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menced at the school of Fortrose, where most impartial survey of my early life, I not the least to the honour of the author,
Here he attended the lectures of Dr. Cul
len and Professor Black, though he still pla indulged deeply in those moral and me
taphysical studies for which his mental character appeared through life to be especially adapted. In 1787 he graduated in medicine, and retired from Edinburgh. Instead, however, of entering on the practice of his profession, he engaged more deeply in the study of politics, and, in 1789, published his first pamphlet on the regency question, which harmonized so little with the tone of the times, that it was comparatively unnoticed. In this year he married Miss Stuart, and, to the fixed and regular character given by this event to the habits and pursuits of Mr. Mackintosh, we probably owe the extraordinary production which appeared two years after from his pen. We mean the • Vindiciæ Gallicæ," in answer to Mr. Burke's letter on the French Revolution. This book, though composed amidst continual interruption, and with a careless rapidity characteristic of its author, evinces such a profound acquaintance with political science, such acuteness in argument, such vigour and variety of illustration, and such overwhelming power of eloquence, as place it at the founda
tion of his fame, and assign it a most La distinguished position in the literature of
At the age. It would not comport with our n's?3 d9 pm 1M Lmme > necessary limits to attempt extended cri12:37 30 fusilciscinante tipticism of this masterpiece of political con:19,00 TENIS
Dette troversy... We may, however, give it as toit gesit our opinion, that the time of
f its compoLIFE OF SIR J. MACKINTOSH. tot faciente 3 chatsition may be fixed as dating the zenith
nel 19 ciuitiae of its author's powers. The entire reSIR JAMES MACKINTOSH was born in 1 fail to be interesting to our readers. It sources of his mighty genius seem to 1765, in the county of Inverness. He is extracted from a letter written to Mr. have been mustered for this important was a branch of the clan of Mackintoshes, Hall from Bombay, which has since been and trying occasion, and the result was which was, in former times, a numerous published, and which affords a specimen a work which can only be adequately and considerable tribe in Scotland, of the remarkable taste and beauty of his eulogised by saying, that it was equally and produced some men of martial and epistolary style.
worthy of him from whom it emanated, official notoriety. His father, Captain
and of the illustrious opponent against Mackintosh, being absent on military in drawing up, merely for my own use, a
“ It happened to me a few days ago,
whom it was directed. service during the earlier years of Sir short sketch of my life, that I had occa
But it was not Mr. Burke's “ ReflecJames's life, the care of his education sion to give a faithful statement of my to oppose ; it also contained strictures on
tions" alone that this work was intended was chiefly devolved on Lady Mackin- recollection of the circumstance of my tosh, his grandmother. This was com- first acquaintance with you.
On the a publication of M. Calonne; and it is he evinced such talents as induced the could see nothing which tended so much that whilst, throughout his work, he vents master to recommend his being placed at to invigorate my understanding, and to his indignation against the principles held a university, and he accordingly entered direct it towards high, though," perhaps, in common by Burke and Calonne, he at King's College, Aberdeen. Here his inaccessible objects, as my intimacy with constantly preserves, with respect to their studies were of a somewhat various and you.
authors, the widest and most marked dis
Five and twenty years have now desultory character, having no specific elapsed since we first met; but hardly crimination. Indeed, he rarely omits an which he subsequently attached himself. made a more agreeable impression on my the genius that illustrated, the character relation to either of the professions to any thing has occurred since which has opportunity of testifying his high appreIt was at this time, however, that he
own mind.” formed a connexion which had, as he
of Mr. Burke; whereas, in the cold blood himself testifies, a most important bear The time now came at which it was of his preface, he pours on Calonne the ing on his future character. This was necessary for him to fix upon some pro- following pungent vituperation :-" That with the late Rev. Robert Hall, with fession—a necessity which, it would ap- minister, who has for some time exhibited whom he was ever after on terms of inti- pear, was very adverse to his tastes and to the eyes of indignant Europe specmate friendship, and for whom he enter pursuits. The medical profession was tacle of an exiled robber, living in the tained the highest veneration and regard. chosen; and Edinburgh having, of late most splendid impunity, has, with an efThe following testimony, as to the influ- years, attained an unrivalled celebrity in frontery that beggars invective, assumed ence of this intimacy on his mind, cannot I this branch of science, he repaired thither. in his work the tone of afflicted patriot
ism, and delivers his polluted Philippics | we rejoice to claim him as one of the ceived within those walls the obsequies of as the oracles of persecuted virtue.” most unwavering and valuable opponents a panegyric, more enduring than the ho
In 1792, Mr. Mackintosh entered him- of the atrocious system of West Indian nours of a monument or an epitaph. But self at Lincoln's Inn, and commenced the Slavery. His opinions on this subject these days have long passed away; and study of the law. It was whilst employed were most decided, and stood conspicn- we are left to rejoice, in the absence of in this pursuit, that he suffered a severe ous in his moral and political creed. He that tribute to which he was unquestiondomestic calamity in the loss of his wife; affirmed that he deemed it “the greatest ably entitled, that during bis life he and the depression of mind which this of all public questions ;” and, at a meet- achieved far more for his own immortaevent occasioned rendered it the more ing of the Anti-Slavery Society held in lity than could be expected from the desirable that he should occupy himself 1825, he summed up his views on this enthusiasm of posthumous veneration. in some congenial labours. He, there- point in the following terms :—“I feel fore, directed his chief attention to the the most zealous wishes for the success SLAVE AND PREE-LABOUR CONTRASTstudy of the law of nations, in which he of this cause, because I consider its suc ED: A HINT TO SLAVE-HOLDING
CULTIVATORS. is believed to have much excelled. Hav- cess indispensable to acquit the consciing digested the subject, he arranged the ences and clear the honour of the British A Writer in an American paper, says, “I plan of a course of lectures upon it, which people; because, in sincerity of soul, I was coming from Washington city the other he delivered at Lincoln's Inn, and which believe its success would, more than any where presently there came through the
day, and stopped at the half-way house; were listened to with admiration by some other measure, contribute to the safety lot thirteen horses, on each horse a negro, of the greatest men of the day. The in- and welfare of the European inhabitants and over each horse's shoulders a bag of oats. troductory lecture has been published, of the colonies; and lastly, and above They came along at a very slow walk, and and exhibits the genius and research of all, because I think it would raise a mil- stopped at the tavern well. I asked them how its author in a very advantageous light. lion of human beings to the condition of far they had come, and was answered, “half a This treatise was published in 1799, four men.”
mile;' and that each horse was to be watered; years after he had been called to the bar, To conclude this very imperfect sketch,
and that then they would proceed to a field at
some distance, to sow these oats. I remained during which time, he had entered into a which our limits of time and space forbid half an hour, and, when I left, they had not second marriage with the daughter of J. us to extend, we must glance, in few finished watering the horses. What would B. Allen, Esq. of Cressity, in the county words, at his other literary productions. these oats cost the cultivator of them, on such of Pembroke.
The principal of these is his History of a system? | presently passed a small new In 1803, a new scene opened upon him. England, of which a part only has ap- house, and about thirty'acres, well fenced, and M. Peltier, a French journalist, resident pædia, and the remainder has been found the father dropped manure from a cart drawn A prosecution had been set on foot against peared, in Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclo- divided into four fields ; and in one field were in London, at the instance of Buonaparte, since his death, as we understand, in by a yoke of oxen; one boy dropped the seed then First Consul of France, for a libel different degrees of completeness, and from the basket, and the other covered the hill upon himself.
Mr. Percival, afterwards in “shreds and patches,” very charac- before the manure became sun-dried and imprime minister, and the late Lord Tenter- teristic of the fitful temperament of the poverished. Thought I to myself, this man den (then Mr. Abbott), conducted the author. What we have been favoured will be able to undersell his wealthier neighiprosecution, and Mr. Mackintosh singly with, though, perhaps, the subject is not bour, in potatoes, and oats too, if he have any."
-Gen. Universal Emancipation. undertook the defence. The verdict was the most adapted to the favourable exhigiven against M. Peltier ; but the extra- bition of Sir James's talents, is impressed ordinary professional talent displayed by with all the prominent features of his in There is a striking disproportion in the Mr. Mackintosh marked him out as a tellectual character. The general plan comparative increase of the population of three person who might be employed in some and structure of it is highly philosophi- of the leading monarchies of Europe, during official station with great advantage to cal; the thought is free and vigorous ; the last ten or twelve years. England, Wales, his country. The Recordership of Bom- and occasionally we meet with the well- and Scotland, had 14,072,331 inhabitants in bay was accordingly offered to him in the known bursts of his rampant and impe- 1821, and, in 1831, 16,255,605, showing an same year, which, after some hesitation, tuous eloquence--the chafing of his ge- Prussia increased her population by 2,033,515 he accepted, and spent nine years in that nius, impatient of the chastening severity souls during the interval between 1817 and capacity, at the expiration of which he of the historical style. Besides this, we 1828, being an average increase of 184,846, was obliged to relinquish his arduous and have from his pen “ Discourses on the which, on an average population of 11,000,000, effective services, and return to England. Laws of England,” published in 1799; is far greater than our own; and France, during In 1813 he commenced his parliamentary and various admirable criticisms in the the same eleven years, exhibited an increase of
2,260,530 only, averaging but 205,502 a year, career, as representative of the county of Edinburgh and Monthly Reviews, are Naim, in Scotland. In the field of debate confidently attributed to his pen.
on an average population of scarcely more In
than 30,000,000. Had our population inhe had some serious difficulties to oppose aldition to these works his history creased at the rate of the Prussian, it ought to --a harsh voice, and a strong provincial of Moral and Metaphysical Science have given an average augmentation of 258,700 pronunciation.
These, however, soon will ever be esteemed among the most per annum, whilst the French should have yielded. His firm and consistent sup- valuable productions of his pen.
He added an average of 554,400 to its number, port of his principles, and his energetic died on the 30th of May in the present instead of only 205,502. and impassioned cloquence, soon gained year. In addition to what has already him the respectful attention of the house; been said of his character, we may add, and few men have shown more power to that it was graced with private and social tured in England, is estimated at £6,000,000
The first-cost of a year's cotton, manufaccompose or to agitate the stormy ele- virtues of a high order, which contributed sterling; the wages paid to 833,000 persons ments it contained, than did Sir James to the admiration of his talents the rarer employed in its manufacture, in various ways, on many memorable occasions. His ar- addition of personal affection from all is £20,000,000 sterling; the profit of the madour was chiefly directed to the reforma- who were privileged with his intimacy. nufacturers may be estimated at £6,000,000 tion of the criminal code, a task be- We cannot close without adverting to the at least. This gives a clear profit of £20,000,000 queathed to him by his unfortunate but silence and neglect with which the event the amount ; or the increased value of the highly-gifted friend, Sir Samuel Romilly. of Sir James Mackintosh's death was manufactured over the unwronght material is Various other questions received from treated in the House of Commons. There 31-40 to 1; and nearly a million of persons him occasional attention; but, above all, was a time when departed greatness re- besides get froin it constant employment.
open butchery to be resorted to, as among the Spar- | mities will be perpetrated, to induce this class of tans with the helots; or general emancipation and in- persons to leave the State. Who does not know
corporation, as in South America; or abandonment of that when a free negro, by erime or otherwise, has REMARKS ON THE COLONY of Liberia, and the country by the masters ?' Either of these was a rendered himself obnoxious to a neighbourhood,
THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION Society, deplorable catastrophe :--could all of them be how easy it is for a party to visit him one night, By C. STUART. London: J. Messeden. avoided ?-and if they could, how? There was take him from his bed and family, and apply to him 1832.
but one way, and it was to provide and keep open u the gentle admonition of a severe fiagellation, to A LETTER TO THOMAS Clarkson. By JAMES drain for the excess of increase, beyond the occasions induce him to consent to go away? In a few nights Cropper. And PREJUDICE VINCIBLE, &c. already opened. The African Repository, vol. 7, in the language of the physicians, quantum suff.
the dose can be repeated, perhaps increased, until, By C. STUART. Liverpool: Egerton, Smith,
page 246, says, “ Enough, under favourable cir- has been administered to produce the desired ope& Co. 1832.
cumstances, might be removed for a few successive ration; and the fellow then becomes perfectly willANTI-SLAVERY REPORTER. No. 102.
years, if young females were encouruged to go, to ing to move away. We class these publications together, as
keep the whole coloured population in check !!! *** Indeed, Sir, ALL OF US LOOK TO) FORCE of they relate to the sanie subject, and are emi-slave-holder, so far from having just cause to com- physical, legal or illegal. Many who are opposed,
“ In 14th Report, pages 12 and 13.—' And the some kind or other, direct or indirect, moral or nently adapted to disabuse the public mind in plain of the Colonization Society, has reason to they say, to any compulsory feature in the bill, reference to the character and design of the congratulate himself, that in this institution a desire to introduce such severe regulations into our American Colonization Society. It has been channel is opened up, in which the public feeling police laws-such restrictions of their existing with much pain we have discovered the truth and public action can flow on without doing vioprivileges--such inability to hold property, obtain of the case, and we feel it due to the cause of lence to his rights! The closing of this channel employment, rent residences, &c., as to make it humanity and truth unhesitatingly to an- might be calamitous to the slave-holder beyond his impossible for them to remain amongst us. nounce our conviction. In common with conception ; for the stream of benevolence that this force?' many friends of the Negro race, we hailed the now flows so innocently in it might then break out “ Mr. Fisher said :-- If we wait until the free first announcement of this Society as an omen in forms even far more disastrous than abolitionnegroes consent to leave the state, we shall wait
until time is no more. of good to Africa. We imagined it was based societies, and all their kindred and ill-judged mea
They never will give their sures.” on righteous principles, and would prove sub
consent; and, he believed, if the house amended servient to the happiness of the Negro and the The cloak under which this nefarious design the bill as proposed, and the compulsory principle civilization of Africa generally. In this con
is concealed is that of Christianizing Africa. forced to leave by the harsh treatment of the clusion we have erred, and we should not be “ The Society proposes to send, not one or two
whites.' honest to the Anti-slavery cause if we did not at pious members of Christianity into a foreign once seek to unmask the delusion. It is, probably, land, but to transport annually, for an indefi- and some similar proceedings in America, but
We could say much on the iniquity of this, known to many of our readers, that an agent nite number of years, in one view of its scheine of the Colonization Society is now in Eng- 6000, in another 56,000, missionaries of the the subject ere long, for the purpose of no
our limits forbid. We shall probably recur to land, soliciting pecuniary aid. His applica- descendants of Africa, itself to communicate ticing some points which we are compelled to tions have naturally led to some enquiries re the benefits of our religion and of the arts.".
omit at present.
In the meanwhile, let the specting the principles and listory of the So- Report of the Pennsylvania Col. Society, friends of humanity and constitutional freeciety, and we regret to say that the result has for 1830. And yet the same persons are de- dom discountenance the scheme as essentially been most unsatisfactory and painful. Mr. scribed in the Thirteenth Report of the General Cropper and Captain Stuart , whose names are Society, as an “ unfortunate, degraded, and unjust
, tending to the perpetuation of slavery, well known to the Anti-slavery public , and anomalous class.” “ They are,
emphatically,” which slavery is the hot-bed. “The term diawhose characters command universal respect
, it is said, “ a mildew upon our fields, a scourge bolical,” remarks Mr. Cropper, “is not too have coine forward, in the pamphlets before to our backs, and a stain upon our escutcheon. us, to acquaint the public with the true state To remove them is mercy to ourselves and severe; for never did Satan, with more sucof the case. The Anti-slavery Reporter, also, justice to them.” Again: Fifteenth Re- cess, transform himself into an angel of light,
than in the gloss which has covered its dehas taken up the subject, in its present num-port, “ The race in question were known, as ber, so that we hope the religious and humane a class, to be destitute, depraved, the victions formities.” That any of the philanthropists of of this country will be effectually guarded of all forms of social misery." Such is the America, or of our own country, should have against a misappropriation of their funds. inconsistency of error.
lent their influence to it, must have resulted
Africa is to be blessed The state of the case appears to be this—the with an importation of 56,000 missionaries from ignorance, and cannot long be continued. Colonization Society originates in the dis- annually, drawn from the lowest and most de Truth is omnipotent, and, though suppressed
for a season, will ultimately triumph. graceful prejudices of the white class in Ame- praved of the American population. rica, and is adapted to perpetuate slavery in The advocates of this Society shrink not the States by removing the competition which from proposing the most violent methods in
Ar the siege of Tortona, the commander of the arises from the presence of the free coloured order to accomplish its design. What will population. The slave-holders, therefore, are the British public think of the following lan-army, which lay before the town, ordered Carew,
an Irish other in the service of Naples, to ad. amongst its warmest supporters; while the guage employed in the Virginia House of
vance with a detachment to a particular post. free coloured people protest against its proDelegates :
Having given his orders, he whispered to Carew, ceedings, as based in unrighteousness and “ It is idle to talk about not resorting to force,' 'Sir, I know you to be a gallant man ; I have, tending to their ruin. The black population, said Mr. Broadnax, a member, every body must therefore, put you upon this duty. I tell you in both free and enslaved, is rapidly increasing: look to the introduction of force of some kind or confidence, it is certain death to you all. I place The former is already about half a million other; and it is in truth a question of expediency, you there to make the enemy spring a mine below the latter upwards of two millions. This in- of moral justice, of political good faith, whether you.”. Carew made a bow to the general, and erease terrifies the slave party, and they there face of the biĩl,
or leave the acquisition of extorted post. He there stood with an undaunted coun
ihen led on his men in silence to the dreadful fore propose to transport the free black to Africa, in the hope of being able more easily to only question of magnitude to be settled, is the for a draught of wine, “Here," said he, consent to other processes. The real question, the ienance; and, having called to one of his soldiers
I drink retain their slaves in bondage. This is not the great preliminary question-Do you intend to send to all those who bravely fall in battle.” For. representation of an enemy, but may fairly be the free persons of colour out of Virginia, or not? tunately at that instant 'Tortona capitulated, and gathered from their own Reports. Thus, in
“• If the free negroes are willing to go, they Carew escaped that destruction which he had so the Fifteenth Report, page 25, it is asked, will go——if not willing, they must be compelled to nobly displayed his readiness to encounter at the “What is the free black to the slave? A go. Some gentlemen think it politic not now to call of honour.- Percy Anecdotes. standing, perpetual excitement to discontent. insert this feature in the bill, though they proclaim The slave would have then little excitement to their readiness to resort to it when it becomes nediscontent, but for the free black; he would cessary; they think that for a year or two a suffi When the French Ambassador visited the illushave as little to habits of depredation, his next cient number will consent to go, and then the rest trious Bacon, in his illness, and found him in bed, strongest tendency, but from the same source
can be compelled. For my part, I deem it better with the curtains drawn, he addressed this fulsome of deterioration."
to approach the question and settle it at once, and compliment to him :-“ You are like the angels, avow it openly.
of whom we hear and read much, but have not the Again
"• I have already expressed it as my opinion, pleasure of seeing them.” The reply was the sen“ 15th Report, page 26.- If none were drained that few, very few, will voluntarily consent io emi timent of a philosopher, and language not unaway, slaves became inevitably and speedily re grate, if no COMPULSORY MEASURE be adopted. worthy of a Christian :-" If the complaisance of dundant, &c. &c. When this stage had been “I will not express, in its full extent, the idea others compares me to an angel, my infirmities tell reached, what course or remedy remained ? Was I entertain of what has been done, or what enor me I am a man."
BY J, H. WIFFIN.
PERHAPS that is nearly the perfection of good writing, which is original, but whose truth alone prevents the reader from suspecting that it is so : and which effects that for knowledge which the lens effects for the sun-beam, when it condenses its brightness in order to increase its force.-ColTON's Lacon.
Men carry their minds, for the most part, as they carry their watches, content to be ignorant of the constitution and action within, and attentive only to the little exterior circle of things to which the passions, like indexes, are pointing.–Foster.
The only humanity which, in the great affairs of men, claims their respect, is that manly and expanded humanity which fixes its steady eye on the object of general happiness.-Sir J. MACKINTOSH. The highest perfection of human reaso is to
ST. GERMAINS. know that there is an infinity of truth beyond its reach.-PASCAL.
The above is all that remains of a con- mains. Among them is a magnificent Nobility is the Corinthian capital of polished vent of Augustine canons, now forming tomb, erected in memory of Edward states.--BURKE.
part of a church, which constitutes the Eliot, uncle of the first Lord Eliot, with
chief object of interest in the little town a recumbent statue of the deceased, and LINES WRITTEN IN A LADY'S ALBUM. of St. Germains, in Cornwall. It con other figures, executed by Rysbrack.
tains several monuments of the Eliot fa- Here also is the monument of Walter
mily, upon the representative of which Moyle, an eminent writer, and intimate I would my lyre was as it was,
it confers the title of Earl of St. Ger-friend of Locke, who died in 1721. In days of other years, Ere grief had dimmed the magic glass
of Fancy with my tears; I would my passive soul bad took
800,000 SUBJECTS No tint but of this virgin book, All white as it appears ;
Of King William the IVth in Slavery. Then might I fitly hope to gain, Forgiveness for the page I stain.
TO ELECTORS. But life's a strange bewildering stream,
The following QUESTION is recommended to be put to every ParliaAnd 'tis not oft we find That following far our favourite dream, mentary Candidate, upon the subject of British Colonial Slavery.
Leaves no blank ebb behind ; Renown or love-gold-titles-stars
In the event of your becoming a member of the Whate'er our chase, it deeply mars
next Parliament, will you vote for and strenuously That music of the mind, To which, when life was smiling yet,
support measures for the immediate and' entire Its thousand stirring strings were set. abolition of Colonial Slavery ? And thus the discord grows, which turns
By the immediate abolition of Slavery is understood the substitution of Our gladness into gloom,
judicial for the private and irresponsible authority now exercised by the master, And hearts, like rose-leaves, cast in urns, Yield but a faint perfume :
securing to the Slave an equality of all Civil, Political, and Religious Rights I can restring the lyre no more,
with the free-born subjects of Great Britain.
Agency Anti-Slavery Society's Office, 18, Aldermanbury.
LANDSCAPE ANNUAL FOR 1833. The south-wind freshly blows; dominions of Austria, which has been attended THE INANTALY, for 1833
, illustrated with twenty-six
, It sometimes wakes the tuneless string, with singularly beneficial results, in diffusing beautiful Engravings' in line, from Drawings by 1. D. And waves the withered rose;
knowledge amongst the working classes, and, Harding: the Literary Department by Thomas Roscoe, Till both the flower and instrument, Give forth a music and a scent, in fact, amongst the people in general. No Esq:
Price One Guinea in Green Morocco. Large paper, Diviner from repose : village is without its school; and each school
with India Proofs of the Plates, royal 8vo. Green Morocco, Ev'n thus my spirit from its thrall,
is under the care of a master, who is paid by £2 125.6d. Awakes at thy enchanting call. the government. It is a law of the land, in
Twenty-six Illustrations to the above, delivered in a
Portfolio, Colombier 4to. the hereditary provinces, that no male can India Proofs before letters But, Mary, there's a swceter voice,
enter into the marriage state unless he is able A lovelier breeze abroad,
Proofs, white paper to read, write, and cast accounts; and every To bid the wilderness rejoice,
A few copies of each year, namely, 1830, 31, and 32, are And tune the lifeless chord ;
master is liable to a heavy penalty, if he em- left for sale at the prices above.
This, the fourth Volume, completes the Tour of Italy, by
write. Short publications of a moral charac JENNINGS AND CHAPLIN, 62, CHEAPSIDE. And Spirit of the Lord,
ter, which are compiled with great care, and Which, as it vibrates round us, brings sold at a low price, are circulated in every
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. All Eden on its healing wings.
town, and throughout every cabin in the coun The suggestions of our Reading Correspondent will
try. May we not refer it to this system, that receive our immediate attention. Come, Dove divine! immortal breath crimes are of extremely rare occurrence in the
We have received the Poetry of F.
Our thanks are due to S.
Parts I. and II. of “ The Tourist" are now ready
for delivery. Restring the broken chord, chastise
as public morals are concerned, if two execuTo goodness the lost soul that lies
tions take place at Vienna in the course of the Printed by J. Haddon and Co.; and Published In misery unmeant;
twelvemonth. Under what other sky, we may by J. Crisp, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternoster And for the blest Redeemer's sake, ask, is the schoolmaster abroad to so rich a Row, where all
Advertisements and CommuniOur living hearts thy Album make !
purpose ?-Quarterly Journal of Education. cations for the Editor are to be addressed.
EDUCATION IN AUSTRIA.
India Proofs with letters
3 3 2 2
But what strange arts, what magic can dispose any defect in the memory would be sup- taining only a chapter or small subdivi-
plied by the aid of imagination. As soon, sion of the whole work. This immense Others more wretched, more undone than we?
therefore, as the invention of means to collection, after various vicissitudes, was This, books can do-nor this alone ; they give supply the defects of tradition were dis- at last totally destroyed by order of Omar, New views to life, and teach us how to live ; covered, oral authority would be super- the Arabian caliph, A.D. 638; who, beThey soothe the grieved, the stubborn they chastise; seded by written, and collections of re- ing solicited to preserve it, returned the Fools they admonish, and confirm the wise ; Their aid they yield to all : they never shun cords be formed.
well-known answer : “ If these writings The man of sorrow, nor the wretch undone ; To the Hebrews is attributed, in the of the Greeks agree with the Koran they Unlike the hard, the selfish, and the proud, collection and preservation of the Sacred are useless, and not to be preserved : if They fly not sullen from the suppliant crowd ; -Nor tell to various people various things,
Writings, the earliest formation of a li- they disagree they are pernicious, and But show to subjects what they show to kings.
brary. The Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, ought to be destroyed."' Gibbon says, The Library.-Crabbe.
and many other nations, formed public “ The sentence was executed with blind
collections of books. The first literary obedience; the volumes of paper or From the earliest ages, and in every collection of the Greeks was established parchment were distributed to the four state of society, men have been desirous by Pisistratus of Athens, in the sixth thousand baths of the city, and such was of preserving testimonies and memorials century before Christ; that of the Ro- their incredible multitude, that six months of the achievements and glory of their mans by Asinius Pollio; and the cele- were barely sufficient for the consumption forefathers, their lustre being reflected on brated Alexandrian library by Ptolemy of this precious fuel." themselves. During many centuries, Philadelphus, 284 years B. c. This last But two centuries before this period the tradition alone conveyed from one gene-contained 700,000 volumes; by which northern hordes of barbarians had inration to another the deeds and story of we must 'not understand volumes such as vaded the Roman empire, which crumbled nations ; but it naturally, in course of our modern libraries are composed of, but to pieces under their unceasing attacks. time, became obscure and fabulous, as I rolls of papyrus or parchment, each con- In less than a century after their settle