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RELATION OF AGRICULTURE TO PROGRESS.
ORGANIZATION OF LABOR.
The Masonic Fraternity-Guilds-Movements of Labor in the present cen-
tury—The Spirit of Industry constructive-What Equality is--How Edu-
cation promotes Equality-Self-Love vs. Social Feeling--Mr. Seward's
Opinion-All great Movements Historical as well as Progressive...... 17
* CHAPTER II.
THE OFFICE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE SOCIAL ECONOMY.
Man and Nature--Agriculture the Foundation of Industry-Raw Materials-
First Steps toward Manufactures-Civilization regards all the Processes
of equal Value–The Social Body, its different Parts and Functions--
How Division of Labor increases Production, and begets Exchange or
Commerce-Commerce a Charge upon Agriculture-Magnitude of the
Tax--How this enriches the Farmer--Money as a Commercial Agent-
Office of the Railroad and of Money to cheapen Exchange--Relations of
Agriculture the Professions: to the growth of Towns: to Science... 20
AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD.
Civilization a relative Term-Wealth-Wild Wheat and Rice-The Date:
Millet-Egyptian Agriculture and Horticulture--Flax Culture--Grana-
ries, Models of our Elevators-Condition of the People--China-Confu-
cius' Teachings—How Silk Culture was Promoted-Implements--Size of
l'arms--Wages-Japan, compared with Great Britain-Wheat Culture-
Rural Life in Greece-Xenophon a Farmer--Hesiod's Works and Days
-Public Gardens-Decay--Aristotle the Father of a rational Polity-
Slavery-Rome-Patricians and Plebeians-Size of Farms-Common
Pasture—Tenants--Cato's Steward—The Rome of To-day..
AGRICULTURE IN MODERN EUROPE.
Germany and England --- Ranks-Folks Land and Rents-Degradation of
the British Laborer-Allowance of Food--Elevation of the Mechanical
Class--Proportion of Land Owners to Population--Wages of Laborers
- How England is Fed--Scotland a Wheat Growing Country--Ameliora-
tion of Climate through Agriculture-Pedigree Cattle and Shecp--France
--Small Farming and Population--Wheat Culture--The Late War--
Holland and the Low Countries-A Model for California--Deep Tillage
-Diversity of Crops — Use of Machinery-Night-soil and Manures-
Rotation- Modern Germany-Beet Culture-Maize Culture in Austria--
Russia our Rival in Wheat-Conclusion...
AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES.
American Independence due to the Farmers--The South Atlantic States--
Want of System-Cotton and Tobacco-Gov. Hammond on South Caro-
lina Agriculture--Georgia Silk Culture-Gov. Collier on the Wants of
Alabama-The Old Dominion and the Old Commonwealth contrasted-
Emigration-First Agricultural Societies and Journals established in the
South-How diversified Industry would have secured Emancipation-
AGRICULTURE IN THE EASTERN AND MIDDLE STATES.
Value of Statistical Reports--Highest average Yield of Wheat in Massachu-
setts-A Southern View of New England --Value of Hay Crop-Vermont
and the Wool Interest--What the New England States raise and what
they eat--The Empire State-Genesee Wheat—The Weevil-Fish and
Fur Culture-Profits of Cheese and Butter Factories-Mr. Arnold on
the Future of Dairying-Pennsylvania--New Jersey a Market Garden
--Cranberry Culture--Peach Culture in Delaware and Maryland. ...... 53
FARMING IN THE WESTERN STATES.
The World's Granary-Relative Value of Corn and Wheat-Stock Farming
vs. Wheat Farming-Improved Implements – Trial of American Ma-
chines— Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky--California and Oregon-
Agriculture of the Catholic Missions-John Gilroy and his Neighbors-
Large Wheat Fields--Enormous Crop of 1872–-Market for California
Wheat-Farmers not enriched by this Stream of Wealth-Tonnage--
Prices -- California the Centre of Wine and Wool Production - Table
Showing Yield and Price of Farm Products in each State for 1873: Ex-
hibiting Value of Farm Property: Number of Persons engaged in Agri-
culture and other Occupations
THE FARMERS' GREAT AWAKENING.
THE FARMERS IN COUNCIL.
Gathering of the Clubs-Mr. Hyatt's telling Report on Shipping--Proposal
for a Convention-Expression of Opinion--A Summary of Complaints-
Organization of the Farmers' Union at Sacramento-Fraudulent Wheat
HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GRANGES.
Meeting of the Board of Directors-President Bidwell's Remarks-Major
Snyder advocates building Coöperative Warehouses–Judge McCune on
Fares and Freights-Sonoma Club-Mass Meeting at Stockton-Thirty
Thousand Dollars subscribed-Mr. Baxter appears on the Scene--Cou-
vention at San Francisco-How the Grangers negotiated for Sacks and
didn't get them-Gen. Bidwell's Address--A Lady's Suggestions--Mr.
Hallett on the Future of the Wheat Market-Convention recommends
the Formation of Granges--Winding up of its Affairs..
THE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.
How established-Messrs. Kelley and Saunders--A Cloud no bigger than a
Man's Hand-Significance of Names, “Grange” and “Patron”.
Eligibility: Organization and First Officers: First Four Dispensations-
Growth on the Upper Mississippi-Eighty Granges a day in Iowa--
Third Annual Session-What the Patrons propose to do-Official Decla-
ration of Purposes-Constitution and By-Laws..
WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED.
Growth--Causes of Numerical Strength-Granges of the first and second
Growth--Investments and Savings--General and incidental Benefits-
Worthy Master Adams' Address at Charleston-Summary of Proceedings
-What was done about the Texas Pacific Railroad, and why it was done. 118
ANNALS OF THE STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA.
Organization at Napa-Representation--Address of N. W. Garretson-Spe-
cific Objects stated-Resolutions-State Book of Plans-Election of
Officers and Executive Committee--Agencies provided for--First An-
nual Meeting--One Hundred and Four Granges in Three Months--
Worthy Master Wright's Address-Report of Committee on Irrigation-
Committee of Inquiry into Agricultural Department of University-
Election of Officers for two ensuing Years-Presentation to Brothe:
Garretson--Installation-Professor Carr's Lecture....
CONSTITUTION OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE GRANGE-BY-LAWS-RULES OF ORDER... 153
BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS.
Agency established in San Francisco--Mr. A. F. Walcott appears for E. E.
Morgan's Sons-Firm endorsed by prominent Houses-Agreements and
Precautions-State Agent--Competition produces better Prices-Savings
of the first Year -- Grangers' Bank Meeting - Organization - Dairy
Agency--Stanislaus Saving and Loan Society--- Warehouses at Modesto
--Davisville Grange incorporates--Colusa County Bank-Waterford-
Warehouses and Business Associations .
THE SECOND ANNUAL MEETING.
Large Attendance--Worthy Master Hamilton's Address--A Grange Funeral
- Festival of Pomona--Important Resolutions-Abstract of Report of
State Agent: of the Executive Committee: of the Treasurer: of the Lec-
turer: of the Manager of Dairy Produce Department: of Committee on
the Agricultural College of the State University: of the Committee on
Irrigation: of the Committee on Education and Labor: of the Committee
on the Good of the Order.......
THE PATRONS' TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS.
The Wheat Shipping Business--The Wheat King and Mr. Walcott--Advance
in Freights in 1872-3— Exaggerated Estimates of the Crop of 1874-5
DIr. Walcott's various Enterprises—The Sack Purchase-Failure of
Morgan's Sons proves a Blessing in Disguise--Called Meeting of the
Grange-Practical Fellowship-All's Well that Ends Well-Discontinu-
ance of Dairy and Produce Agency—The Business Association formed
-Officers ard Articles of Incorporation of the Grangers Business Asso-
GRANGE DIRECTORY AND RECORD.
Officers and Members of the National Grange--California State Grange-Es-
ecutive Committee: of District and County Councils: of Organizing
Deputies--Subordinate Granges of California, arranged by Counties-Ne-
vada Subordinate Granges-- The Grange Record: of the Charter Mem-
bers of each Grange in California and Nevada-Oregon State Grange-
Oficers-Executive Committee and Organizing Deputies–Subordinate
Granges of Oregon: of Washington Territory: of Idaho...
AIDS AND OBSTACLES TO AGRICULTURE ON THE PACIFIC COAST.
Mr. J. Stuart Mill's Axiom-The Public Domain, and its Distribution-Lands
in California-Prosperity shown by the Proportion of Farms to Popu-
lation-Disposition of State Lands-Effects of Consolidation of Landed
Interests in England - Spanish and Mexican Domination - Mexican
Grants, and a discreditable Chapter of History-Bounty of the Federal
Government-How the State Lands have been Manipulated-Discrep-
ancy between Federal and State Laws, Eastern College and Indian
Serip-Swamp and Tide Lands-Agricultural College Grant-Railroad
Grant-California Peerage, and status of our Landlords-Discrimina-
tion in Taxation-Remedies..
WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION.
Canal and Water Companies: How authorized-Legislation favorable to Mo-
nopolies-Los Angeles Convention-Voice of the People-Gov. Dow-
ney's Address--Jemorial of Colorado to Congress-Congress appoints
Irrigation Commissioners for California--Mr. Brereton's Views of Agri-
culture in the San Joaquin Valley-Conclusions-arrived at by the Com-
THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM.
Cost of Irrigation--Loss by Absorption-Amount of Water required per
Acre--Amount used in Foreign Countries--Primary, Secondary and Ter-
tiary Ditches-Bases of Estimates—«)wnership of Water-Mr. Estee's
Views concerning Legislation--Italian Authorities quoted--Dr. Ryer's
lints toward a Solution of the Problem-Irrigation and Public Ilealth. 319
Results of Railroad Investigation by Congress-Committee: how formed-
Exhaustive Researches-Magnitude of Interests involved--Inadequacy
of Means of Transportation-Defects and Abuses-Discriminations and
Extortions-Stock Watering-Capitalization of Earnings-Construction
Rings-Unjust Discriminations--General Extravagance and Corruption
of Railway Management-Combinations and Consolidations-Nominal
Capital and fictitious Stock-Excess of Capital over Actual Stock-Illus-
trations-How Evils may be remedied--Summary of Conclusions and
Recommendations--Congress may regulate Inter-State Transportation,. 329
RAILROAD LEGISLATION AND INVESTIGATION IN WISCONSIN.
Railroad Legislation in Wisconsin-Abstract of the Potter Law-Abstract of
Report of Commissioners--Nature of the Controversy between the Peo-
ple and the Railroads-Self-interest of Corporations not a sufficient
Guaranty against Extortions-Competition tends to Consolidation-Evils
of Railway Construction and Management-Causes of undue Cost-
Construction on Credit-Corrupt letting of Contracts-- Misappropria-
tion of Land Grants--Illinois Law-Supervisory Duty of States holding
Land Grants--Illinois Decision