take them and by them are likewise sold to his majesties subjects here as slaves,-Bee it therefore enacted &c.—that all the said recited act of the 5th of September 1670 be, and is hereby repealed and made utterly voyd to all intents and purposes whatsoever. And be it enacted &c.—that all servants except Turkes and Moores whilst in Amity with his majesty which from and after the publication of this act shall be brought or imported into this country, either by sea or land, whether Moores, Molattoes or Indians, who and whose parentage and native country are not christian at the time of the first purchase of such servant by some christian although afterwards and before such their importation and bringing into this country, they shall be con

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verted to the christian faith; and all Indians which shall hereafter be sold by our neighbouring Indians or any other trafiqueing with us as for slaves are hereby adjudged deemed and taken, and shall be adjudged deemed and taken to be slaves to all intents and purposes, any law usage or customs to the contrary notwithstanding.

By the 3d Act of the same legislature, masters and overseers were forbidden to~"permitt or suffer, without leave or license of his or their master or overseer, any negroe or slave not properly belonging to him or them, to remain or be upon his or their plantation above the space of four houres at any one time.” The penalty was two hundred pounds of tobacco. This act was intended as a safeguard against insurrection. It made the plantation of the master both the home, and the world, to the slave.

So the state of servitude stood in 1688. There were indented servants, redemptioners or those sold for a term of time for their passage, the dissolute and convicts and rebels sent away from England, and the African slaves. The last finally became predominant. They have done the hard work, and have in a measure moulded the habits and manners of Virginia.

Toleration, in the forms of Religion, was unknown in Virginia in 1688. From the commencement of the colony, the necessity of the religious element was felt. knew not how to control the members composing the colony, but by religion and law. They exercised a despotism in both. The colonist left England from no ecclesiastical or political grievance. The advantages they expected to gain was a release from poverty and debt. The hope of improving their condition cheered them to undertake the perilous enterprise.

In their habits, manners, tastes, and style of living, they as nearly resembled England, as their possessions, and the soil, climate and productions of their new home, would permit. By force of circumstances they changed much, intentionally nothing. They had been educated in the Church of England. They chose her forms, and her creed. The minister, Robert Hunt, that came with them, had been set apart by Diocesan authority.

That many of the colonists disliked the restraints of that religion, all required for their well being, is evident from Smith. He says, vol. 1st, p. 150—“On the 19th of December, 1606, we set sayle from Blackwall, but by unprosperous winds were kept six weeks in the sight of England; all which time, Mr. Hunt our preacher was so weake and sicke, that few expected his recovery. Yet although he was but twentie myles from his habitation (the time we were in the Downes) and notwithstanding the stormy weather, nor the scandalous imputations (of


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some few little better than Atheists, of the greatest rank amongst us) suggested against him, all this could never force from him so much as a seeming desire to leave the business, but preferred the service of God, in so good a voyage, before any affection to contest with his godlesse foes, whose disasterous designs (could they have prevailed) had even then overthrown the businesse, so many discontents did there arise, had he not with the water of patience, and his godly exhortations (but chiefly by his true devoted example) quenched those flowers of envie and dissention.”

At first the adventurers laboured and lived and traded in common stock. This state of things was to continue for five years, by the King's order. The King in his directions in 1606, according to Stith, pp. 37, and 40, required—“that the said presidents, councils, and the ministers, should provide, that the true word and service of God be preached, planted, and used, not only in the said colonies but also, as much as might be, among the savages bordering upon them, according to the Rites and Doctrine of the Church of England. That all persons should kindly treat the savage and heathen people in those parts, and use all proper means to draw them to the true service and knowledge of God, and that all just and charitable courses should be taken with such of them, as would conform themselves to any good and sociable traffick, thereby the sooner to bring them to the knowledge of God and the obedience of the King."

Sir Thomas Dale who came over as high marshal of Virginia, introduced rules and regulations drawn up for him by Sir Thomas Smith, under the title of “Lawes, divine, morall, and marshall for Virginia.” The first section of this document says—“I do strictly command and charge all captaines and officers of what qualitie or nature soever, whether commanding in the field, or in towne, or townes, forts, or fortresses, to have care that the Almighty God bee duly and daily served, and that they call upon their people to hear sermons; as that also they diligently frequent morning and evening prayer themselves, by their own exemplar and daily life and duty, herein encouraging others thereunto; and that such who shall often and wilfully absent themselves, be duly punished according to the marshall law in that case provided.' By the second law, death was the penalty of speaking “impiously” against the Trinity, or the known articles of religion. By the third law, boring the tongue with a bodkin was the penalty for profanity, the second offence. And for blaspheming God, the third offence was death by sentence of “Martiall Court." By the fifth law unbecoming treatment of ministers of religion was punished by whipping the offender three times publicly,

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and he “aske public forgiveness in the assemblie of the congregation three several Sabbath daies." By the sixth, absence from church on the first towling of the bell upon the working daies to heare divine service"—for the second offence, whipping,—for the third, six months in the gallies. For neglecting divine service on the Sabbath,—the third offence, death. By the thirty-third law, a failure to give satisfactory account of religious knowledge to the minister, --whipping; the second offence, two whippings and public acknowledgment; for the third offence whipping every day till the offender comply with the law. While Stith exclaims against these laws as subversive of the rights of Englishmen, he admits that—“had not these military laws been so strictly executed at this time, there were little hopes or probability of preventing the utter subversion of the colony."

The little we know of the first ministers that came to Virginia makes us wish we knew more. Rev. Robert Hunt, that saved the first colony from a mutiny while yet in sight of England, has left scarce a memorial. After the burning of Jamestown in 1607, 8, Smith says of him,-“Master Hunt our preacher lost all his library and all he had but the cloathes on his backe; yet none never heard him repine at his loss.” We know not the time of his death.

A brief but honourable testimony is borne of Mr. Whitaker, minister of Bermuda Hundred, who instructed Pocahontas in the principles of the Christian religion, administered to her the ordinance of baptism, and performed for her the marriage ceremony. Smith, vol. 2d, p. 32, says—“Master Whitaker their preacher-(under date of June 18th 1614) complaineth, and much museth, that so few of our English ministers, that were so hot against the surplice and subscription come hither, where neether is spoken of. Doe they not wilfully hide their talents, or keep themselves at home for feare of losing a few pleasures; be there not any among them of Moses his minde, and the Apostles, that forsook all to follow Christ, but I refer them to the Judge of all hearts, and to the King that shall reward every one according to his talent.” Mr. Whitaker had the charge of the town of Henrico, built in the year 1611. He enclosed a hundred acres of land, and built a parsonage which he called Rockhall. In the Epistle dedicatorie of W. Crashawe to the “Good Newes from Virginia" there is this eulogium. “I hereby let all men know that a schollar, a graduate, a preacher, well borne and friended in England; not in debt, nor disgrace, but competently provided for, and liked and beloved where he lived; not in want, but (for a schollar and as these days may be) rich in possession, and more in possibilitie; of himself, without any persuasion (but God's and his

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