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PUBLIC OPINION AN AUXILIARY TO ( its effect, such as Hyociamus, Opium, Bella- ( AN EXAMPLE FOR THE CLERGY OF CHRISTIANITY. donna, Cocculus, Indicus, Laura, Cerasus, &c.
ENGLAND, IN THE CONDUCT OF Malt liquors, therefore, act in two ways upon
CYPRIAN, AN AFRICAN BISHOP. If there be anything in this lower creation, the body, partly by the alcohol they contain, with which men have to do, and which has to and partly by the narcotic principle. In addi
“Numidia, a country adjoining to Carthage, do with men, and yet wo ghostly to be made tion to this, the fermentation which they on in Africa, had been blessed with the light of the subject of a definition, it is public opinion. dergo is much less perfect than that of spirits the gospel, in the third century a number Though we cannot tell what it is, no one doubts or wine. After being swallowed, this process of churches were planted in it. By an irrupits existence; though it does not present itself is carried on in the stomach, by which fixed tion of the barbarous nations, many Numidian in palpable forms, all men feel it. Its secret air is copiously liberated, and the digestion of
converts were carried into captivity.”
In an and invisible influence operates on every mind, delicate stomachs materially iippaired. and modifies every one's conduct. It has “ Persons addicted to malt liquors increase epistle written by Cyprian, the Bishop of Carubiquity, and a species of omniscience; and enormously in bulk. They become loaded thage, on this occasion, he says, “ Who, if he there is no power on earth so stern in its cha- with fat, their chin gets double or triple, the be a father, does not now feel as if his sons racter, so steady, so energetic, so irresistible in eye prominent, and the whole face bloated and band, is not affected as if his own wife were
Every other power inust do homage stupid. Their circulation is clogged, while at its altar, and ask leave to be. The thrones the pulse feels like a cord, and full and la- in that calamitous situation ? This must be the
case, if we have but the common sympathy of of kings stand by its permission, and fall at its bouring, but not quick. During sleep, the
men. Then, how great ought our mutual sorrow beck. It is a power that lives, while men die,- breathing is stertorous. Every thing indicates to be, on account of the danger of the virgins and builds and fortifies its entrenchments on the an excess of blood, and when a pound or two who are there held in bondage ? Our brethren, graves of the generations of this world. With is taken away, immense relief is obtained.
ever ready to work the work of God, but now every substantial improvement of society, itself The blood, in such cases, is more dark and much more quickened by great sorrow and improves; with every advancement of society, sizy than in others. In seven cases out of ten, anxiety to forward so salutary a concern, have itself plants its station there, and builds upon malt-liquor drunkards die of apoplexy or palsy: freely and largely contributed to the relief
, and never yields. Time and the revolutions if they escape this hazard, swelled liver or the distressed captives. For, whereas the of this world are alike and equally its auxili- dropsy carries them off. The abdomen seldom Lord says in the gospel, 'I was sick and ye aries, and contribute by their influence to its loses its prominency, but the lower extremities visited me ;' with how much stronger approbamaturity and increasing vigour. And this is get ultimately emaciated. The effects of malt tion would he say, 'I was a captive and ye rethe power which has adopted Christianity, liquors on the body, if not so immediately deemed me! Ånd when, again, ħe says, ' I and set itself up its advocate and defender, in rapid as those of ardent spirits, are more stu
was in prison, and ye came to nie;' how much the bands of an Almighty Providence. pifying, more lasting, and less easily removed.
more is it in the same spirit to say, 'I was in In the days of the apostles, and in subsequent The last are particularly prone to produce the prison of captivity among barbarians, and ages, the public opinion of the world stood levity and mirth; but the first have a stunning ye freed me from the dungeon of slavery; ye marshalled against Christianity. And it was influence upon the brain, and in a short time shall receive your reward of the Lord in the not until after the political and moral convul- render dull and sluggish the gayest disposition. day of judgment.' Truly we thank you very sions of eighteen centuries-convulsions, in the They also produce sickness and vomiting more
much that ye wished us to be partakers of bosom of which Christianity has been making readily than either spirits or wine. Both wine your solicitude, and of a work so good and its bed and planting its seeds: it was not and malt liquors have a greater tendency to necessary. We have sent a hundred thousand until Spiritual Babylon had thoroughly dis-swell the body than ardent spirits. gusted and astounded the world by her arro
“The most dreadful effects, upon the whole, tion of our clergy and laity of the church of
sesterces (about 781 sterling), the collecgance
and abominations ;-it was not until the are brought on by, spirits; but drunkenness Carthage, which you will dispense forth with Sun of the Reformation, rolling on to the West
, from malt liquors is the most speedily fatal. according to your diligence. If, to try our had gone down in that region where first he The former break down the body by degrees, faith and love, such aflictions should again rose, and opened again his morning twilight on the latter operate by some instantaneous apo- befal you, hesitate not to acquaint us ; and be Luther's grave;—it was not until infidelity had plexy, or rapid inflammation. No one has assured of the hearty concurrence of our done its worst, and played such tricks before ever given the respective characters of the church with you, both in prayer and in cheerful high heaven, as made the angels weep;?—it was malt-liquor and ardent-spirit drunkard, with contributions."--Milner's Church History. not until Mohammedism and Paganism had greater truth than Hogarth, in his · Beer Alley, wearied out the patience, and drank the very and Gin Lane. The first is represented as life-blood of the most enduring hope of man, and plump, rubicund, and bloated; the second, as man had tried every possible expedient to work pale, tottering, and emaciated, and dashed
APHORISMS. out his own redemption, but the only true one; over with the aspect of blank despair.”—Dr. -it was not until every human and every dia- Macnish's Anatomy of Drunkenness. bolical invention, to overthrow the found ns
There are in nature certain fountains of justice,
whence all civil laws are derived, but as streams; and defeat the designs of Christianity, had been
FREE PEOPLE OF COLOUR, and like as waters do take tinctures and tastes exhausted--Christianity in the meantime and
from the soils through which they run, so do civil all the while gradually settling down and gain From Walsh's Notices of Brazi'.
laws vary according to the regions and governments ing a stronger hold on the affections of man
“ The number of free blacks and mulattos where they are planted, though they proceed from kind;--it was not until all these grand events, is very considerable already in the country. It the same fountains.--- Bacon, and all that is comprehended in them, had is calculated of the former, that there are No schism in the body politic can be more fatal transpired in the providence of God, that the 160,000 ; and of the latter 430,000, making than that which alienates the hands from the head, world seems to have consented, evidently con- about 600,000 free men, who were either slaves the physical strength of society from its presiding sented, that Christianity should reign. And themselves, or the descendants of slaves.
intelleci.-ROBERT Hall. here is the point, at which the enterprise of These are, generally speaking, well-conducted write ; but error is a scribbled one on which we
Ignorance is a blank sheet on which we may Christians of these times may safely begin. and industrious persons; and compose,
indisThis is the ground which they ought to assume, criminately, different orders of the community;
must first erase.-Colton's Lacon. as all cleared and settled at their hands.
It is in literature, as in finance, much paper and there are among them, merchants, farmers, doc- much poverty may co-exist.—Colton's Lacon. Calvin Colton. tors, lawyers, priests, and officers of different To be attached to the subdivision, to love the
ranks. Every considerable town in the in- little platoon we belong to in society, is the first
terior, has regiments composed of them; and principle, the germ, as it were, of public affections. PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF INTOXICA
I saw, at Villa Rica, two corps of them, one -BURKE.
consisting of four companies of free blacks, Faith says many things concerning which the "Malt liquors, under which title we in- and the other of seven companies of mulattos senses are silent, but nothing which the senses deny: clude all kinds of porter and ales, produce the The benefits arising from them, have greatly it is always superior to them, but never contrary to
them.-- PASCAL. worst species of drunkenness, as, in addition to disposed the whites to consider the propriety the intoxicating principles, some noxious in- and necessity of gradually amalgamating the derstand, is of a wider circumference to one crea
The sphere in which we move, and act, and ungredients are usually added, for the purpose of rest with the free population of the country, ture than another, according as we rise one above preserving them and giving them their bitter. and abolishing for ever that outrage upon another in the scale of existence; but the widest The hop of these fluids is highly narcotic; and the laws of God and man—the condition of a of these our spheres has its circumference.-ADbrewers often add other substances to heighten slave."
TO MR. POWELL BUXTON.
tinction of slavery, when it can be accomplished by the liberal offer of making them "of any deno.
I feel so convinced that these statements have
have borne, it seems, all sorts of calumny with ex- consistency. Will you allow me to suggest the Sir,--So satisfied should I be to leave what you emplary patience, “ until sanctioned by so respect- best solution of the difficulty I can arrive at-a term “ the controversy between us” in the hands able a person as Sir C. B. Codrington." I might, solution which I have found to unravel many a of the electors of Gloucestershire (to whom your Sir, have been fattered by such an expression, had discordant statement coming from the West In: language is evidently addressed), that I would pass it not been
preceded (scarce many days) by an ob- dies respecting the character and capabilities of unnoticed your letter of the 21st ult., did I not
servation, that you was not even aware of the the negro ? It is this : that he is idle when he indulge a hope that I might tempt you by an offer existence of such a person." You have honoured works for his master-industrious when he works which might go some way towards putting your me, Sir, with an introduction to your grandfather's for himself—diligent when supplied with a motive philanthropy to the negroes, as well as my own, to sister, but you have omitted to introduce me to ---inert when all motives are withdrawn. Does The test. But let me first request that
, if you your grandfather himself. Far be it from me to this argue peculiar sloth in the negro race? Is it should honour me with any further notice, you will doubt any thing that comes from so respectable a explain why every statement coming from me must be untrue, every expression intended to mislead? person as Mr. Fowell Buxton; still farther be it plexion, and the characteristic of every family of “What, in my first letter, 1 bad called vessels, turers who, fortunately for themselves, have es- toils, not because he loves labour for its own
to couple your name with a set of vagabond lec- man ? Take the most laborious of the whites; he are, in my second, dwiudled into boats ; my negroes, instead of making constant exports of pro
caped from the West Indies just before the halter sake, but because he covets the reward of labour. visions, now make only occasional shipments--a
was round their necks; you have, however, pro- Now, slavery is labour without reward. The exfalling off which (you state) exposes their wretch
nounced my name as a slave-owner to be synony- ertion is required, but the motive is wanting.
mous with villain. Now, Sir, there are obstinale Here lies the incurable evil of the system : we edness." I thank you, Sir, for this assertion, as it people who still assert that your grandfather had deny to the negro those motives to which nature comprehends in itself the proof of every foul libel considerable property in land and slaves in the has given an all-powerful influence, and we suputtered against the West India planter. But, Sir, my vessels shall be of any denomination you
island of Barbadoes; that some 35 or 36 years ago ply their place by the rigour of the whip, and by choose to give them; they are built to convey a
he sent out the late Mr. Holden (indeed the in. those other rugged expedients which exiort invofew oxen or sheep from Barbuda to the neighbour
formation came from Mr. Holden himself) to dis- luntary, and therefore feeble, efforts, much to the ing islands; they are manned (mark me) by my
pose of that property ; that it was so disposed of misery of the slave, and as much, I apprehend, to
for a large sum of money, a proportion of which the injury of his employer. This consideration own slaves only, who have thus an almost daily
was invested in property at Weymouth, which gave brings me to the conclusion that all ameliorating opportunity of putting themselves on board vessels the right of voting, and in virtue of which property measures are comparatively but idle dreams; they bound to North America, France, or even that land of liberty, England. But“ my negroes send | I vouch not for the truth of these assertions ; but, system continues to be LABOUR WITHOUT WAGES,
you possess your present influence in that borough. assail not the root of the mischief; so long as the only occasional shipments.; they cannot keep if they are matters of fact, the electors of 'Wey- so long must it be unprofitable to the master, and themselves at all during three-fourths of their mouth doubtless will know how to appreciate your a fruitful source of wretchedness to the slave, time.” A curious argument this to prove their claims to represent them in a Reformed Parliament.
Of the wretchedness of the slaves in our West wretchedness: they are so well sed, they have so
I have the honour to remain, Sir,
India colonies you
“ dare me to the proof." I little occasion (to say nothing of inclination) to
Your humble servant,
have already adverted to one proof of that wretchwork for themselves, that, with ten or twelve acres
C. BETHELL CODRINGTON. edness, which, I persuade myself, carries convicallowed them, the land is left uncultivated three
tion to every rational and unbiassed mind-viz., fourths of the year.
That iN ELEVEN YEARS OUR SLAVE POPULATION To this assertion, then, of wretchedness, I dare
HAS DECREASED FIFTY-TWO THOUSAND. When you you to the proof: you have not in your brewery a
TO SIR C. BETHELL CODRINGTON, BART.
have discovered a satisfactory reply to this faci, I man less wretched than one of those wretched
have other proofs in reserve almost as cogent. slaves, not one of whom would change situations Sir,-You express a desire that the correspond I now come, Sir, to the principal point of your with them. And this leads me to the offer by ence between us should cease. That correspond-letter. You do me the honour to make me a very which this state of wretchedness may be deter ence was not begun by me, nor am I now in any handsome proposal, the effect of which would be mined. In my last, I ventured a belief that your haste to close it, being persuaded that the more to get me out of the way during the impending humanity to the slaves had never led you to visit the question of slavery is discussed the more truth discussions on slavery. I presume not to doubt those colonies. If I can tempt you (in the cause will prevail.
your zeal for emancipation, of which we have of the wretched slave) to trust yourself across the You ask me to explain “Why every statement heard so much. But, perhaps, I may assist in Atlantic, one of my vessels shall convey you from coming from you must be untrue, every expression accomplishing the object you so earnestly "cover" any neighbouring isle to Barbuda ; while there you intended to mislead?” I am sure I never meant as directly by staying at home. sball have every accommodation free of expense; -I trust no expression of mine can be construed I shall certainly labour hard to promote the and I pledge myself to give you, at the end of one to mean—that you have wilfully misled the public. liberation, not only of your proffered boat-load, week, the power of manumitting a boat-load (not I believe you to be incapable of any such purpose, but of the remaining seven hundred and fifty exceeding fifty) of those wretched slaves, on the and I make the acknowledgment the more frankly, thousand. following conditions, viz. :-Their manumission because I disdain to follow the example of those You call the slave your absolute property. shall not be compulsory ; you shall fully explain who mingle in a public discussion the bitterness Here, indeed, is precisely the point on which we to them the difference between their present and of private slander. 'All I have done is to compare, are at issue. I venture to call your property in future state; and, as their number has increased one with another, the statements of your several him, however acquired, an usurpation. I deny beyond any means I can find of employing them, letters. Some of them I have certainly found it that any human being, or body of men, can have they shall quit my property. Doubtless, Sir, you difficult to reconcile ; for instance, in your first had power to give him to you. My creed is, that will favour the public with a full and candid state letter you assure us that “many of your slaves to every individual born into the world belongs ment of the condition in which you found them, as have ten or eleven acres in cultivation.” In your the absolute right to his own limbs, his own làto food, clothing, comforts, and contentment. If last it is said that, " with ten or twelve acres al bour, his own liberty, to his wife, to his children, you accept my offer, I shall be glad again to hear lowed them, the land is left uncultivated.” Again, to the enjoyment of entire freedom; and to the from you': if you reject it, I must beg to decline in your first letter, the negroes are described as so unrestricted worship of his God. I know, in further controversy.
industrious as not only to support themselves, but short, no claim you can plead to extort from him And now, Sir, a few words as to manumission to make considerable exports. In the second, bis unrewarded labour, which an Algerine might generally. You do not covet it more than I do, "the melancholy fact" is confessed, that they not plead, with equal force, to hold in bondage when it can be bestowed beneficially to the slave are so idle that they cannot maintain themselves; his Christian captives—ABSOLUTE PROPERTY IN himself. It cannot benefit him, without my re- and, in the third, by way of mending the matter, OUR FELLOW MAN!!! ceiving my share of that benefit. He is a slave you have given us a definition of their state which I now come to a point which you truly call of by no act of the planter, but by the laws of Eng. is entirely new, and as entirely at variance with minor importance. "You charged me with having land: by the same laws he is my absolute pro- both the preceding-viz., that they have no occa- sold my slaves. I distinctly denied that I ever perty, of which I cannot justly be deprived without sion to work for themselves. This is something possessed, bought, sold, or hired a slave. You compensation. By the colonial laws, he cannot distinct both from industry and idlevess—it can then bring, as a crime against me, that my ances. be entirely manumitted; nay, shudder not, Sir ! not claim the merit of the one, nor can it be tors were possessed of West India property. I by that humane and salutary law I have no power charged with the reproach of the other. The slaves have already told you that some of my near relaof freeing myself, even after his manumission, seem to me to have a new character in every let- tions inherited the remnants of property derived from feeding, clothing, and supporting him ; if ter—now they are idle, now industrious, and now from the West Indies; but that, to the best of my either he turns out a vagabond, or in his old age. neither industrious nor idle. Their fields, at your belief (and, in the difficulty of ascertaining exIf, then, you force improvident manumission, you bidding, are cultivated or uncultivated; the very actly the source from whence property is derived, convert that into a cuise which might eventually craft which carry their potatoes and poultry are it is impossible to say more), no part of that pro. be a blessing. I repeat, Sir, that no man will see alternately expanded into vessels or contracted perty descended to me. I adhere to my original with more satisfaction than myself the total ex into boats; and you close these transformations' statement, that I never was master of a slave,
TO THE EDITOR OF THE TOURIST.
ANECDOTE OP PAINTING.
“ have escaped
ence in the borough of Weymouth. With respect the people of the real nature of slavery, and it by the officers of the port for non-payment of the
and, to the best of my knowledge and belief, I am not, and never have been, owner of a shilling derived from slavery.
A little time ago I was talking to a liberal
The following is an extract from a letter adBut, allow.me to ask, What if I had ? Should minded man from the West Indies, respecting sister in Liverpool - As I am upon the subject
dressed by a young gentleman in London to his I owe less obligation to the negro if I had even
of painting, I will mention to you an anecdote remotely participated in the fruits of his oppres- ously abused in the islands. He said, “When
which I heard related by Hofland (a celebrated sion, and been enriched by his spoils ? Prove, if
ever you hear of a man being evil-spoken of, and you can, that I ever sold a man, knowing, as I persecuted in the West Indies, depend upon it he landscape composer), regarding two of the finest must have done, that he could not by any pos being a respectable character.” I have lately is a good, honest man; it is a sure sign of his pictures which are in this, or, perhaps, any other
country ; they are the works of the inmortal sibility belong to me; and you, indeed, fix deeper been reminded of this criterion of character, by
Claude. A nobleman, whose name I now forget, guilt upon me. Prove, if you can, that my ancestors were slave-owners, and that the produce of the obloquy that has been attempted to be thrown purchased them in Italy, and sent them over to that property descended to me-I acknowledge no upon the Agency Anti-Slavery Committee by all this country, directed to a friend, with instruccriminality, for I was no party to their acts ; but, parties, except those few who are really concerned tions for him to pay the duty upon them, which
amounted to £27 10s., and to preserve them careI admit you show me that I have one motive more for the good of their poor oppressed fellow-creatures,
fully until his return. These instructions the to labour in the cause of the negro.
the slaves. I hope the Agency Committee will not I will not stop to point out how grossly you be discouraged they are pursuing the most ef- friend never received ; and, when the pictures
were landed at Dover, nobody being there to have been deceived as to my property and influ- fective means of procuring an early annihilation
the . Lei them go to
make any inquiries about them, they were seized influence in borough, pretend to , save that for many years I have been the reprewill soon come to an end. I believe there is yet duty, and were put to public auction, as is cus
tomary in these cases, for that purpose. Strange sentative of the real independence of the town. A religion and humanity enough in the country to struggle is approaching, in which it will be de accomplish this, even if policy, and an attention enough to see the merits of these stupendous proarizes from property, or from the independent England to call for the abolition of a system of in unsold, £17 being the greatest offer for them. choice of the electors. I cannot think why you have dragged my con- paying. I sincerely wish the Agency Committee Shortly after this the nobleman arrived in England,
and ins'antly wrote to his friend about his prostituents at Weymouth into this controversy, but prosperity ; and that, instead of being diverted
perty. you could not have chosen judges more to my mies and false friends, they may go straight for: from their purpose by quarrelling with their ene
You may imagine, by the sequel, what
was his surprise when his friend returned for mind.
answer that he was extremely sorry to say that he I will only add to this already too long letter, immediate abolition of slavery throughout the ward towards their grand object-the entire and
was entirely ignorant of such things existing. that I have to wish to avail myself of your per
The thought which struck him first was to mission to separate my name from those “
British dominions. vaga
proceed to the landing-place, Dover; and, after bond lecturers” who, as you say,
A TRUE ABOLITIONIST. several inquiries, he at last found his treasures from the West Indies just before the halter was
thrown by in an old wareroom, amidst a heap of round their necks;" on the contrary, I desire no
confiscated rubbish. He paid the £27 10s. joygreater honour than to be justly classed with
fully, and the pictures were given up to him. those brave and good men, who, for a righteous
Two years after this those pictures were put up cause, have borne the horrors of persecution, and
for sale, and purchased by Mr. Beckford, of Fonito whose heroism future generations in the West
hill Abbey, for 12,000 guineas; when that gesIndies will owe much of their civil and religious
tleman sold his magnificent domain to Farquhar, liberty.
According to naturalists, à scorpion will pro the pictures were taken along with it, for the oriOne word more, and I have done. Appearances duce 65 young ; a common fly will lay 144 eygs; ginal price ; when the latter died they were again which are hourly coming to light so deeply impressa leech 150; and a spider 170. I have seen a put to the hammer, and bought by Angerstein, my mind, that I cannot help saying, with all the hydrachna produce 600 eggs, and a female moth for an advance of 3,000 guineas, making the sum emphasis of which I am capable, let us lay aside 1100. A tortoise, it is said, will lay 1000 eggs, and 15,000 guineas ; and when his collection was purour differences, and commence instantly the ne a frog 1100. A gall insect has laid 5000 eggs; a chased by government, as public property, ihey cessary measures for a safe and immediate eman shrimp 6000; and 10,000 have been found in the
were taken at a valuation of 16,000 guineas, and cipation.
they are, at this moment, the most splendid ornaThe fact is, our time for emancipating at all is ovary, or what is supposed to be that part, of an
. One naturalist found above 12,000 ments in the British Gallery.” fast drawing to a close ; let us avail ourselves of eggs in a lobster, and another above 21,000. An it, while a peaceful extinction of slavery remains insect very similar to an ant (Mutilla?) has prowithin our power; we are all equally fervent induced 80,000 in a single day; and Leeuwenhoeck
THE HEAVENLY REST. the desire that it should not meet its end by vio
seems to compute 4,000,000 in a crab. Many There is an hour of peaceful rest, lent convulsions.
fishes, and those which in some countries seldom To mourning wanderers given ; With this solemn warning to you, and, through occur, produce incredible numbers of eggs. Above
There is a tear for souls distressed, you, to every Englishman who may read this 36,000 have been counted in a herring ; 38,000 in A balm for every wounded breastletter, I beg to subscribe myself, a smelt; 1,000,000 in a sole ; 1,130,000 in a
'Tis found above-in heaven. Sir, your obedient humble servant,
roach ; 3,000,000 in a species of sturgeon ; There is a sost, a downy bed, Cromer, Oct. 24. T. Fowell Buxton. in a mackerel ; 992,000 in a perch ; 1,357,000 in 342,000 in a carp; 383,000 in a tench ; 546,000 Fair as the breath of even ;
A couch for weary mortals spread, a flounder. But, of all fishes hitherto discovered,
Where they may rest the aching head, the cod seems the most fertile. One naturalist
And find repose in heaven.
There is a home for weary souls,
eggs; another 9,000,000 ; and a third 9,444,000.
By sin and sorrow driven ;
When tossed on life's tempestuous shoals,
Where storms arise and ocean rolls, text, " Burning for burning, wound for wound, 13,000,000 of eggs; which is a number so asto
And all is drear but heaven. stripe for stripe," is extracted from Sir W. Ouse- nishing and immense, that, without demonstraley's edition of Burckhardt's Notes on the Be- tion, we could never believe it true.
There faith lifts up the fearful eye, douios:-" In a skirmish between the Maazy The fecundity of insects is no less remarkable The heart with anguish riven, Arabs and those of Sinai, in 1813, the former, by than that of fishes. In some instances, particu.
And views the tempest passing by; chance, wounded a woman of the latter, who, larly in those already mentioned, the numbers The evening shadows quickly fly, however, soon recovered. In the year following, produced from the eggs of a single female far And all serene in heaven. the Sinai Arabs made an incursion into the Maazy exceed the progeny of any other class of animals.
There fragrant flowers immortal bloom, territory, surprised an encampment near Cosseir, It is this extraordinary fecundity which, under
And joys supreme are given; killed eight or len men, and were going to retire, favourable circumstances, produces countless when one of them recollected the wound that had swarms of insects that give origin to the opinion
There rays divine disperse the gloom;
Beyond the confines of the tomb been inflicted on female in the preceding year; of their being spontaneously generated by putrehe, therefore, turned upon the Maazy women, faction, or brought in some mysterious way by
Appears the dawn of heaven.
Jamaica Watchman, July 13, 1832. who were sitting before their tents weeping, and, blighiing winds. The numerous accidents, how. with his sabre, wounded one of them, to avenge ever, to which insects are exposed, from the the blood of his countrywoman. His companions, deposition of the egg till their tinal transformaalthough they applauded what he had done, ac- tion, tend to keep their numbers from becoming Printed by J. Haddon and Co.; and Published knowledged they should not like to imitate his excessive, or to reduce them when they are at any by J. Crisp, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternoster example.” This is the only circumstance of such time more than commonly numerous.—Insect Row, where all Advertisements and Communia nature that was ever mentioned to me. Transformations.
cations for the Editor are to be addressed.
FECUNDITY OP INSECTS AND FISHES.
The elephant, from its stupendous size | position, has always been an object of service of man, a matter of questionable and strength, from the curious adapta- great curiosity and interest to the natu- expedience ; but combined with the latter tions observable in its structure, and from ralist. The former characteristics alone they have, in some instances, recomits sagacious, docile, and affectionate dis- would make the employment of it, in the mended him as an auxiliary of no small
importance. His services have been chiefly called into exercise. The impediment ( never esteemed there but as a curiof a military kind; and it is in the capa- which pioneers could not remove without osity. The Romans bad seen, in many city of a soldier that we now propose to great labour and consequent delay, the instances, the dreadful effects of a panic give a short account of him. three elephants speedily overcame. The
amongst them in battle, and judged that It is not certainly ascertained at what high grass was trampled under their feet, they would rather" weaken than assist time elephants were first employed in the thick bushes yielded to their prodi- their armies. Indeed, the Roman army battle. We have notices of them as early gious weight, the slender trees were appears peculiarly ill calculated for deas Semiramis ; but the records from which broken off at the stems—the path was riving advantage from their adoption. they are drawn lie beyond that line at open for troops to follow.
Their dependence on courage and an acwhich history loses its authority, by merg Many of our most arduous military curate knowledge of military tactics, rening into tradition and fable. The first operations have been greatly indebted for dered them independent of such aid ; credible account of them is in the war of their success to the sagacity, patience, and the rapidity and order of their evoluCyrus against an Indian tribe; and the and exertion of elephants. Exclusive of tions would have been impeded and destatement of their numbers even on this their utility in carrying baggage and stroyed by the presence of those vast and occasion must be rejected as one of the stores, considerable aid is frequently sup- unwieldy creatures. exaggerations so frequently met with in plied by the judgment they display, bor The only use therefore, which they. the history of remote ages. Later writers, dering very closely on When made of them was, to adorn the triumphs however, speak in positive terms of the cannon require to be extricated from of their generals, and to add dignity to immense numbers of elephants with sloughs, the elephant, placing his fore- their funereal and religious processions. which the kings of India went to war. head to the muzzle, which when limbered Julius Cæsar, indeed, seems sometimes Little was known of them to Euro- is the rear of the piece, with an energy to have had the elephant in his armies, peans until the conquests and disco- scarcely to be conceived, will urge it but he appears to have attached very veries of Alexander the Great; nor through a bog from which hundreds of little importance to their use, and only rewere they much better known to some oxen or horses could not drag it; at other tained them to give courage to his soldiers eastern nations, as is evident from the times, lapping his trunk round the can where they were likely to be opposed by fact that the name of the animal is not to non, he will lift while the cattle and men the same description of force, or to strike be found in the Hebrew language. It is pull forward. The native princes attach a panic into those nations who were ununcertain whether Alexander used them an elephant to each cannon, to aid its used to this mode of warfare. Subseor not. Certain ancient medals repre- progress in emergencies.”
quently to his time, they were scarcely sent him mounted on an elephant; but Some years after the death of Alex- used at all by the Romans, except in the Sir Thomas Browne reckons the opinion ander, the Egyptians, under Ptolemy the blood-thirsty sports of the circus; and in among “vulgar errors." There is no First and his successors, first adopted the the time of Justinian, A. D. 527, we are doubt, however, that Porus used them in use of these animals in their wars against told that an elephant was esteemed a cuconsiderable numbers in the great deci- the rival Macedonian generals. It was riosity both at Rome and Constantinople. sive battle against him, and in the former from the experience they obtained in We see that we have rather confused part of the day with success ; until the these wars of the formidable power of the chronology of our history by our alluGreeks directed all their efforts against the elephant, that they first learned its sions to the more recent wars in India. them; chopping their legs with axes, and use; and, having ample opportunities of It only remains to say, that the elephant cutting off their trunks with a crooked obtaining them from the Ethiopian fo- is rarely mentioned in the accounts of the weapon resembling a scythe. Upon this rests, they soon placed themselves on an wars of the last half-century, between the animals became infuriated and un equality with their enemies.
the British in India and the native troops ; manageable, and, turning on their own It was in the year 280, B. C., that the though he is still used by a few of the ranks, assisted the enemy in the frightful elephant was first seen in Italy, in the native powers, the farthest removed from slaughter that ensued. This appears from army of Pyrrhus, King of Epirus. This European influences. history to have been most frequently the monarch brought them over in his cam
SLAVERY. case when elephants have been employed paign against the Romans, and in the There is no flesh in man's obdurate heart, in the field of battle; though, in the less first battle gained a complete victory by It does not feel for man ; the natural bond. active and dangerous parts of a campaign, means of them. Shortly after, however, of brotherhood is severd, as the flax they have often been found invaluable. the Romans contrived a method of That falls asunder at the touch of fire. In the march of an Indian army, for in- averting their overwhelming attack by Not colour'd like his own; and, having pow's stance, there are peculiar circumstances carrying lighted torches against them. To enforce the wrong, for such a worthy cause in which their aid is indispensable. This This was doubly successful, as it not only Dooms and devotes him as his lawful prey; is clearly illustrated by the following pas- secured the Romans, but turned the And, worse than all, and most to be deplor’d, sage from a recent work on this subject: strength of the elephants against their As human nature's broadest, foulest blot,
Chains him, and tasks him, and exacts his sweat “ The progress of an army through a own party, and within four years after their with stripes, that Mercy, with a bleeding heart, country intersected with good roads is introduction into Italy, they had ceased Weeps, when she sees inflicted on a beast. direct and speedy. In the newly acquired to be formidable.
Then what is man? And what man seeing this, territories of India, remote from Euro In the Punic wars, however, the Ro
And having human feelings, does not blush,
And hang his head, to think himself a man? pean settlements, thick jungles, extensive mans had to contend with them in much
I would not have a slave to till my ground, bogs, and precipitous mountains, offer greater numbers. When Xantippus, the To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, impediments to an invader, which only Lacedemonian general took the command And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth the most undaunted perseverance could of the Carthagenian army, he made such That sinews bought and sold have ever earn’d.
No: dear as freedom is, and in my heart's overcome. In such situations, the power good use of this part of his forces Just estimation prized above all price, of the elephant is called into action. In that he completely routed the Roman 1 had much ratlier be myself the slave, a · Narrative of the late Burmese War,' army; but at the siege of Panormus And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him.
Slaves cannot breathe in England ; if their lungs the writer says, • The road lay partly (Palermo) some time after, a vast num
Receive our air, that moment they are free. through a thick jungle; but, with the aid ber of them were driven back, by a That's noble, and bespeaks a nation proud of three elephants, a passage was forced.' shower of darts, upon their own ranks, And jealous of the blessing. Spread it, then, Here the strength which the animal ordi- and a hundred of them were taken And let it circulate through every vein narily employs in a state of nature was alive and sent to Rome. They were
Of all your empire; that, where Britain's power