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Thy chains are broken, thou art free at last!

Ah! is it true, and does no doubt remain ?
Is there no grief in store this bliss to blast,

Is this no prelude to an age of pain?
Slave, thou art free! has freedom come too late;

The words seem meaningless-no joy is there;
Each victim is resigned to meet his fate,

Each eye is upward cast in mute despair. Slave thou art free! there's no treachery here,

Blest Liberty! a Briton's boast is thine; Wipe from thy sable cheek the rolling tear,

And let thine eye in undimmed radiance shine. Free I like an electric shock conviction cameTruth, white-robed Truth, has won their hearts

at last:
Farewell to blood, to agony, to shame,

The bitterness of separation's past.
Free! what a flash from those black eyes was there,
What rows of pearl does that wild laugh un.

sheath :
“Free, we are free !" can human nature bear

This burst of joy, nor sink awhile beneath? Madly they rush into each other's arms,

Each babe is to its mother's bosom pressed, No more the driver's whip creates alarms,

Britain has put each horrid fear to rest. Dear Liberty ! how beautiful thou art,

How sweet thy reign will in Jamaica be; How will the shout arise from every heart.

Her chains are broken, Africa is free!"

THE MAN OF INTEGRITY. conscientious man of business, the pious It will not take much time to delineate the worshipper, the public-spirited citizen." He

assumes no borrowed appearance. He seeks character of the man of integrity, as by its no mask to cover him ; for he acts no stupid pature it is a plain one, and easily under

part ;

but he is indeed what he apppears stood. He is one, who makes it his constant

to be, full of truth, candour, and humanity. rule to follow the road duty, according as the In all his pursuits, he knows no path, but word of God, and the voice of his conscience,

the fair and direct one; and would much point it out to him. He is not guided rather fail of success, than attain it by remerely by affections, which may sometimes proachful means. He never shows us a smilgive the colour of virtue to a loose and un, ing countenance, while he meditates evil stable character. The upright manis guided against us in his heart. He never praises by a fixed principle of mind, which deter

us among our friends, and then joins in mines him to esteem nothing but what is traducing us among our enemies. We shall honourable, and to abhor whatever is base or

never find one part of his character at variunworthy, in moral conduct. Hence we

ance with another. In his manners, he is find him ever the same ; at all times, the simple and unaffected; in all his proceedtrusty friend, the affectionate relation, the ings, open and consistent.



I will to-morrow, that I will,

I will be sure to do it;
To-morrow comes, to-morrow goes,

And still thou art to do it.
Thus still repentance is deferred,

From one day to another : Until the day of death is come.

And judgment is the other.


The man that dares traduce, because he can With safety to himself, is not a man. The world was sad! the garden was a wild, The man, the hermit, sigh’d-till woman smiled. 'Freaks Of Royalty.-James I, in a capricious mood, threatened the Lord Mayor with removing the seat of royalty, the meetings of parliament, &c. from the capital. "Your Majesty at least,” replied the Mayor, “ will be graciously pleased to leave us the River Thames."

THE ELEPHANT'S BRAIN.—The brain of the elephant is remarkably small, not more than one twenty third part of the human subject in proportion to the weight of both.

MILK.-In consequence of the increased use of coffee, the quantity of milk consumed in Paris is twice as much as as it was eighteen or twenty years ago. HARD Hır.-Two country attornies overtaking a

CAMBERWELL GROVE. waggoner on the road, and thinking to be witty upon bim asked, “Why his fore horse was so fat, and the rest so lean? The waggoner knowing them, The parish in which Camberwell Grove is the Surrey Canal, under the authority of the answered, “ That his fore-horse was a lawyer, and situated is the east half hundred of Brixton. the rest were his clients."

Commissioners for Building New Churches ; REA DING, WRITING, AND SPEAKING.—Habits of The ancient part of the village is the green, living, a curacy, subordinate to the vicar of literar y conversation, and still more, habits of ex and its vicinity ; but the more pleasant and Camberwell. Here are also several places of

empo re discussion in a popular mbly, are pe favourite spot" is Camberwell Grove, which worship for Dissenters, and a Free Grammar culiar y useful in giving us a ready and practical command of our knowledge. There is much good commands very beautiful and extended pro School. Much pains has been taken to do sense in the following aphorism of Bacon: “Read spects, both of the metropolis and the country away with the annual fair, held on the Green, ing makes a full man, writing a correct man, and beyond it, and over the counties of Surrey which some of the inhabitants deem a nuispeaking a ready man." Business.-A gentleman in the country lately ad

and Kent. The living is a vicarage in the sance, but being at once a manorial right and dressed a passionate billet-doux to a lady in the same archdeaconry of Surrey and diocese of Win- source of emolument, it still remains. There town, adding this curious postcript - Please to chester; charged in K. B. 201. ; patron is a spring of water on the site of the former send a speedy answer, as I have somebody else in my (1829) Sir T. Smith, Bart. The church, houses and grounds of Dr. Letsom, on Grove

The Truth.-A Yorkshireman and Leicestershire- dedicated to St. Giles, is a very antique stone Hill, near which a youth is said to have murman contending for the superior fertility of their re structure, the body of which is large, and dered his uncle, a catastrophe dramatised by spective counties, the Leicestershireman declared, that he could turn a horse into a field new-mown,

surmounted with a square tower and neat Lillo, in the well-known play of “George and the next morning the grass would be grown turret. Here has long been a proprietary Barnwell.” A part of the western side of above his hoofs. “ Pho! that's nothing," cried

the chapel of ease, and recently a handsome new Yorkshireman, “ you may turn a horse into a field district church has been built, after the

Camberwell is within the Dean's liberty of in Yorkshire, and not be able to find him next morn

Lambeth. ing."

model of one at Rome, on the south bank of


| are driven out to their work every morning, by the lash of the whip, and chained together. Some idea of it may be obtained from the cut in the third page of our third number. We will confine ourselves at present to a short view of the interior of a workhouse in Jamaica. We have the following description of a flogging in one of these places, given by the Christian Record, a periodical published in Jamaica, by some philanthropic individuals, wlio well deserve the support of the friends of the Slaves.

“A female, apparently about twenty-two years of age, was then laid down, with ber face downwards; her wrists were secured by cords run into nooses; her ancles were brought to yether, and placed in another noose; the cord composing this last one passed through a block, connected with a post. The cord was tightened, and the young woman was thus stretched to the utmost length. A fe. niale then advanced, and raised her clothes

towards her head, leaving the person inde. WINDSOR CASTLE.

cently exposed. The boatswain of the work.

house, a tall athletic man, Aourished his whip This princely palace of the kings of Eng- he caused the old buildings to be pulled with the punishment. The instrument of pu.

four or times round his head, and proceeded land is situated twenty-two miles west of down, and a magnificent palace to be erected nishment was a cat formed of knotted cords. London, on the verdant banks of the on its site, under the direction of the cele- The blood sprang from the wounds it inflicted. Thames, which from its serpentine course brated William of Wickham, and he re-esta- The poor creature shrieked in agony, and exin this part of it, was in King Edward the blished the princely order of the Garter.

claimed, I don't deserve this!! She became Confessor's charter termed Windleshora," The castle is divided into two courts, ment was completed. Four other delinquents

hysterical, and continued so until the punish(the winding shore) hence in time it was the upper and the lower. separated from called Windsor. The magnificent castle is each other by the Round Tower, in which

were successively treated in the same way. One situated upon a hill, which commands a resides the governor. On the north of the another a girl of fifteen, another a boy of the

was a woman about thirty-six years of age, delightful prospect over the adjacent coun upper court are situated the state apartments; same age; and, lastly, an old son try.

and on the south various apartments belong-sixty, who really appeared scarcely to have It was first built by William the Conque-ing to officers of state. The lower court is strength to express her agonies by cries!

The ror, soon after his being seated on the throne chifly remarkable as containing that beautiful boy of fifteen as the son of the woman of of this kingdom ; it was subsequently re structure St. George's Chapel.

thirty-six! She was indecently exposed, and paired and beautified by his son Henry I. Around the noble castle is a magnificent and then had the additional pain to see him also

cruelly flogged, in the presence of her son ! who also surrounded the whole with a strong and truly royal park, well stocked with exposed, and made to writhie under the lash! wall. Henry II. held a parliament here in timber and deer. The near vicinity of the It is to be observed, to coinplete the hideous 1170, and King John, Henry III., Ed. Thames adds much to the scenery of but faithful picture of the system of Slave ward. 1., II., and III., successively resided Windsor and its neighbourhood; various re- government, presented to us by the narrative within its walls. The last prince was born here, and had such affection for the spot, that held on it. gattas, rowing matches, &c. are annually of this transaction, that these unfortunates re.

ceived this punishment for an offence which their owner, it was strongly suspected, had compelled them to commit, and that, too, under the terror of the lash; a circumstance accounting for the cry 'I don't deserve this!' Painful and melancholy as is the above detail, we koow it to be but too faithful a picture of what is transacted, from week 10 week, by order of the Magistrates, within those abodes of human misery and degradation—the workhouses of our island.”

(From the Watchman, Feb. 5, 1831.) “ST. ANDREW's Vestry.—Mr. Fox'said, the system to which he alluded was still continued in the work house. He alluded to the system of stretching the Negroes by a block and tackle, when they were about to be flogged. He had pledged himself, as a Magistrate, to bring the matter before the Commissioners, with a view

to its abolition, for it was a cruelty which ought INTERIOR OF A WEST INDIAN

to cease. they read in a Colonial Paper of a Slave “ Dr. M‘Glashan said : It had been proposed WORKHOUSE.

who has run away from his kind” master, to use the halberd in that institution, as is done

and all the charms of Slavery, being con- in the army, but he thought the contortions of Some of our readers, who have been ac- demned to the workhouse for life, that he the body during the infliction of a flogging customed to bear the delightful descriptions will pass the remainder of his days in a might cause the dislocation of the wrists, given by, West Indians of Slavery, may peaceful retreat, in undisturbed repose. thing like a feeling of vanity, when he stated apprehend that the accommodations of a We will give them a short sketch of the that the workhouse institution of St. Andrew's workhouse in the Colonies are very superior reality. It would occupy too much of our to those which are assigned to the poor in space in the present number to describe other workhouses in the Island, but like all

was the best conducted and mildest of all the our own country. They may imagine, when the manner in which these wretched creatures other human institutions, there might be a great




many abuses which still exist. He was free to that Honourable and Noble Member of the Im- | Slaves to be alarmed at the idea that their labours add," he did not approve of the present systent perial Parliament set his seal to this abomina- are not likely soon to terminate. This is just the of stretching by the block and tackle during the tion ? Will the Hon. Member for Somerset, course that has been pursuing for the last nine infliction of flagellation. Mr. Dickenson, who is interested, as we are

years. That time has been occupied in sending « Mr. Fox said, he hoped so disgraceful a informed, in Cherry Garden, in the same parish, the Governors of the Colonies; and how much

messages to and from the Secretaries of State and system would be done away with. He was unconcernedly abet this cruel system ?

brighter a prospect is there now of the luminaready to make his oath, that he knew a Negro “ But is there no remedy for this evil?-no tion of slavery, than at the announcement of that who was of no service to his owner, from the method by which its destruction may be period? The friends of the Slaves, and the real effects of stretching by means of the block and insured ? Perhaps the most effectual, if not the friends of the Planters, are concerned at the dreadtackle, and he had no doubt there were many only one, would be for Mr. Buxtou - that best ful situation which they see the latter to be in, and

consider that nothing but a speedy abandonment of other instances. In what light would the friend of the Negro race-to call the attention their system of oppression can save them from a Planter appear in the eyes of ihe British Par of the House of Commons to the subject; to destruction similar to that which befel the Egypliament, with this fact staring them in the face ? state the facts, and call upon Lord Chandos and tian Slave-holders, as related in the Book of Exodus.

“ Col. Robertson said, I myself knew a Negro the other West India Members to deny the truth, There is. perhaps, just time to do justly, and thereby who was totally useless, in consequence of if they can.

save their lives, and not only save but improve their being stretched in the work house,

“Msuch praise is due to Mr. Fox, for his their Slaves into that of free labourers. May they

estates and property, by changing the situation of During this discussion, the majority of the determined conduct on the occasion, and the be wise enough spontaneously to let the people go, Commissioners retired from the Board, one or bold and fearless manner in which he brought and thus avert the plagues which appear to be com. two at a time.” the subject under the consideration of the Board. ing upon them.

2. We entreat him, as well as Colonel Robertson,

October 10. In the succeeding number of the Watch- to persevere in their benevolent endeavour to man they say, rescue the parish from its present stigma."

NEGRO SLAVERY, " The attention of our readers in Great Britain is especially called to this subject, because it would be impossible to rouse public


Sir: Numerous and cruel as the oppressions are opinion in this Island, at least to such a pitch

by which the poor Negroes are tormented and de

« Fiat justitia ruat colum." as would insure the removal of the evil.

stroyed, the most afflictive of all is the parsimony “ There are a number of persons who will not


with which they are maintained, whilst they are

coerced to the enormous amount of labour already be sparing of their abuse for the exposure, or

described in my second letter. This inadequacy the appeal to the sympathies of the inhabitants

of subsistence is placed out of dispute by the express of Great Britain and ireland, which we have

Sir : You will undoubtedly excuse the liberty which admissions of the Colonists, the statements of their thought proper to make. They feel decidedly .. well-wisher takes, in suggesting that some of his Assemblies, and the recitals of their laws. When averse to subjects of this kind being brought number, under the head of “ Happiness," whether their circumstances—which a large proportion of

the Planters are necessitous and embarrassed in under the notice of liberal-minded men in he is not a Deist-at any rate a Socinian. The them are at all times—their Slaves are not only Great Britain, from a conviction that they can. Editor will oblige his readers by inserting a defini- scantily fed, but often subjected to absolute want. not fail to be noticed, and consequently re tion of happiness, given by John Newton, in his pre These well-established facts clearly evince what many medied. face to Cowper's Poems.

on this side of the Atlantic may find it difficult to "In order to convey to our distant readers some attainments, in an elegant taste, in the exertions Planters are capable of subjecting their hard-worked

"If happiness could have been found in classical believe, that, under some circumstances, British idea of the mode of punishment alluded to, it is of wit, fancy, and genius, and in the esteem and labourers to famine “at the cost,” to repeat the necessary to be more particular. So far then, converse of such persons as in these respects were as decency will permit, we shall endeavour to most congenial with himself, he would have been strong, but just language of Dr. Collins, of the

blood of their own species.” Dr. Collins was a phy. describe it: A Slave about to be flogged in the happy. But he was not. He wondered (as thou sician and Planter of much experience, who had, St. Andrew's workhouse is prostrated on the sands, in a similar situation will do.) that he

a great part of his life, resided in the West Indies, should continue dissatisfied, with all the means ground, with his or her face downwards, and apparently conducive to satisfaction within his l'rade, and compiled it chiefly with the humane in:

and who wrote a pamphlet in defence of the Slave the body indecently exposed to the gaze of the reach. But, in due time the cause of his disap- tention of pointing out to his brother Planters such bystanders.


arins are extended, the point ment was discovered to him-he had lived with abuses in the treatment of their Slaves as he deemed wrists being made fast,—the legs are brought out God in the world. In a memorable hour, the inessential to their system, which he hoped to induce close together, and are secured by a rope at the wisdom which is from above visited his heart. Then them to reform. ancle, which rope passes through a block, and beidelt. hierfelicior wanderers, and then he found a Jamaica, published a new edition of the work, which

guide-the religion of the Bible, which, however dis. I, therefore, quote from, as an authority that will is “hauled taught,' stretching even to agony credited by the misconduct of many who have not re

not be likely to be disputed. In reasoning to perevery muscle, and until every joint of the nounced the Christian name, proves itself, when suade the Planters to be more liberal in their allowwretched sufferer is heard to crack. Then rightly understood and cordially embraced, to be the

ance of food, he urges their own self-interest, in comes the boatswain, a strong muscular man, grand desideratum which alone can relieve the

" the great labour which a well-fed Negro is capable mind of man who swinging the cat two or three times round

from painful and unavoidable of executing, in proportion to one who is half starved,

anxieties, inspire il with stable peace and solid hope, and in his long exemption from disease, and its poshis head, at eac! stroke sends it with tre- and furnish those motives and prospects which sible consequence-death; for” he adds, “Tavow mendous force, cutting into the flesh of --it may in the present state of things, are absolutely it boldly, a great number of Negroes have perished be a girl just ripening into womanhood, or an necessary to produce a conduct worthy of a rational | annually from disease produced by inattention. aged female, wbose head is hoary from length creature, distinguished by a vastness of capacity to be convinced of this truth, let us trace the effect of years, and occasioning the blood to flow which no assemblage of earthly good can satisfy, and of that system, which assigned for a Negro's weekly

by a principle and pre-intimation of immortality allowance, six or seven pints of flour or grain, with most copiously!

. We learnt the causes of our inquietude-we 6. This is a fact-a fact which we defy the

as many salt herrings, and it is in vain to conceal were directed to a method of relief-we tried, and we

what we all know to be true, that in many of the assembled Magistrates and Vestry of St. An. were not disappointed. We are now certain that the islands they do not give more. With so scanty a pitpuse that corporal punishment is of itself tion, to every one that believeth. It has reconciled be held together, provided a man's only

business be sufficiently excruciating, and that all but those situation. It is the balm and cordial of the present how is the body to support itself? What is there

to live; but if intense labour be exacted from him, whose consciences are seared as with a bot life, and a sovereign antidote against the fear of to thicken and enrich the fluids, what to strengthen iron, would gladly spare any superadded pain, death." such as that arising from the application of This may probably not be the best definition of the solids, to give energy to the heart, and to invi.

Your Negroes may crawl the block and tackle. Thuse, however, who happiness that might be found; but it is the first about with feeble emaciated frames, but their at.

which came to hand, and it is to the purpose. live in a land of slavery know that, natural as

tempts to wield the hoe prove abortive ; they shrink Peckham, Oct. 8.

VERITAS. from their toil; and being urged to perseverance such a proposition ipay be, it is but a vain one when entertaineil in reference to a majority of

by stripes, you are soon obliged to receive them into

the hospital; whence, unless your plan be speedily the Slave-owners and Managers.

These can

corrected, they depart but to the grave.” listen to the statements of cruelty, and yet retire

This is not written by a man who is ignorant of from the board one or two at a time,' and thus


the system, or prejudiced against it, but your readers elude the question. But will the absentee pro- some member of the Anti-Stavery Society

, to inform will remember, that it is a very eminent West Indian prietors in St. Andrew's sanction this atrocious him, through the medium of the 'Tourist, whether it abuse? Will Lord Chandos, the leader of the is true, as reported, that the Governors of the truth, that great numbers of these our wretched West India boly, and the heir to the Hope Chartered Slave Colonies have received instructions fellow creatures are, by the sordid and cruel parsiestate, within four miles of this work house, and from the Secretary of State not to urge on the mony of their owners, annually-destroyed by inawith more than 310 Slaves, all (saving infants) in Council of the 2d of November as law? If this

Legislative Assemblies the adoption of the Orders nition, i. e. slowly starved to death ! subject to the dreadful block and tackle—will is the case, it is high time for the friends of the Editor, as to the taste of the general reader, I shall

As brevity is as suitable to the convenience of an


not, at present, encroach further on the space which stance to claim

insurance against loss. Let me not have, as you confess by your silence, found it imis due to the many able Correspondents of your i be told by you, that man cannot be the property of possible to damage my statements; but you seem excellent paper.

man. I have heard (perhaps I am in error) that you to have thought it would do just as well to overturn Hereford, Sept. 1832.

H.U.U. have yourself received the benefit of this species of one of your own; and this you have done very ef

property. You have told me of the enormous de- fectually. In your first letter there is this para

crease of Slave population within the last eleven graph :-“ Scarcely does one of my vessels go to An. TO T. F. BUXTON, ESQ.

years : your labours, I believe, commenced about ligua without a quantity of poultry and salt fish to

that period; from that date I reckon the fall of my sell, and in good seasons an immense quantity of Sir: Having read in the Cheltenham Chronicle of West India property. You have not in your cal- potatoes." Here we have the picture of a thriving the 6th inst. a letter you have done me the honour culation distinguished how many have fallen by people, not merely living in abundance, but ento address to me, I feel that I should be wanting in

rebellion, massacre, or the halter. But may I ask, riching themselves by the export of the superfluous courtesy if I did not notice some of its contents; and

sir, (without meaning offence,) were those Slaves, commodities. In the last letter you thus speak:I will follow your example in doing so in entire good from whose sale (the last instalment of which was It is a melancholy fact that the Negroes, though humour. I am charged with having used the wordi

made just eleven years ago) you profited, sold again occasionally loading my BOATS with produce for Buxtonites;” with having pointed out no senti

into slavery, to swell that decrease which you now cheir own benefit, have, in a period of five years and ment you had uttered which might be proved falla

so pathetically describe? I vouch not for the truth; a half, kept themselves out of the provision market cious; having avoided every tangible point ; incon

I should myself have received such profit. But the only 18 months." The vessels dwindle into boats, the sistency, and other beinous offences. I am asked decrease is said to have arisen from the severity of ronstant ex port of fish and poultry into an occasional why, it I am really anxious for the manumission of the sugar cultivating system, from cruelty, misery, shipment of produce; and these happiest of men, my Negroes, I labour to curse them with the blessings and oppression, particularly during the crop season : who were farmers at home and merchants abroad, which the Anti-Slavery Society would confer? You

but no man has witnessed that crop season, without cannot keep themselves at all during three-fourths then proceed to discuss the propriety of compen seeing the fallacy of this statement-without learn of their time. What a falling off is this! You may sation, the increase of Slaves depending on good or bad treatment, and are quite in extacy to find that ing that every Slave would wish its continuance the well call it a melancholy

fact-melancholy both to whole year.

the Slaves and their master. It exposes their where Slaves are allowed 10 or 12 acres, they ac.

Although I have overstepped the bounds of a let. | wretchedness, and it ruins your argument. tually cultivate them for their own benefit. If, sir,

ter, there is one remaining point which must not be One topic alone remains. You taunt me with the in noticing some of these points, the subject may, omitted. My negroes can be industrious when sale of my Slaves, and the profit which I derived from its nature, draw from me some strong expres- they work for themselves. If they make such good from them. I have had my share of calumny. You sions, let me assure you that I mean nothing per:

use of the scantling of time I allow them, will they remind me of one of that troop of libels with which sonal, giving you credit for good intentions, however, not work when their whole time and their labour is I have been assailed. I have hitherto allowed it to in my humble judgment, misapplied. If the word "Buxtonites has given offence. I am their

own?". Sir, I know not whether it is your in- remain unnoticed, because it rested on the autht.

tention, when you take my Slaves, to divide my rity of anonymous or hireling writers; but when a sorry to have used it; but I imagined I was placing property among them ; but it is a melancholy fact, person so respectable as Sir Ć. B. Codrington gives you in the situation you most coyeted, viz. the

that the Negroes to whom you particularly allude, it in any sort the sanction of his name. I have no leader of the Anti-Slavery Society, a society not the having any quantity of land they will cultirate, and alternative but to reply to it; and ! trust you will less laudable from any (possibly erroneous) opinion occasionally loading my boats with produce for their excuse me for taking this opportunity of doing so. I may hold respecting it; but which I do not hesi.

own benefit, have, in a period of five years and a Thongh I am far from ascribing the greater part of it tate to say, (speaking of them as a body,) I con

half, ending in 1831, kept themselves out of the pro- to you, yet, being compelled by your letter to allude to sider to have proved itself a curse as well to the

vision market only 18 months. But, sir, had you it, I could not do so without repelling the whole Negro as to the Planter: and which will eventually

visited those Colonies, you might have seen that in accusation The charge first appeard in 1824, and prove a curse to the nation. On their heads, in my

severe droughts (which too frequently occur) no this it ran : opinion, lie all the rebellions, massacres, and forfeitures of Negro life, of which we have seen so much, I have many negroes who will not accept manulabour will produce provisions. But I will conclude. First—That in the year 1771 I prevailed on Mrs

Barnard to place 20,000). in a West Indian House. and are, I fear, doomed to see more. They have de

mission; two instances have lately occurred, one in My reply is—This is hardly possible, as I was not born stroyed the property of the Planter, taken away the

Barbuda, of a father refusing the purchase money till 15 years afterwards. means of subsistence from the widow and the father

for his daughter's liberty; the other, of a negro in Secondly-That in 1793, I sent a Mr. Gosling to less, have changed the character of the Negro from

Antigua, declining the manumission of a wire and the West Indies to sell my Negroes. I reply again, a happy and contented being, (happier, because in

daughter now my slaves. Sir, I am much more the that I was not born at the period. a more comfortable state than the British labourer, ) Negro's friend than yourself. The eyes of the Thirdly-That Mrs Barnard dying in 1792, I, who to that of a rebel and a murderer. They have un. Anti-Slavery Society may remain closed; but the bad married her neice, became her executor, and the fitted him for that state of liberty to which he was people of England are beginning to set a proper manager of her West India property, her heir-and fast approaching, and which, I am still willing to value on this hypocritical humbug, and the Negroes that I derived from her 170,0001. I deny that I mar. helieve, is the object of that Society. I believe, sir, themselves to see the delusion of Anti-Slavery riell her neice, or became her erecutor, or managed your humanity to the Slave has never led you to Emancipation. My writings, sir, may stimulate your her property ; and some confirmation of my statement visit those Colonies. The ignorance of the Anti- exertions, and I will warn you, that those exertions, is derived from the fact, that I was about six years old Slavery (may I say) Buxtonites is proclaimed from if leading to too hasty manumission, can tend only at the timean early age for matrimony, executor. the resident Bishop to the casual visitor; and I will

to further rebellion, massacre, and forfeiture of life. ship, or the management of affairs in America. I repeat, from impressions imbibed from living among

I am, sir, your obedient servant,

deny that I became her heir or inherited from her my Negroes, that a happier or more contented class of

C. BETHELL CODRINGTON. 170'0001. I did not derive a shilling from her. I was beings never existed, until cursed with the blessings of

Dedington, Sept. 10, 1832.

not mentioned in her will. the Anti-Slavery Society.

Fourthly--That I sent out a respectable GentleBut (you say) I have pointed out no sentiment

man to extort the last shilling from my West India you had uttered-I have avoided every tangible THOS. FOWELL BUXTON, ESQ. TO SIR C. B. creditors, and to sell my Negroes. I deny that I point. But have you never (speaking of the Planter)


practised ertortion on my West India creditors, for I used the words atrocious-barbarous-villainous ?

never had a Vest India ereditor. I deny that I sent Have you not lately referred to an expression (some Sir: Your letter, dated Sept. 10th, has but re.

out a respectable Gentleman, or any Gentleman at all, years back) of Lord Grenville, for the express pur-cently reached me. Its contents are very gratifying to sell my Negroes, for I never had a Negro to sell. pose of proclaiming your concurrence in the opinion, to me. So far from confuting, it does not even

The fifth charge is, simply, that I am Judas a man who rises in the morning an owner of assail my statements; but then it is very successful Iscariot, an enemy to Slavery, though every shilling Slaves, and does not liberate them before he retires in exposing the errors of your own. Thus stands

I possess was wrung from the bones and sinews of to bed, is a villain?" I do not know whether these the controversy. You charged me with misrepre- Slaves. I repeat I never was master of a Slave-I wili come under the denomination of tangible points, sentation. I replied by challenging you to the proof.

never bought one, or sold one, or hired ine.

I never and would rather have avoided noticing them, for I | I gave you a wide field. I called your attention to

owned an hogshead of sugar or an acre of land in the have no wish to be personal. I will proceed to all I had said or written on the subject of Slavery, West Indies. answer the question, why, wishing the manumission and invited you to select and expose any errors in

may as well liere state what foundation there is of my Negroes, and admitting the benefit I should my facts, or any fallacy in my arguments. Am I for this widely circulated report. “Some truth reap from their manumission, I still hold them in not entitled to construe that silence into a most empha bondage? You would not, sir, yourself urge manu. tic concession ? I want no other vindication, You There was a Mrs. Barnard. She was my grand

there is—though brewed and dashed with lies.” mission, if you did not think they had reached that have made a charge, and you have failed to establish it. father's sister. She embarked a sum of money in a point of moral advancement and instruction, which I must apprize you that I shall never attempt to to use the words of the Archdeacon of Jamaica) justify any harsh epithets which may have fallen lost. The remnant descended to some of my near

West India House, the greater part of which she would make manumission a boon (a blessing to from me in the warmth of discussion. If I have relations. So far is true-but it is also true that in them) instead of a curse; and this, sir, is the point of used the terms "atrocious," "barbarous," "villain.

that property I never happened to be a partaker, I difference between us. I forego what I believe would ous," as applied to the body of Planters, I regret it.

am not, and to the best of my knowledge, NEVER eventually be a benefit to myself ; I defer what I You who accuse others of making assertions HAVE BEEN THE OWNER OF A SHILLING believe would be a boon to the Slave, because (with which they do not themselves believe;"—you who DERIVED FROM SLAVES. the Archdeacon) I believe he is as yet unfitted for charge upon their heads "the rebellions, massacres, Hloping that the Electors of Gloucestershire will it, and his present manumission would be to me a Joss-to him a curse. And this leads me to the stained the annals of Jamaica; you who describe forgive you for having extorted from me this tedious

explanation. question of compensation--compensation (as you as “calumniators," and their doctrine as “hypo

I have the honour to be, Sir, choose to put it) “for a benefit conferred :" but critical bumbug”-their acts as "a curse to the

Your obedient Servant, here again is the falacy. I ask not compensation, Planter," "a curse to the Negro," "a curse to the

1832. T. FOWELL BUXTON. but insurance from loss. My Negro, by the laws of nation;"-- you who-(not in the excitement of debate, Cromer, Sept. 21, England, is as much my property as any other species but in the retirement of your closettenot in a myears' Printed and Published by J. Crisp, at No. 13, of property; if you benefit my property, I ask no compensation; if, by hastily depriving me of it, I a license of invective, must surely be no stern critic Wellington-street, Strand, where all Advertisesuffer loss, I am in honour and good faith entitled to on the language of your opponent. I close this part ments and Communications for the Editor are compensation; and I have a right in the first in- of the controversy with this single observation. You to be addresscdo

that “

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Sketch Book of the Times.

“ I pencilled things I saw, and profited by things I heard.”—LETTER OF A WALKING GENTLEMAN.

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The Telegraph, though it has been in ge- | reports of the Telegraph to make it exten- | Mont Martre, to prepare. At each station aeral use only for a few years, is by no sively useful, until the time of the French there was a watch-tower, where telescopes means a modern invention. From the fact revolution, about the end of the year 1793. were fixed, and the person on the watch of the destruction of Troy being known in It was then that M. Chappe constructed an gave the signal of preparation which he had Greece before any person could have arrived apparatus for telegraphic communication in received, and this communicated successively and communicated the intelligence, it is the following way: An upright post was through all the line, which brought them all probable that some sort of telegraph was erected on the roof of the palace of into a state of readiness. The person at in use at that time. This may be gathered the Louvre, at Paris, which the Mont Martre then received, letter by letter, from the opening scene in a Greek play, in first station. At the top of this post were the sentence from the Louvre, which he which a watchman descends from the top of two transverse arms, which might be moved repeated with his own machine; and this a tower in Greece, and communicates the in all directions, and with great rapidity, by was again repeated from the next height, event referred to in these words: “

means of a single piece of mechanism. The with inconceivable rapidity, to the final been looking out these ten years to see when inventor next arranged a number of positions station at Lisle. this would happen, and this night it is done." of these arms, - which should designate the Two models of this Telegraph were exe

The earliest mode of transmitting intelli- letters of the alphabet, and the key to which cuted at Frankfort, and sent to the Duke of gence in this way seems to have been by needed only to be known to the persons at York, and hence the plan and alphabet of fires or torches lighted on the highest lands. the extreme stations; reducing the number the machine came to England. Various exThis, however, must obviously have been a of positions to sixteen, by the omission of periments were in consequence tried upon it

defective method ; as it could only have some unnecessary letters. The construction in this country; and one was soon after set given information respecting some definite of the machine was such, that each signal up by Government, in a chain of stations from and expected occurrence, of which it was the was given in precisely the same manner at the Admiralty-office to the sea-coast. Notpreconcerted signal; and nothing could liave all times. It did not depend on the manual withstanding, however, the ingenuity with been known by it of any unexpected events, skill of the operator; and the position of the which the machine was at first contrived, or of the collateral circumstances attending arm could never, for any one signal, be a and has been subsequently improved, it such as were foreseen. Several improve- degree higher or a degree lower, its move has never, we believe, been applied so advanments were made on this contrivance at ment being regulated by mechanism. tageously as might have been expected, to different periods, some of which were ex M. Chappe having received at the Louvre the conveyance of precise or unexpected inceedingly ingenious : but none of them gave the sentence to be conveyed, gave a known telligence. Were this the case, the advansufficient intelligibility and precision to the signal to the second station, which was tages which we might expect to arise from

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