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Thirdly—“What lands the Indians shall be possessed of by order of this or other ensuing assemblyes, such land shall not be alienable by them the Indians to any man de futuro, for this will putt us to a continuall necessity of allotting them new lands and possessions, and they will be alwaies in feare of what they hold not being able to distinguish between our desires to buy or enforcement to have, in case their grants and sales be desired: Therefore be it enacted that for the future no such alienations or bargaines and sales be valid without the assent of the Assembly. This act not to prejudice any Christian who hath land allready granted by patent.”
In the session of 1657, 8, acts were passed forbidding any person, to whom an Indian child had been committed, assigning or any way transferring that child; and that the child should be free at twenty-five years of age :-also to prevent the stealing of Indian children, or the buying them from the Indians or others for traffic, or the selling them in any condition by the English, on penalty of five hundred pounds of tobacco.
But in 1676, in consequence of the exasperation arising from Bacon's war, the Assembly resolved—“and bee it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that all Indians taken in warr shall be held and accounted slaves during life.”. This act was repealed by the general act setting aside all the acts of Assembly that sat in 1676 under the auspices of Bacon. But it is believed that there are slaves living who are descended from Indian captives, in this, or previous wars.
Nothing had been done for Christianizing the Indians, that produced any effect, from the settlement of
the colony till the English Revolution in 1688. Besides Pocahontas, no name of an individual is given that embraced Christianity. Their numbers had decreased; their power and spirits were broken. While they ceased to make war upon the English, they hated them no less, and loved their religion and desired their civilization no more. After the death of the famous Powhatan, and the fierce Opechankanough, no warrior or statesman of eminence arose among the Indians east of the mountains. The feeble tribes after Bacon's war were esteemed helpless enemies rather than terrible foes, for whose civilization or conversion there was no hope. Among all the Indian women of Virginia, Pocahontas had no rival, and posterity will love to think that few of any race either in England or America could claim to be her superior.
The names and power of the tribes that hunted on the banks and fished in the streams of the beautiful rivers occupied by the colony in 1688 is thus given by Smith, Vol. 1st, pp. 116– 118. He begins with the James, which—“falleth from rockes farre west in a country inhabited by a nation they call Monacans—but where it commeth into our discovery it is Powhatan. In a peninsula on the North side of this river are the English planted in a place they call James Towne. The first, and next the river's mouth are the Kecoughtans, who besides their women and children have not past 20 fighting men. The Paspaheghes (on whose land is seated James Towne some 40 myles from the Bay) have not past 40. The river called Chicka hawania, the backe river of James Towne neare 250. The Weanocks 100. The Arrowhatocks 30. The place called Powhatan, some 40. On the south side this river the Appamatuchs have 60 fighting men. The Quiyoughcohanocks 25. The Nansamunds 200. The Cheropeacks 100. Fourteen myles northward from the river Powhatan is the river Pamounkee. On the south side inhabit the people of Youghtenund, who have about 60 men for warres. On the north branch Mattapament, who have 30 men. Where the river is divided the country is called Pamounkee, and nourisheth neare 300 able men. About 25 myles lower on the north side of this river is Werawocomico, where their king inhabited when I was delivered him prisoner; yet they are not past 40 able men. Ten or twelve myles lower on the south side of this river, is Chiskeack, which hath some 40 or 50 men. These, as also Apamatuck, Irrohatuck and Powhatan, are the great King's chief alliance, and inhabitants. The rest his conquests. There is anuther river, some 30 myles navagable that commeth from inland, called Payankatanke, the inhabitants are about 50 or 60 servicable men. The third navigable river is called Tappahanock, this is navigable some 130 myles. At the top of it inhabit the people called Mannahoacks amongst the mountaines. Upon this river on the north side are the people Cuttatawomen, with 30 fighting men. Higher are the Moraughtacunds, with 80. Beyond them Rappahanock with 100. Far above is another Cuttatawomen with 20. On the south is the pleasant seat of Nantaughtacund having 150 men. The fourth river is called Patawomeke. It is inhabited on both sides. First on the south side at the very entrance is Wighcocomico and hath some 130 men, beyond them Sekacawone with 30. The Onawmanient with 100. And the Patawmokes more than 200."
On the eastern shore in Accomac, he reckons on the river Tants Wicomico with 100 men; the Acohanock with 40; Accomack 80. Southward, the Chawonocks and Mangoags. There were numberless small divisions of these tribes whose names are occasionally mentioned in history.
The effort to convert the Indians was made in good faith. Stith tells us, pp. 1623, that the king had formerly issued
letters to the bishops in his kingdom-“for collecting money to erect and build a college in Virginia, for the training up and educating infidel children in the true knowledge of God. “And according there had been paid near fifteen hundred pounds towards it.” The Bishop of Litchfield promised Sir Edwin Landys that a collection should be made in his diocese for the purpose. And he (Sir Edward) likewise moved and obtained,
) that ten thousand acres of land should be laid off for the University at Henrico, a place formerly resolved on for that purpose. This was intended, as well for the college for the education of Indians, as also to lay the foundation of a seminary of learning for the English.” Fifty men were sent in 1619 and fifty more the next summer to work these lands66 as tenants at halves." From each of these hundred hands it was expected that five pounds would be gained. Thus five hundred pounds a year would be secured to the college. Mr. George Thorpe, a kinsman of Sir Thomas Dale, and a gentleman of his Majesty's privy chamber, and one of the Council in England for Virginia, was sent over in 1620 as the company's deputy and superintendent of the colony. For his support the company allowed three hundred acres with ten tenants. “And (p. 166) he particularly mentioned one unknown gentleman alone, who promised five hundred pounds, on demand, for the conversion and education of threescore Indian children. There had been (p. 171) presented, by an unknown person the former year (1619) a communion cup, with a cover and case, a trencher plate for the bread, a carpet of crimson velvet, and a damask table-cloth, for the use of the college. And now in the beginning of this year (1620) another unknown person sent five hundred pounds directed, To Sir Edwin Landys, the faithful Treasurer of Virginia. This was for the maintenance of a convenient number of young Indians, from seven or under to twelve years of age, to be instructed in reading and the principles of the Christian religion, and then to be trained and brought up in some lawful trade, with all gentleness and humanity, till they attained the age of twenty-one; and after that to have and enjoy the like privileges with the native English in Virginia.” The company ordered a treaty to be made with Opechankanough in order to promote the design, and also that presents be made him. “ Mr. Nicholas Farrar who bequeathed three hundred pounds for converting the infidel children in Virginia, to be paid at such time as it should appear by certificate that ten Indian children were placed in college.” Mr. Thorpe entered upon his office with spirit; made the treaty, gave the presents, and as he supposed won the confidence of the savage chief. In the fearful massacre perpetrated by the savage chief in 1622, this friend of the Indians was cruelly murdered. With him expired the college for the civilization of the Indians.
Servants of the African race, in 1688, composed about one twentieth of the population. The first company of Negroes were brought into the colony in the month of August succeeding the first meeting of the Burgesses, under Governor Yeardly. Beverly, in his history of Virginia, says that the introduction of Negroes was in the summer after the first meeting of the house of Burgesses, and that these two events took place in 1620. Smith in his history of Virginia says the two events took place in 1619: vol. 2, pp. 37, 38, 39—“For to begin with the yeare of our Lord 1619 there arrived a little pinnace privately from England about Easter for Captain Argall, who taking order for his affairs, within four or five daies returned in her, and left for his deputy Captain Nathaniel Powell. On the eighteenth of Aprill, which was ten or twelve daies after, arrived Sir George Yearly, by whom we understood Sir Edward Sands was chosen Treasurer, and Master John Farrar his deputy. Sir George Yearly to beginne his government added to be of his Councell Captaine Francis West, Captain Nathaniel Powell, Master John Porey, Master John Rolfe and Master William Wickham and Master Samuel Macoike, and propounded to have a Generall Assembly with all expedition. In Nay came in the Margaret of Bristoll, with four and thirty men, all well and in health, and also many devout gifts, and we were much troubled in examining some scandalous letters sent to England, to disgrace this country with barrennesse, to discourage the adventurers. The 25th of June came in the Triall with corne and cattell all in safety, which took from us cleerely all feare of famine; then our Governor and Councell caused Burgesses to be chosen in all places, and met at a Generall Assembly, where all matters were debated thought expedient for the good of the colony. About the last of August came in a Dutch man-of-warre that sold us twenty Negroes.” Stith in his history of Virginia says on the fourth page of his preface" the inquisitive reader will easily perceive how much of this volume is founded on Captain Smith's materials. They are large and good and of unquestionable authority, for what is related while he staid in the country. The latter part of his history especially from Captain Argali's government is liable to some just suspicions. Not that I ques
I tion Captain Smith's integrity; for I take him to have been a very honest man and a strenuous lover of truth.” In his 1820 page of history Mr. Stith relating the doings of 1620 says** In May this year, there was held another General Assembly, which has through mistake, and the indolence and negligence
of our historians, in searching such ancient records as are still extant in the country, been commonly reputed the first General Assembly of Virginia. But the privilege was granted sooner, &c."; and in his history of the doings of 1619 he follows Smith's account of the calling the Assembly. At the close of the sentence he adds—“And we are likewise told by Mr. Beverly, that a Dutch ship putting in this year sold twenty Negroes to the colony, which were the first of that generation, that were ever brought to America;"—but he does not give the reason why he follows Beverly in this matter and Smith in the other. Modern historians have followed Beverly without giving a reason. The oldest authority is for placing the introduction of Negroes in 1619.
Until the introduction of Negroes the labours of the plantation were thrown as much as possible on hired servants, as in England; or on bought servants, persons, who by previous agreement with ship-owners, were sold to planters for a term of years sufficient to pay for their transportation. The tending tobacco is particularly irksome and was gladly consigned to redemptioners and heathen Africans. In 1619, says Stithp. 167-8, “the Treasurer and Council received a letter from his Majesty, commanding them forthwith to send away to Virginia a hundred dissolute persons, which Sir Edward Zouch the Knight Marshal would deliver to them. In obedience to his Majesty's command, it was resolved to send them over with all conveniency to be servants, which the Treasurer understood, would be very acceptable to the colony. And I cannot but remark, how early that custom arose of transporting loose and dissolute persons to Virginia as a place of punishment and disgrace. It hath laid one of the finest countries in British America under the unjust scandal of being a mere hell upon earth.” These dissolute persons arrived in the year 1620.
Those servants who were sold for their passage commanded different prices at different times. We are told by Smith, vol. 2, pp. 104, 5, that the passage money was six, eight, or ten pounds; but that the demand for them was so great in a few years, that they were sold in Virginia for forty, fifty, and sixty pounds. In page 38 he tells us—"an industrious man not otherwies imploied may well tend four akers of corne, and 1000 plants of tobacco.” The produce of corn on new ground, he says was—“thirty or forty bushels an aker, and a barrelí of pease and beanes, which we esteem as good as two of corne, so that one man may provide corne for five and apparell for two by the profit of his tobacco." The price of the Africans at their introduction is not given. The thousand plants of tobacco would produce about one hundred weight of merchantable tobacco. In 1672 the price of a servant to serve five