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ment in their new conquests, almost all In 1251, the chapter of the Cathedral

Volumes. the effects of the knowledge and the civi- of Ratisbon purchased 500 volumes for The Vatican, said to contain 500,000. lization which had spread through Europe 67 marcs of gold, equivalent to about The Royal Library at Paris 350,000. disappeared. In the destruction of cities, £10,000, or £20 for each volume.

Of pamphlets 300,000. the libraries also shared in the universal In the succeeding century, we may

Manuscripts

50,000. desolation, and Europe had to pass date the commencement of the revival Vienna

300,000. through a long night of darkness and ig- of learning. It gave birth to many cele- Munich

400,000. norance. The little that remained of the brated men ; among whom, none more so Gottingen

200,000. world's knowledge found refuge in the mo-than Petrarca, Boccaccio, and Richard British Museum

181,000. nasteries, where, however, these precious de Bury, Bishop of Durham, who spared George III.'s Library . 65,000. volumes were in general as little appreci- neither labour nor expense in collecting

Manuscripts

20,000. ated as by the barbarian spoilers. It is re- manuscripts; accordingly, we find the Bodleian

200,000. lated that in the middle ages manuscripts libraries throughout Europe much inwere not unfrequently destroyed, in bind-creasing. In 1373, the library of the In addition to these, almost every sciening works on useless scholastic divinity; | King of France contained 910 volumes, tific and literary institution, and most of sometimes for the making of rackets for and had increased to about 1100 volumes the ecclesiastical foundations in Europe, the amusement of the idle monks; and in 1425, when the greater part of it was have libraries attached to them, of greater even what were spared lay rotting in some sent to England by the regent, Duke of or less extent. These vast repositories neglected corner. We ought not, how- Bedford ; and in 1439, the cardinal bas-contain not only such works as are most ever, to think too harshly of the conduct sarian, with royal profusion, had collected useful, but such as, from their costliness of these illiterate monks : it is scarcely to 600 manuscripts, at the enormous cost of or scarcity, are inaccessible to ordinary be expected they would set much value about 30,000 Roman crowns, equivalent students. upon what they could not understand. to about £26,000.

Thus has useful knowledge been exPersons of the highest rank, in those From these notices of the scarcity and tended and cheapened by the exertions of times, could not read or write; many of high price of books, it must beobvious that the moderns. The difficulty of the student the clergy did not understand the breviary, they were within the reach of but few. In- is no longer to obtain, but to select, the which they were obliged daily to recite; deed, none but kings and prelates could best sources of information from the besome of them could scarcely read it. enjoy the costly privilege of a library. wildering accumulations with which he Even in late years, it is reported that Sir Ať last, in the middle of the fourteenth is surrounded. If the literary world be in Robert Cotton redeemed the original of century, occurred the greatest revolution an unhealthy state, it arises from plethora Magna Charta from the hands of a tailor in the history of literature, or of the hu

-from so vast an abundance of resources, who was on the point of cutting it up for man mind. The art of printing was in- as distracts investigation, and prevents

Yet some gleams of light vented; and whilst Æneas Sylvius, Pope the formation of a judicious choice. At shone brightly in the dark ages. To those Pius 11., in 1458, was writing in his Cos- all events, there can now be no excuse men of learning, who devoted their time,mographia, that the destruction of all for ignorance. That power which our imtheir means, and their health, to the col- written documents would, ere long, be mortal Bacon attributes to knowledge, is lecting and preserving of the remains of inevitable, this art was impressing on wielded by the hands of millions; and it the dispersed libraries, the world owes a them perpetuity and ten-fold value. A now becomes the special and increasdebt of gratitude. The few following learned continental bibliographer has made ing duty of the moralist and the Chrisfacts, showing the extreme rarity and va- a calculation, that from the year 1455 to tian, to heighten its benefits, by keeping lue of manuscripts in the four or five 1500, 14,750 editions had been printed pace with its progress, and, by the assicenturies preceding the invention of print- from presses established in 212 cities ; duons inculcation of virtuous principles, ing, will be neither uninteresting nor un- which, at an average of 435 copies for each to prepare the world for those important instructive.

edition, would give 5,416,250 volumes changes, which all the phenomena of soIn the ninth century, the Abbot of as the circulation of books in 45 years. ciety appear to indicate. Pontivi, in possessing 200 volumes, was Again, from 1501 to 1536, the number of considered to have the largest library in cities had decreased from 212 to 184, yet We are indebted to D'Israeli's CuriosFrance.

17,779 editions had been produced ; and, ities of Literature for the following extraIn the tenth century, so scarce and so in consequence of a greater demand for ordinary calculation of the number of valuable were manuscripts, that a copy of books, each edition may probably have books printed from the first invention of the Homelies of Aymon of Halberstat was increased to 1000 copies, which would the art.

A curious arithmetician has purchased by a Countess of Anjou for give us an amount of 17,779,000 copies. discovered that the four ages of typo 200 sheep, three measures of corn, and a

From these calculations it results, that graphy have produced no less than number of skins of valuable furs. during the interval of 81 years, from the 3,641,960 works! Taking each work at

In the eleventh century, the abbey of date of the first printed book to the year three volumes, and reckoning each imPomposa, near Ravenna, in Italy, al- 1536, no less than twenty-three millions pression to consist of only three hundred though celebrated for the extent of its of volumes had been circulated among copies (which is a very moderate suppolibrary, possessed only 63 volumes, 7 of mankind ! Nor will our average appear sition), the actual amount of volumes which were volumes of the classics. an extravagant one, as it is well known which have issued from the presses of

In 1048, the Abbot of Gemblours, in that, in the year 1526, as many as 26,000 Europe, up to the year 1816, appears to Flanders, had collected, in addition to copies of the Colloquies of Erasmus were by 3,277,640,000! And if we suppose 100 volumes on theological, 60 volumes printed and sold.

each of these volumes to be an inch in on profane subjects, and imagined he had

From this period, books became acces- thickness, they would, if placed in a line, formed a splendid library.

sible to all classes of society; and, after cover 6069 leagues !! “We are, howIn the twelfth century, the catalogue of a few years, national public libraries were ever, indebted,” says this entertaining the Abbey of Monte Cassino, one of the formed, which have ever since continued writer, " to the patriotic endeavours of wealthiest in Europe, consisted but of 90 to increase, and which have mainly con- our grocers and trank-makers, the alvolumes, and yet had required the labours tributed to the subsequent advance of chemists of literature; they annihilate and journeyings of two successive abbots literature. The principal throughout the gross bodies without injuring the to collect. Europe are

finer spirits."

By the fever's scorching blight;
And their dim eyes wept, half tears, half blood-

And still they stood upright:
And there they stood, the quick and dead,

Propp'd by that dungeon's wall;
And the dying mother bent her head

On her child-but she could not fall;
In one dread night the life had fed

From half that were there in thrall.

The morning came, and the sleepless crew,

Threw the hatchways open wide;
Then the sickening fumes of death up-flew,

And spread on every side;
And, ere that eve, of the tyrant few,

Full twenty souls had died.
They died, the gaoler and the slave-

They died with the selfsame pain ; -
They were equal then, for no cry could save

Those who bound, or who wore, the chain ;
And the robber white found a common grave

With him of the Negro stain.

A PUBLIC DINNER IN THE NEIGH, ( the foot of the fly and the gecko, the anatomist
BOURHOOD OF MONTE VIDEO.

above referred to bas extended his researches

to a much more bulky animal, the walrus, in About two o'clock, we arrived at the house which he found an analagous provision, for an of our host, and found the company assembled, apparently similar purpose. Îhe hind fipper among whom we presently took our seats at or foot of the walrus bears so general a resemthe table, which was continued through two blance to the foot of the fly, that there seems rooms. The party consisted partly of patriot no reason to doubt the similarity of its intenSpaniards, with some Americans, French, and tion. Portuguese; altogether about sixty in number.

“ It is a curious circumstance,” remarks Sir The dinner was profusely abundant; but no Everard, “that two animals, so different in dish appeared very remarkable, except a large size, should have feet so similar in their use. roast of beef with the bide on. This mode of In the fly the parts require being magnified cooking has the effect of retaining the juice of

one hundred times to render this structure the meat; and, from the number who partook visible; and in the walrus the parts are so of it, it appeared to be a favourite viand. The large as to require being reduced from diamewine, of which there was variety, went merrily ters to bring them within the size of a quarto round during the entertainment; and, by the page. As a knowledge of the structure of the time the cloth was removed, the organs of arti- Ay's foot led to the detection of the use of the culation had become so volatile, that you could hind flipper of the walrus, so, on the other scarcely hear your next neighbour. Some | hand, an examination of the toes of the walrus Spaniards, who were less clamorous, amused bas enabled me to make out the use of a part themselves with shooting little bread balls at

of the foot of the fly which I did not sufficiently one another across the table, and aiming at

understand. On comparing them with the outer the face. This amusement was an annoyance

toes of the walrus, they are evidently intended to me; but, by my remaining neutral, they to surround the exhausted cavity, so that a allowed me to sit in peace. Their national

vacuum may be more suddenly and perfectly toasts were drank in quick succession; but formed.” on their Vice-president proposing the toast On dissecting this flipper, it soon lost all apof, “ Long live King Ferdinand the Seventh,"; pearance of a foot, and took that of the hand nearly the whole company dissented, and of a giant, so far as respected the bones and loaded him with a torrent of abuse; to which muscles, but differing from it in having a web he replied with so much acrimony, that the covering all the other parts, and extending betable of expected friendship and conviviality yond the point of the thumb and fingers. On soon presented a scene of the most inveterate the back of the flipper, too, was found the warfare. The Vice-president prudently, how-tendon of the indicator muscle. ever, sat in silence for a few minutes, by which “That this gigantic hand is employed as a means order was restored, and the offended cupping glass to prevent the animal from fallparty vented their rage on the wine, which, in ing back in its movements, whether on the ice half an hour, was fast becoming conqueror. or in climbing the rocky cliffs, there can be no Glasses and plates flew to destruction; and, to doubt; for it is only necessary to take the hucrown the whole, an agile Spainard mounted

man hand, and envelope it in an elastic web the table, making a variety of antics, which so extending some way beyond the points of the destroyed the economy of it, that no further fingers, to prove that it could perform such an hint was necessary to advise us to depart; and office: but, when we find the cumbricales we rose, got seated in our noddy, and drove muscles wanting, the only use of which is to homewards. Thus ended the dinner, which, clench the fist, it adds to the proof; and when in the whole, had occupied not more than two the indicator is met with, a mode of opening a hours and a half.- Weddell's Voyage towards valve to let in the air is pointed out." the South Pole.

APPARENT VIOLATION OF THE

LAW OF NATURE. There are many faets and appearances in nature which fail to strike us at once with surprise and admiration, only because they are so common. Among these, the motion of a fly upon walls and ceilings, and the adhesion of the gecko, a species of the lizard, to even the most polished surfaces, deserve to be classed. Familiar as the fly has been to our observation from earliest infaney, few persons have seriously attempted to explain the manner in which that insect is enabled to advance, so much at its ease, in apparent opposition to “nature's universal law," gravitation

The cause of it appears never to have been correctly assigned, till Sir Everard Home, by carefully examining both the fly and the gecko, discovered, in the peculiar structure of their feet, the pneumatic mechanism by which they are enabled to carry on progressive motion against gravity. It appears that their feet are so constructed as to act like a cupping glass or common sucker, and thus, by the pressure of the air, attach them to any substance with which they may be in contact; or, on its relaxation, to allow the animal to move at its pleasure. Having detected this wondrous mechanism in

THE CAPTIVE AFRICAN.
THERE was no sound upon the deep,

The breeze lay cradled there,
The motionless waters sank to sleep,

Beneath the sultry air;
Out of the cooling brine to leap,

The dolphin scarce would dare.
Becalm'd on that Atlantic plain,

A Spanish ship did lie;
She stopp'd at once upon the main,

For not a wave rolld by ;
And she watch'd six dreary days in vain,

For the storm-bird's fearful cry.
But the storm came not, and still the ray

Of the red and lurid sun,
Wax'd hotter and hotter every day,

'Till her erew sank one by one,
And not a man could endure to stay

By the helm, or by the gun,
And deep in the dark and fetid hold,

Six hundred wretches wept;
They were slaves that the cursed lust of gold

From their native land had swept ;
And there they stood, the young and old,

While a pestilence o'er them erept:
Cramm'd in that dungeon-hold they stood,

For many a day and night;
'Till the love of life was all subdued

The pest-ship slept on her ocean bed,

As still as any wreck,
Till they all, save one old man, were dead,

In her hold or on her deck :
That man, as life around him fled,

Bow'd not his sturdy neck.
He arose--the chain was on his hands,

But he climbed from that dismal place,
And he saw the men who forged his bands,

Lie each upon his face ;
There on the deck that old man stands,

The lord of all the space.
He sat him down, and he watch'd a cloud,

Just cross the setting sun,
And he heard the light breeze heave the shroud,

Ere that sultry day was gone,
When the night came on, the gale was loud,

And the clouds rose thick and dun.
And still the negro boldly walk'd

That lone and silent ship, .
With a step of vengeful pride he stalked,

And a sheer was on his lip;
For he laughed to think how death had balk'd

The letters and the whip.
At last he slept—but the lightning flash

Play'd round the creaking mast,
And the sails were wet with the ocean's plash,

But the ship was anchor'd fast;
'Till at length, with a loud and fearful crash,

From her cable's chain she passed.
Away she swept, as with instinct rife,

O'er her broad and dangerous path;
And the midnight tempest's sudden strife

Had gather'd sounds of wrath ;
But on board that ship was no sound of life,

Save the song of that captive swarth.
He sung of his Afric's distant sands,

As the slippery deck he trod;
He fear'd to die in other lands,

'Neath a tyrant master's rod;
And he lifted his head and fetter'd hands,

In a prayer to the Negro's God.,
He touch'd not the sail, nor the driving helm;

But he look'd on the raging sea,
And he joy'd— for the waves that would o'er-

whelm,
Would leave his body free;
And he pray'd that the ship to no Christian

realm,
Before the storm might flee.
He smil'd amid the tempest's frown,

He sang amidst its roar;
His joy, no fear of death could drown;

He was a slave no more!
The helmless ship that night went down,

On Senegambia's shore.

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. to confess, that, of all the forms which mand for myself, the liberty of private judgWe have received Contributions from W.R. P., hypocrisy assumes, there is none for which ment; but, in a matter of practical importance, P., and B. H.

Their services will always be ac- we feel so superlative a contempt as for involving the rights of near a million of beings, ceptable. The articles signed R. S., and C. R. T., are not

that which is exhibited by many pro-sla- who ought to stand in no other relation to us suited to The Tourist.”

very candidates. We could name men question most intimately connected with the

who are known to be slave proprietors, great measure of reform, I feel that I should THE TOURIST.

and advocates of the slave system, who be guilty of a compromise of principle, were I

can yet venture in the light of day to to give my suffrage to one who can, upon any MONDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 1832.

impose upon the ignorant and the credu- principle, uphold, for the shortest period, so

lous by professing an abhorrence of sla- iniquitous a system as that of slavery. The As the dissolution of Parliament is bondsmen at the proper season. And sition, that personal freedom is the inalienable very, and a willingness to manumit their subject appears to me to lie in very small com

pass. I know that thou wilt grant me the podrawing near, it becomes every friend

of such men are frequently heard talking, birthright of every human being, of which no humanity and justice to exert him

in no measured terms, of the hypocrisy authority of law can deprive him, unless he self to the utmost in order to secure the of the saints, as though this vice were, of have forfeited it by some overt act against the return of such candidates as favour the all, the most hateful in their sight. Now, peace or security of society; and consequently, immediate abolition

of slavery. No time it is possible that some may be deluded that no party can be morally justified by any but a few days in which to work; and by such professions ; but we cannot think legislative enactment, in seizing this birthrighi,

or withholding it from him. In this position, the happiness and existence of our negro believe the delusion will be extensive. morally, can be looked upon in no other light

so meanly of the English public as to then, are the negroes of the West Indies, and, fellow-subjects are dependant on our la- The friends of truth and fair dealing than a free people, though physically enslaved, bours. The cool calculations of prudence should unmask the hypocrite wherever he since they have committed no overt act to submust be laid aside, and our whole strength is found. Nor is it difficult to do so. ject them to the loss of liberty. Therefore, be consecrated to vigorous exertion. Our Two or three plain questions put at a any compact entered into between this govern: opponents are numerous, subtle, and active. They will spare no pains, nor shrink the candidate hesitate to reply-or if as a foul conspiracy, and constitutionally in

public meeting may elicit the truth. If of the birthright of the negroes, must be viewed from the adoption of any measures, how- his answers be vague-or if he talk valid. Whence it is evident that, in the conever reprehensible, to accomplish their of the pecuniary interest of the proprietor sideration of the just and equitable claims of purpose. To expect honesty from the

as though it were of more importance the several parties, any such compact cannot abettors of theft would be to stultify our than the freedom of the negro—or of the supersede or in any way operate as an exper selves, and to betray our cause. We must, unfitness of the slave for liberty—the dient to the restoration of this cruelly

injured therefore, be decided and active. We must work in season and out of season, sincerity, or how far they may confide to principled men. Thus far in justice to the electors will know what to think of his people to rights of which they have been de

prived by the wicked policy of cruel and unesteeming every hour as pregnant with him the protection of their rights. It negroes, as a constitutional question. The consequences in which humanity is deeply will happen in some cases, and this we claim of the negroes is an inalienable rightinterested. Should a majority of the next parlia- be dissolved. On this great question we cession of wrongs. The negroes are poor and much regret, that long connexions must that of the planters a power acquired by vio

lence and injustice, and maintained by a sucment be favourable to the continuance of our slave system, it will be in vain that nor friend. No matter how long, or how Whence I argue that that man's principles, as

must know neither father, nor brother, imbecile—the planters are rich and powerful. the nation petitions for change. Some laboriously, certain candidates may have a reformer of abuses and the upholder of polislight modifications may some unimportant and ineffective regula- represented us in parliament, the ques- tical rights and privileges, are little deserving

, , I tions may be introduced; but the horrors ther we can answer it to God and our considerations of self-interest) will support the of slavery, its brutality and its vice, will conscience to return him again if we usurped power of the rich and powerful, accontinue undiminished. “Now, then, is know, or have reason to think, he will quired by fraud and injustice, against the inthe accepted time; now is the day of vote for the worst system of oppression

alienable right of the poor and the weak. salvation.” This is emphatically the crisis and slow murder which has ever been compensation, I say, let the negroes have their

In regard to the claims of the planters to of the negro's history, and upon its im-established on earth.

right-let a system of free compensated labour provement or neglect depends the whole

The following letter, from an elector of be tried; and then, if the planters can make complexion of his future destiny. Never Maidstone to Mr. Robarts, a member for out their case, I, as an individual, and I doubt was the feeling of the people so awakened that town, and a candidate for its future them to the full of the loss that they can prove. to the diabolical character of colonial slavery as it is at present. The national representation, is highly creditable to the I say this

in the full confidence that the plantconscience has been aroused, and a ge- good sense and moral principle of the ers would be gainers instead of losers by the

.

change, but, as a matter of abstract right, I neral cry for redress and freedom is raised throughout the kingdom. If, then, the

RESPECTED FRIEND,

ask, why the planters should be indemnified

for the abstraction of a privilege which has friends of humanity are but faithful to I take great pleasure in acknowledging the cost them nothing ? The planters entered npon their undertaking—if their efforts are but receipt of thy liberal remittances of two ten this speculation in the confidence that the proportioned to the interests which are at pound notes-one on thy own account, and the system of slave labour was more profitable stake-if they labour with a simplicity other on that of thy respected colleague, C. J. than that of free labour. If they have found and zeal commensurate with their highjects of the British School Society in this have received their remuneration ; but, in jusand holy calling—they cannot fail. The

place; and, as the agent of that society, and a tice, every penny that they have gained by it spirit of the times, the growing intelli- humble promoter of the cause of education, I belongs to the slaves—they are the parties that gence of the nation, its commercial pros- beg to express to you both my sincere thanks have a right to demand remuneration. If they perity and religious principle, alike insure for your generous contribution, which, I have are disappointed in their expectations, and

no doubt, will be heartily ratified by a minute they find that they have been playing a losing Our only fear arises from the possibi- and vote of the committee, when it meets. game, what ground have they to demand comlity of our enemies imposing, to any con- thou art pleased to allude, I heartily wish we what is it that the abolitionists require? That siderable extent, on the anti-slavery pub-could coincide in our views. Were the subject the peasantry of the West Indies should receive lic. This is a day of profession both in at issue between us one of mere opinion, 1 an equivalent for their labour—to substitute the church and the world; but we are free should be quite disposed to give, what I del judicial for the private and irresponsible au

[graphic]

success.

thority now exercised over them, and to obtain liberties, should withhold from our negro popu- 1 give me credit for equal conscientious consistfor them an equal enjoyment of civil rights lation a participation in those rights on the ency, in refusing to be accessary to injustice with free-born subjects of Great Britain. Is it Aimsy plea of a chartered monopoly? I make towards the slaves, by withholding my vote not a strange, a monstrous anomaly, that an no apology for writing thus freely on the sub- from a supporter of the system, which thou avowed champion in the cause of reform, and ject, involving as it does thy charac:er as a | takest to thyself for opposing a measure for its the stern supporter of our civil and religious consistent reformer: I even trust thou wilt annihilationi.

[graphic][subsumed]

CUPID SLEEPING. Deep in the windings of yon secret glade, those who have subsequently entertained Sometimes he was represented as a winged 1. Where the thick coppice forms a darker shade, With arrows blunted and extinguished fires

them. They are, in fact, only the varie-boy, occupied in some childish amuseInnoxious, sleeps the god of soft desires. ties of idolatry, consisting chiefly of per- ment; sometimes as a conqueror, armed "Too well I know, too oft have felt his power, sonifications of such qualities as are either with a helmet and spear; and sometimes, Nor dare I visit that enchanted bower, attributed to the Divinity, or observed in to show the extent and supremacy of his Lest, by some magic, he from slumber start, His lamp rekindle, and new point his dart.

human nature; and the tendency that dominion, he is represented as breaking Take thy repose, sweet tyrant, sovereign love : has ever been manifested by the mind of in pieces the thunderbolts of Jupiter. It For me, eternal may thy slumbers prove! man thus to personify seems resolvable is not necessary to specify the various de

The preponderance of imagination in into the principle, that we are naturally vices under which this potent deity has the intellectual character of oriental na

more susceptible of impressions from sen- been worshipped : he exhibits one more tions, and that love of the marvellous sible objects than of such as are made affecting instance of the mutability of that is so generally found to obtain in immediately on the mind. It is not, human honours, on which the homilies of times of remote antiquity and of compa

therefore, at all surprising that an all-innumerable moralists save us the trouble rative ignorance, have together generated pervading sentiment, like that of love, of enlarging; and, having received the those systems of mythology which sprung should have been embodied in the my- ardent homage of the world for ages, here up in the east, and have descended to thologies of antiquity; and accordingly he lies, degraded from his divinity, in the us, variously modified and tinctured by we find it, in one or other form, in the very earthly character of a garden ornathe notions and national character of pantheons of all the ancient nations, I ment.

OLD MAIDS.

ven; some people say that they are; but I am SAVINGS' BANKS AND FRIENDLY SOCIETIES.

almost sure that old maids are. There is I LOVE an old maid—I do not speak of an something about them which is not of the Mr. Pratt, the barrister appointed to certify individual, but of the species I use the sin- earth earthly. They are spectators of the the rules of savings' banks and friendly sociegular number, as speaking of a singularity in world, not adventurers nor ramblers; perhaps ties in England and Wales, has published a humanity. An old maid is not inerely an guardians; we say nothing of tatlers. They table, showing the increase or decrease of savantiquarian, she is an antiquity-not merely a are evidently predestinated to be what they ings' banks, depositors therein, friendly socierecord of the past, but the very past itself; she are. They owe not the singularity of their ties, and charitable societies, in every county has escaped a great change, and sympathizes condition to any lack of beauty, wisdom, wit, of England, Wales, and Ireland, between Nonot in the ordinary mutations of mortality. or good temper; there is no accounting for it vember, 1830, and November, 1831. The reShe inhabits a little eternity of her own. She but on the principle of fatality. I have known sults are highly gratifying: the increase in the is Miss from the begiuning of the chapter to many old inaids, and of them all not one that number of depositors in savings' banks is 13,750, the end. I do not like to hear her called has not possessed as many good and amiable and the increase in investments in the funds Mistress, as is sometimes the practice, for that qualities as ninety and nine out of a hundred on account of savings' banks, £114,998. There looks and sounds like the resignation of de- of my married acquaintance. Why, then, are bas also been an increase in the number of acspair, a voluntary extinction of hope. I do they single? It is their fate!- Friendship's counts kept for friendly and charitable societies not know whether marriages are made in hea Offering.

of 453.

SOLAR RAYS.

ceive; and, in the course of such an experi- | 8000 miles, occupying 89 days, arrived of

ment, there can be little doubt that the prism Rio de Janeiro, having, in this interval, passed WHETHER. the solar rays are so far homoge- became considerably heated by absorbing a through the Pacific Ocean, rounded Cape neous that the same rays produce both heat portion of the solar rays. This deserves con- Horn, and crossed the South Atlantie, without and light, or whether each requires for its pro- sideration.

making any land, or even seeing a single sail, duction a separate set of rays, is a question

with the exception of an American whaler off which has frequently occupied the attention,

COMPLAINT OF A ZOOLOGICAL Cape Horn. Arrived within a week's sail of and divided the opinions, of philosophers. The celebrated Dr. Hooke appears to have

GARDEN QUADRUPED.

Rio, he set seriously about determining, by lu

nar observations, the precise line of the ship's been the first who contended for this distinc

To the Editor.

course, and its situation in it at a determinate tion, which was afterwards supported by M. HONOURED BIPED Sir, If you have ever moment; and, having ascertained this within Scheele, Dr. Herschel, and Sir Henry Engle- been at our gardens, you may bave observed from five to ten miles, ran the rest of the way field. The two latter, especially, inferred, in one of the cages near-but I must not too by those more ready and compendious methods from their experiments, that the sun emits minutely describe my locality, lest. I should be known to navigators, which can be safely emilluminating rays which give no heat, and subject to fresh annoyancesma quiet demure ployed for short trips between one known point calorific rays which are not accompanied with little animal, your present humble quadru- and another, but which cannot be trusted in light. On placing a thermometer in the well- pedalian petitioner. If you have, pity my long voyages, where the moon is the only sure known figure called the Spectrum, this ther sorrows and those of my brethren, who have guide. The rest of the tale we are enabled, mometer seemed to be the more affected the not one day's rest. all the year round. Would by his kindness, to state in his own words :nearer it was placed to the red margin, and not six days in one week be sufficient for “We steered towards Rio de Janeiro for some less as it approached the opposite or violet- poking parasols into my poor eyes, but a days after taking the lunars above described, coloured edge. But the most remarkable effect seventh must be added? I always understood and, having arrived within fifteen or twenty of all was, that the thermometer indicated the (so far as a quadruped could understand such miles of the coast, I hove to at four in the greatest heat when placed just without the red matters), that you Christian bipeds rested one morning, till the day should break, and then margin, where none of the visible rays reached day in seven, and gave your cattle and all other bore up; for, although it was very hazy, we it at all. They, therefore, concluded that this things rest too: but, to my sorrow, I find this could see before us a couple of miles or so. effect was produced by a set of dark colorific to be quite a mistake; and equally a mistake the About eight o'clock it became so foggy that I rays, which are less refrangible than any of old notion that man may be defined to be “a did not like to stand in further, and was just the other rays. M. Berard, by repeating these religious animal,” as no other animal is so; bringing the ship to the wind again before sendexperiments, obtained similar results, except for I now see that our Zoological Garden mas- ing the people to breakfast, when it suddenly that he found the maximum of heat in the ters are not religious animals any more than cleared off, and I had the satisfaction of seeing red

ray. These experiments were very elabo- their horses, whom, as well as our two-footed the great Sugar Loaf Rock, which stands on one rately conducted, and afforded much reason keepers, they work on Sundays as well as other side of the harbour's mouth, so nearly right for the conclusion we have mentioned, that days. Much, it seems, has been said in a re- ahead that we had not to alter our course above the illuminating rays are distinct from those ligious way about this matter; but those who a point in order to hit the entrance of Rio. which produce heat. Professor Leslie, bow- manage the Gardens have not felt the force of This was the first land we had seen for three ever, has questioned the accuracy of this con this appeal; being, I suppose, not of the reli- months, after crossing so many seas, and being clusion, having, by a different mode of expe- gious genus. Our" half-reasoning” elephant, set backwards and forwards by innumerable rimenting, found it impossible to detach any a very judicious observer, who does not much currents and foul winds." The effect on all of these dark rays from the light. Having mind the annoyance of company, in considera- on board might well be conceived to have been rendered a circular spot opaque in the middle | tion of their dainty contributions of fruit and electric; and it is needless to remark how esof a large convex lens, he received the light confectionary, is inclined to believe--so far I sentially the authority of a commanding officer transmitted by the remaining transparent ring mean as he comprehends the question—that over his crew may be strengthened by the ocupon a surface of black wax, held at such a our worthy governors are great hypocrites for currence of such incidents, indicative of a dedistance that the light formed upon the wax excluding the shilling-a-head public on Sun- gree of knowledge and consequent power bean iris, or ring, composed of a set of distinct day, while they admit themselves, their fami- yond their reach. concentric rings, which severally possessed all lies, their friends, and visitors. They have, it the various colours of the common Spectrum. is true, a nicer quieter day, while their neighMr. Leslie then carefully observed the effect hours are at church ; but if it be a sin to open Tue publisher of Massillon’s Sermons deof these rings on the wax, and found that none the Gardens to a thousand persons, it must be scribes, in the preface, the bishop's method of of it was melted beyond where it was covered so to five hundred, unless the God of Chris- preaching, by saying, that " what formed the by the iris; whereas, if a set of dark calorific tians makes a distinction between guinea sub- distinct character of Father Massillon's elorays had existed, these ought to have more scribers and the shilling-a-head people. But quence was, that all his strokes aimed directly thoroughly melted a larger ring than that this is a matter for your consideration, being at the heart ; so that, what was siinply reason whereon the light fell; for the dark rays, if too puzzling for your poor persecuted servant, and proof in others, was feeling in his mouth. less refrangible than the light, would have A ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN QUADRUPED. Hence the remarkable success of his instruc. fallen without the margin of the red ring Christian Observer.

tions. Nobody, after hearing him, stopped to which includes all the others. As this expe

praise or criticise his sermon; each auditor reriment, which is of a more simple and decisive

TRIUMPH OF SCIENCE.

tired in pensive silence, with a thoughtful air, cast than any performed by the gentlemen THAT a man, by merely measuring the downcast eyes, and composed countenance, above-mentioned, seems to render their con moon's apparent distance from a star with a carrying away the arrow fastened in his heart. clusion doubtful, Mr. H. Meikle has suggested little portable instrument held in his hand, and When Massillon had preached his first advent what appears to him the principal source of applied to his eye, even with so unstable a at Versailles, Louis XIV. addressed these redeception. If a prism, such as Dr. Herschel footing as the deck of a ship, shall say posi- markable words to him: 'Father, I have heard employed, be heated, a very delicate thermo- tively, within five miles, where he is, on a many fine orators in my chapel, and have been meter will, cæteris paribus, be more affected boundless ocean, cannot but appear to persons very much pleased with them ; but as for you, when it is held opposite to one of the flat sides ignorant of physical astronomy an approach to always when I have heard you, I have been of the prism, than when opposite to one of its the miraculous. Yet, the alternatives of life very much displeased with myself.' » edges; because heat escapes from glass and and death, wealth and ruin, are daily and many other substances, when smooth or po- hourly staked with perfect confidence on these lished, chiefly in straight lines, perpendicular marvellous computations, which might almost BRINDLEY, the great engineer and conto the surface. Now, if we attend to the seem to have been devised on purpose to show structer of the Bridgewater canal, was a singuposition of Dr. Herschel's prism and thermo- how closely the extremes of speculative refine- lar instance of professional enthusiasm. This meter, this will help to explain why the ther- ment and practical utility can be brought to he evinced, in a rather amusing way, upon his mometer indicated heat, even when none of approximate. We have before us an anecdote examination before the House of Commons; the illuminating rays reached it at all; as, communicated to us by Capt. Basil Hall, R.N. in which he spoke with so much contempt of also, why the heating power of the red rays a naval officer, distinguished for the extent rivers, as means of internal navigation, that an seemed so much to surpass that of the other and variety of his attainments, which shows honourable member was tempted to ask him colours, &c.; because, the more directly op- how impressive such results may become in for what purpose he supposed rivers to have posite the thermometer was to the flat side of practice. He sailed from San Blas on the been created. Brindley, without a moment's the prism, the more of its heat would it re west coast of Mexico, and, after a voyage of hesitation, replied, "to feed canals !"

MASSILLON AND LOUIS XIV.

THE RULING PASSION.

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