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people awakened by their own reflections, and reading religious books, and excited by the preaching of that ardent man, Mr. Robinson, his preaching was imposing and the effects encouraging. Mr. Morris, in the statement to Mr. Davies, says, “truly he came to us in the fulness of the Gospel of Christ. Former impressions were ripened and new ones made on many hearts. One night in particular, a whole housefull of people was quite overcome with the power of the word, particularly of one pungent sentence; and they would hardly sit or stand or keep their passions under any proper restraints. So general was the concern, during his stay with us, and so ignorant were we of the danger of apostasy, that we pleased ourselves with the thoughts of more being brought to Christ at that time, than now appear to have been, though there is still the greatest reason to hope that several bound themselves to the Lord in an everlasting covenant never to be forgotten.”

The alarm caused in Hanover by the short visit of Mr. Robinson was greatly increased by the preaching of Mr. Blair, whose amiable deportment, genteel manners, and classical language, united with gravity of manners forbid the idea of attaching either vulgarity or disorder to the religion he professed and taught. No violence or insult was offered him during his short stay. His hearers, agitated beyond control, poured forth tears and sighs, and often broke out into loud crying. At the time it was impossible to tell how much this expression of feeling was from deep sympathy, and how much from the movings of the Holy Spirit.

Opposers were roused to anxious inquiry what they would do to arrest the propagation of these strange views and feelings on religious things. - Absences from the parish church were more strictly observed, and the law was invoked to prevent apostasy from the ceremonies of the Church of England. Before his return to Pennsylvania, Mr. Blair visited the neighbourhoods in the Valley that favoured the Synod of New York, or the New Side, as it was called, North Mountain, which included Bethel and Hebron, the Pastures, New Providence, Timber Ridge, Forks of James or Monmouth, and Opeckon; and it is supposed also the

Presbyterian neighbourhooods on Cub Creek and Buffaloe, and Hat Creek.

Some time after Mr. Blair's return to Pennsylvania, the Presbytery of Newcastle, the nearest Presbytery of the Synod of New York, sent Rev. John Roan to pay the people in Virginia a visit. A preacher of eminence, he had established a grammar school on the Neshaminy a few miles from Philadelphia. Rev. Dr. Rodgers was for some time a pupil of his. Mr. Roan remained in Virginia part of the winter of 1744 and 5, and preached with great effect not only in Hanover, but the neighbouring counties. “He continued with us”-says Mr. Morris “longer than any of the former, and the happy effects of his ministrations are still apparent. He was instrumental in beginning and promoting the religious concern in several places where there was little appearance of it before. This together with his speaking pretty freely about the degeneracy of the clergy in this colony, gave a general alarm, and some measureş were concerted to suppress us. Mr. Roan had the warmth and deep earnestness of Robinson and Blair, with less prudence and caution ; with the activity of Davies, he had less skill in managing an excited multitude. He spoke freely of the parish ministers, publicly and privately, inveighed against their delinquency in morals, and their public ministrations; and turned the ridicule and scorn of his hearers against the teachers appointed and supported by law. The parish clergy and their friends were excited. Unable to refute the allegations, they appealed to the strong arm of the law to protect their privileges, and restrain both the speech and actions of their adversaries.

That there was cause for complaint against the parish ministers in Virginia, in 1744, is unquestionably true; and it is equally true that Mr. Roan exposed their delinquency. How far he indulged in the denunciatory spirit that prevailed in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, at that time, and was the ostensible cause of dividing the Church, cannot now be determined. But the excitement was great. And now commenced in earnest a discussion about the rights of citizens in matters of religion,– how far conscience was free, and how far the law of the land, that had slumbered, in Virginia, since the days of Makemie, had become a dead letter.

The multitude crowded to hear Roan, some from curiosity, and some from feeling. Opposition was expressed in reproaches, sneers, ridicule, and threats. The preacher's spirit took fire, and his invectives were not measured. He saw evidence of the power of God in melting the hearts of sinners to the obedience of the gospel. Converts multiplied, and the violence of opposition increased. Report after report went down to Williamsburg that Roan was turning the world upside down. Neighbourhood after neighbourhood was calling upon this fiery preacher to declare to them the everlasting gospel. Opposers were consulting how they might effectually silence him. Multitudes were responding a hearty amen to his earnest appeals. In this state of things charges were made against him of blasphemous words and slanderous speeches. “A perfidious wretch”-says Morris—“ deposed he heard Mr. Roan utter blasphemous expressions in his sermons.”

Governor Gooch had promised protection to the Presbyterian colonies. He was not forgetful of that promise which had filled the frontier counties with enterprising men that formed a line of defence against the savages. But reports reached him from Hanover and James City, which were not frontier counties, and which contained no Presbyterian colony, such as might have been found in Lunenburg, Charlotte, Prince Edward, Appomattox, Cumberland, Campbell, Nelson, Albemarle, Rockbridge, Botetourt, Augusta, Frederick, Jefferson, and Berkeley. Charges of proselytism and blasphemy followed these reports, and roused the mild and tolerant Gooch to inquire into the cause of this excitement and disturbance. Report upon report, charge upon charge, exasperated his excited spirit. Witnesses were named, and express words were set down. The Governor took up the matter with vehemence, as will appear from the following extracts from the records of the General Court, preserved in the capitol in Richmond city.

The General Court, consisting of the Governor and Council, commenced their regular sessions April 15th 1745. “Present, William Gooch Lieutenant Governor, John Robinson, John Grymes, John Custis, Philip Lightfoot, Thomas Lee, Lewis Burwell, William Fairfax." The grand jury did not appear till the fourth day, Thursday April 18th. They were—“William Beverly, gent, foreman,-Benjamin Cocke, Richard Bland, James Skelton, Richard Corbin, Mann Page, Francis Ness, Daniel Hornby, George Douglass, Tarlton Fleming, Richard Bernard, Ralph Wormley, William Nelson, Edmund Berkley, Nathaniel Harrison, John Ravenscroft, James Littlepage, Nicholas Davies, Charles Ewell, Richard Ambler, Carter Burwell, and John Harmer.” The Governor delivered them the following charge, which does not appear on the records of the Court, but is copied from Burke, vol. 3d, p. 119 and onward, who copied it from a Williamsburg paper—“Williamsburg, April 25th. Thursday last being the fourth day of General Court, his Honour the Governor was pleased to deliver the following charge to the gentlemen of the grand jury; which they afterwards requested his Honour to permit to be published

Gentlemen of the Grand Jury, Without taking notice of the ordinary matters and things, you are called to attend, and sworn to make inquisition for, I must on this occasion turn to your thoughts and recommend to your present service another subject of importance, which I thank God has been unusual, but, I hope, will be most effectual, I mean the information Í have received of certain false teachers that are lately crept into this government; who, without order or license, or producing any testimonial of their education or sect, professing themselves ministers under the pretended influence of new light, extraordinary impulse, and such like satirical (Satanical, qu.?) and enthusiastical knowledge, lead the innocent and ignorant people into all kinds of delusion; and in this frantic and prophane disguise, though such is their heterodoxy that they treat all other modes of worship with the utmost scorn and contempt, yet as if they had bound themselves on oath to do many things against the religion of the blessed Jesus, that pillar and stay of the truth and reformed church, to the great dishonor of Almighty God, and the discomfort of serious Christians, they endeavour to make their followers believe that salvation is not to be obtained (except, qu.?) in their communion.

“As this denunciation, if I am rightly advised, in words not decent to repeat, has been by one of them publicly affirmed, and shows what manner of spirit they all of them are of in a country hitherto remarkable for uniformity in worship, and where the saving truths of the gospel are constantly inculcated, I did promise myself, either that their preaching would be in vain, or that an insolence so criminal would not long be connived at.

“And therefore, gentlemen, since the workers of a deceitful work, blaspheming our sacraments, and reviling our excellent liturgy, are said to draw disciples after them, and we know not whereunto this separation may grow, but may easily foretel into what a distracted condition, by long forbearance, this colony will be reduced, we are called upon by the rights of society, and what, I am persuaded will be with you as prevailing an inducement, by the principles of Christianity, to put an immediate stop to the devices and intrigues of these associated scismatics, who having, no doubt, assumed to themselves the apostacy of our weak brethren, we may be assured that there is not any thing so absurd but what they will assert and accommodate to their favourite theme, railing against our religious establishment; for which in any other country, the British dominions only excepted, they would be very severely handled.

“However, not meaning to inflame your resentment, as we may without breach of charity pronounce, that 'tis not liberty of conscience, but freedom of speech, they so earnestly prosecute; and we are very sure that they have no manner of pretence to any shelter under the acts of toleration, because, admitting they have had regular ordination, they are by those acts obliged, nor can they be ignorant of it, not only to take the oaths, and with the test to subscribe, after a deliberate reading of them, some of the articles of our religion, before they presume to officiate. But that in this indulgent grant, though not expressed, a covenant is intended, whereby they engage to preserve the character of conscientious men, and not to use their liberty for a cloak of maliciousness,—to that I say, allowing their ordination, yet as they have not, by submitting to those essential points, qualified themselves to gather a congregation, or if they had, in speaking all manner of evil against us, have forfeited the privilege due to such compliance; insomuch, that they are entirely without excuse, and their religious professions are very justly suspected to be the result of jesuitical policy, which also is an iniquity to be punished by the judges.

“I must, as in duty bound to God and man, charge you in the most solemn manner, to make strict enquiry after those seducers, and if they, or any of them, are still in this government, by presentment or indictment to report them to the court, that we, who are in authority under the Defender of our faith, and the appointed guardians to our constitution and state, exercising our power in this respect for the protection of the people committed to our care, may show our zeal in the maintenance of the true religion; not as the manner of some is, by violent oppression, but in putting to silence by such method as our law directs, the calumnies and invectives of these bold accusers, and in dispelling as we are devoutly disposed, so dreadful and dangerous a combination.

“In short, gentlemen, we should deviate from the pious path we profess to tread in, and should be unjust to God, to our king, to our country, to ourselves and to our posterity, not to take cognizance of so great a wickedness, whereby the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ is turned into lasciviousness."

In this charge the Governor admits the existence of the Act of Toleration, and its applicability to the colony of Virginia, and urges that the preachers visiting in Hanover and the surrounding counties, were liable to the rigour of the law, because they had not taken license according to the provisions of the statute.

The next day the Grand Jury brought in various presentments, of which the following is the record on the files of the General Court: “ April 19th, 1745. The Grand Jury appeared according to their adjournment, and were sent out of court, and after some time returned, and presented Daniel Allen and Randal Richardson, and John Evans for assault and battery,-true bill. They also made several presentments, not drawn into form, in the words following, -to wit,-We, the Grand Jury, on information of James Axford, do present John Roan for reflecting upon and vilifying the Established Religion, in divers sermons, which he preached at the house of Joshua Morris, in the parish and county of James City, on the 7th, 8th, and 9th of January last, before a numerous audience, in the words following, to wit, — At church you pray to the Devil-and. That your good works damn you, and carry you to hell,'-— That all your ministers preach false doctrine, and that they, and all who follow them, are going to hell,'--and · The church is the house

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