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may hereafter probably induce interested persons to purchase votes by offering to serve at low rates, by which means the candour and ffreedome which should be in the choice of persons credited with soe honorable and greate a trust might be very much prejudiced and that place itself become mercenary and comtemptable,-Be it therefore enacted that the maintenance of every burgesse shal be one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco and caske per day, besides the necessary charge of goeing to the Assembly and retorning.” Each county paid its own delegates from the county levy.

All freemen, at first exercised the right of suffrage. They sent their suffrage to the place of election, in writing, when it was most convenient not to attend personally. Neither the place of election, or the qualifications of candidates for the Assembly were established by law, till necessity compelled. Act 8th, 1654, declares—“The persons who shall be elected to serve in Assembly shall be such and no other than such as are persons of known integrity and of good conversation and of the age of one and twenty years." By the same act the Right of Suffrage was restricted=“all housekeepers whether ffreeholders, leaseholders, or otherwise tenants, shall onely be capable to elect Burgesses-Provided that this word housekeeper repeated in this act extend no further than to one person in a ffamily.” The next year this restriction was repealed. In the Revisal of 1657, 8, the right of suffrage was extended to—“all persons inhabiting in the colony that are freemen.” But by Act 3d, 1670 the right of suffrage was confined to freeholders—“Whereas the usuall way of chuseing burgesses by the votes of all persons who having served their time are ffreemen of this country who having little interest in the country doe oftener make tumults at the election to the disturbance of his majestie's peace, then by their discretions in their votes provide for the conservative thereof, by making choyce of persons fitly qualified for the discharge of soe great a trust, and whereas the lawes of England grant a voyce in such election only to such as by their estates real or personall have interest enough to tye them to the endeavour of the publique good:—it is hereby enacted that none but ffreeholders and housekeepers who only are answerable to the publique for the levies shall hereafter have a voice in the election of any burgesses in this country; and that the election be at the Courthouse." This restriction was enforced by the instructions from King Charles 2d to Governor Berkeley in 1676. In article 2d, he says_“You shall take care that the members of the Assembly be elected only by Freeholders as being more agreeable to the custome of England, to which you are as nigh as conveniently you can to conforme yourselfe.”

In 1688 the Indians in Virginia were a subdued people. They never welcomed the English to a permanent settlement. They met, with warlike demonstrations, the little band that stepped on shore at Cape Henry the 26th of April, 1607, and wounded them with arrows.

for about seventy years, they resisted the English at every advance into the country, as enemies whose destruction they would gladly compass at all hazards. Their power and spirits were broken by Nathaniel Bacon in 1676. Powhatan never loved the whitemen. He made every effort, a sagacious savage could devise, for their destruction. The influence of that admirable girl, Pocahontas, was wonderful and extensive but temporary. It is an exhibition of the power of loveliness and gentleness over barbarians. She was the beauty of her tribe,—of Virginia; as gentle and kind as she was beautiful. Her father loved her passionately. The nation admired her. The father's love, and the nation's admiration were the Englishman's shield. The Virginia Indians, in their almost numberless tribes, had, from the head of tide water to the ocean, been brought under the dominion of the warlike Powhatan. The fierce Opechankanough, in his implacable enmity, breathed the true spirit of the savages. Brave in war, open in his enmity, he carried the hearts of the redmen with him. He knew well there could be no divided empire with the English. He turned the chafed spirits of the subjugated tribes against these intruders. The fires of exterminating war burned in every savage breast. They asked no peace while the habitation of a whiteman encumbered their cornfields, or his footsteps were traced in their forests. Opechankanough died as he lived, a brave, implacable savage.

The doings of the English, in the early years of their settlement, were not calculated to win the confidence of the natives, or break their courage. The ease with which they would be surprised, provoked the depredations of the savages. And the unwise and feeble revenge of the colonists embittered the already aggravated and cruel spirits of barbarous men, that fought for their forest fields and comfortless homes. The seacaptains, and traders, and explorers seemed to forget that the Natives had rights or feelings, and that revenge is the darling passion of the savage. Corn grew luxuriously, in the Indians' fields, along the river banks, yielding abundance for the tribes, but not enough to supply the colonists, and the vessels visiting the coast. When traffic and persuasion, and threats, failed to procure the wished supply, resort was had to violence. Rolfe's narrative, as given by Smith, says,—“In December (1619) Captain Ward returned from Patawomeek the people there dealt falsely with him, so that he took eight hundred bushels of corne from them by force.” One man alone was more terrible to them than all the colony beside, in its early years, Captain John Smith. They trembled at his very name. His bravery, his strength, his power of command, his excellence in every thing a savage admired, 'united to his accomplishments as an Englishman, entirely overawed their fierce spirits. Ardently desiring his death, they knew not how to kill him when in their power. The rest they hated, and murdered as occasion offered.

The early charters speak of christainizing the savages as part of the objects designed in making settlements in Virginia. În the letters patent to Sir Thomas Gates, 1606, the beginning of a plantation in America, between thirty-eight and five and forty degrees of north latitude, is spoken of as—“a work which may, by the Providence of Almighty God, hereafter tend to the glory of his divine majesty, in propagating Christian religion to such people as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of God, and may in time bring the infidels and savages living in those parts, to human civility, and to a settled quiet government." In the third charter dated March 12th, 1611–12—"and for the propagation of Christian religion, and reclaiming of people barbarous to civility and humanity we have by our letters patent, &c.” In the commission, to Sir Francis Wyatt and his Council, dated July 24th, 1621,_"which said Council are to assist the Governor in the administration of justice, to advance christianity among Indians, to erect the colony in obedience, &c.” In the instructions given him, the third is, “ To use means to convert the heathen, viz. to converse with some; each town to teach some children fit for the college intended to be built.” The history of this college shows kind and benevolent designs which were not successful and is worthy of remembrance.

Efforts, for the conversion of the savages, were early made, by some ministers, and some pious laymen. Opechankanough pretended a desire to become a christian. He beguiled the pious head of the college, Mr. Thorpe, to take much pains in instructing him, in hopes of numerous converts, till the fatal Friday, March 22d, 1622. That good man, with multitudes of others, was horribly massacred, according to the secret plans of this wily chief, who under the mask of religion plotted the complete and sudden destruction of the English. Rev. Robert Hunt is one of the few of that company

who landed at Jamestown on the 18th of May, 1607, whose biography posterity will desire. He appears to have been equal to his station as pastor of the colonists. Whatever may have been his desires for the conversion of the savages, the difficulties of his situation and his short life prevented the accomplish


ment of any good. Mr. Whitaker instructed and baptized Pocahontas, in preparation for her marriage; but neither the baptism nor the marriage exercised any happy influence towards the conversion of her nation to Christianity. Capt. Smith, in vol. 1st, p. 58, gives us—“the opinion of Master Jonas Stockham a minister in Virginia, who even at this time when all things were so prosperous, and the salvages at the point of conversion, against all their governours and councels opinion, writ to the councell & company in England to this effect, May 28th, 1621. As for those lasie servants who had rather stand all day idle, than worke, though but an houre in this Vineyard, & spend their substance riotously, than cast the superfluity of their wealth into your treasury, I leave them as they are to the eternall judge of the world. But you right worthy that hath adventured so freely, I will not examine, if it were for the glory of God, or your desire of gaine, which it may be you expect should flow unto you with a full tide, for the conversion of the Salvages: I wonder you use not the means. I confess you say well to have them converted by faire means, but they scorne to acknowledge it, as for the gifts bestowed on them they devoured them, and so they would the givers if they could, and though many have endeavoured by all means they could by kindnesse to convert them, they find nothing from them but derision and ridiculous answers. We have sent boies amongst them to learne their language, but they return worse than they went; but I am no Statesman, nor love I to meddle with any thing but my bookes, but I can find no probability by this course to draw them to goodnesse; and I am persuaded if Mars and Minerva goe hand in hand they will effect more good in one houre than these verbal Mercurians in their lives, and till priests and ancients have their throats cut, there is no hope to bring them to conversion.” Smith appears to have adopted this opinion. It spread over the colony, and through England; and efforts for the conversion of the Indians were few previous to the eighteenth century. That individuals felt deeply interested for the salvation of this unhappy race is unquestionable ; but public sympathy was not with them for a century after the fatal massacre of 1622.

The Acts of Legislature passed in 1623, 4, show the terror of the colonists and their hostile feelings towards the authors of their sufferings. Act 23d says, “that every dwelling house shall be pallizaded in for defence against the Indians. Act 24th_“that no man go or send abroad without a sufficient party well armed.” In 1632 the citizens were required to carry their arms to church. Act 25th—" that men go not to worke in the ground without their arms (and a centenell upon them.) Act 26 says-"that the inhabitants go not aboard

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ships or upon any other occasions in such numbers, as thereby to weaken and endanger the plantations.” Act 27th-“that the commander of every plantation take care that there be sufficient powder and ammunition within the plantation under his command and their pieces fixt and their arms complete.” Act 29—“that no commander of any plantation do either himselfe or suffer others to spend powder unnecessarily in drinking or entertainments.” Act 32d contemplates the entire destruction of the Indians—"that at the beginning of July next the inhabitants of every corporation shall fall upon their adjoyning salvages, as we did last yeare, those that shall be hurt upon service, to be cured at the public charge; in case any to be lamed to be maintained by the country according to his person and quality."

This war of extermination was carried on, with spirit, for years. At last it became disgusting. The savages were less spirited in their attacks and defence, and the colonists began to feel the savages were men, barbarous indeed, but men possessed of rights. The 1st Act of the Session 1655, 6, was in their favour ;-“Whereas wee have bin often putt into great dangers by the invasions of our neighboring and bordering Indians which humanely have been only caused by these two particulars our extreme pressures on them and theire wanting of something to hazard and loose beside their lives; Therefore this Grand Assembly on mature advice dotk make these three ensuing acts, which by the blessing of God may prevent our dangers for the future and may be a sensible benefitt to the whole country for the present: first, for every eight wolves heads brought us by the Indians, the king or great man (as they call him) shall have a cow delivered him at the charge of the publick. This will be a step to civilizing them and to making them Christians, besides it will certainly make the commanding Indians watch over their own men that they do us no injuries, knowing that by their default they may be in danger of losing their estates, and therefore be it enacted as aforesaid only with this exception that Accomack shall pay for no more than what are killed in their own county.”

“Secondly-If the Indians shall bring in any children as gages of their good and quiet intentions to us and amity with us, then the parents of such children shall choose the persons to whom the care of such children shall be entrusted, and the countrey by us their representatives do engage that wee will not use them as slaves but do their best to bring them up in Christianity, civility, and the knowledge of necessary trades: And on the report of the commissioners of each respective county that those under whose tuition they are, do really intend the bettering of the children in these particulars then a salary shall be allowed to such men as shall deserve and require it."

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