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say, however (speaking within bounds), that THE NIGHTINGALE'S SONG. rolling of the gisand if, upon his repeating three or four barbarous instances of cruelty
this three or four times, the intruder should occurred weekly. The usual way was for the
The characteristic trait of the nightingale's not retire, he flies to another bush ; yet if he terrified eulprit to be held down by four others, song consists in his very superior powers of be approached very gently, so that he should and thus flogged on the bare flesh. The whip, execution; he has an infinite variety of the not be frightened, he will sometimes show when“ well laid on,” as the planters term it, most beautiful and complex rolls and quavers, himself and sing within a couple of yards of produces exactly the same effect as if one was all of which are delivered with a perspicuity the spectator, when the wonderful distension of to cut the parts in scores with a knife, so well and richness of tone peculiar to himself. The his throat will be very obvious, and when it is is the whip used. Some experienced drivers best description, however, would convey but impossible not to admire the lightness and will, at each stroke, cut out a piece of flesh; an inadequate idea of the musical powers of elegance of his form, and the amazing long and, after the flogging is over, then comes the the nightingale; he must be heard to be duly hops he frequently takes from bough to bough. rum and salt pickle, on the application of appreciated. His song is generally wild and -Field Naturalist's Magazine. which the lawerated victim writhes and con- unconnected, like that of the thrush; but when torts himself in dreadful agony.
he joins his notes a little, as he sometimes I am told by a friend of mine, now estab- though rarely does, nothing can be conceived lished in Edinburgh, who was upwards of two more exquisite. His habit also of singing MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE years a book-keeper on Greenside estate, Tre- during the calm stillness of the night, when
OF THE CLASSICS. lawney, that it was a common custom on that almost without a competitor, adds considerably estate to bring out, every Monday morning, to the effect. To hear him, however, in per
No. XI. those hospital negroes who had sore legs, &c., fection, we should ramble along the margin of
NOVELS-CONCLUSION. and to have them severely flogged, for no a wood on a fine spring morning; when, after earthly reason whatever than to induce them a passing shower, the sun bursts forth in all A Serious observer must acknowledge, with to go to their work, and to prevent others his splendour, and nature smiles in all her regret, that such a class of productions as taking refuge in the hospital!
vernal loveliness; when drops of water glisten novels, in which folly has tried to please in a An
overseer is extremely jealous of strangers through the opening leaves, and every breeze greater number of shapes than the poet enuspeaking to the slaves; and woe betide even a wafts fragrance: then it is the feathered merates in the Paradise of Fools, is capable of junior book-keeper if he should be heard to choristers are heard in all their melody; the producing a very considerable effect on the drop a word of commiseration! For merely thrilling music of the thrush; the deep-toned moral taste of the community. A large prospeaking a few words to a negro one after mellow warble of the blackbird ; the whistling portion of them, however, are probably of too noon I was debarred from the breakfast-table of the willow-wren and blackcap, loud and slight and insipid a consistence to have any more of the whites for several weeks.
clear; the charming, ever-varied song of the specific counteraction to Christian principles The planters of Jamaica, and their under little garden warbler, rising and falling in than that of mere folly in general; excepting, lings, live in gross and openly avowed pro- softest, sweetest cadences on the enraptured indeed, that the most flimsy of them will occafligacy. Their general conversation, in short, sense; with the joint chorus of a thousand sionally contribute their mite of mischief, by is one long detail of disgusting obscenity. At little throats, each striving to excel the rest in alluding to a Christian profession in a manner the dinner-table each endeavours to outstrip barmony; while the murmuring of the turtles, that identifies it with the cant by which hypohis neighbours, in going the greatest length and the pleasing call of the cuckoo, serve to crites have aped it, or the extravagance with with the details of their licentiousness. Hoary- furnish variety, and to give an exquisite finish which fanatics have inflated or distorted it. headed men, on the confines of eternity, are to the whole,—then it is the nightingale is But a great and direct force of counteracting quite as much depraved as the youngest, and heard to advantage ; high over all the rest he influence is emitted from those which elomore hardened. To enter into any description makes the woods re-echo to his song of joy. quently display characters of eminent vigour of such conduct would be to outrage decency. The nightingale may easily be distinguished and virtue, when it is a virtue having no basis Suffice it to say, that many overseers do them from all other British songsters by the wonder in religion ; a factitious thing resulting from selves seduce the young girls under their fully clear and distinct manner in which he the mixture of dignified pride with generous charge, and actually boast at table of their executes an endless variety of most compli- feeling; or constituted of those philosophical facility in doing so. The book-keepers are re
cated and inimitable shakes and quavers. His principles which are too often accompanied, in commended by the overseer, in a strain that song, indeed, is quite unlike that of any other these works, by an avowed or strongly intialmost amounts to a command, to take black British bird, and many of his most frequently mated contempt of the interference of any regirls for their housekeepers, alias mistresses. repeated notes are known to the London ligion, especially the Christian. If the case is The overseer at Llandovery used to say that dealers by particular names. Thus, one that mended in some of these productions into not a single packet letter came from the pro- is universally admired, is that which is com- which an awkward religion has found its way, prietors in England in which the small in-monly called by them “sweet-jug," from a it is rather because the characters excite less crease of Mulattoes, children of the book- fancied resemblance in the sound. It is a note interest of any kind, than because any which keepers by female slaves, was not complained that he frequently utters, and may be tolerably they do excite is favourable to religion. No of; and whether by orders of the proprietor or expressed thus, -huep, huiy, huipp, hueep, reader is likely to be impressed with the digattorney I cannot say, but I solemnly declare hučep, hučep, hucëp, chuck, chuck, chuck; the nity of being a Christian by seeing, in one of that rewards, in the shape of articles of dress, former part to be pronounced very slowly, in these works, an attempt to combine that chawere openly held out to those book-keepers a kind of half whisper, half whistle; the latter racter with the fine gentleman, by means of a whose mistresses should have children, and part, “chuck," is repeated about a dozen most ludicrous apparatus of amusements and thus add to the stock of the estate!
times, and so quick and distinct as to set all sacraments, churches and theatres, morning From what fell under my own observation, imitation at defiance : sometimes, instead of prayers and evening balls. Nor will it, perand from the conversations I had occasionally chuck, it is terminated by a kind of roll, re- haps, be of any great service to the Christian with the slaves, who are particularly shrewd sembling tottle-tottle-tottle; this sudden tran- cause, that some others of them profess to ex, in contending for their rights, I am persuaded sition from high to very deep notes has an ex-emplify and defend, against the cavils and that imminent danger attends the continuance tremely pleasing effect. Other remarkably scorn of infidels, a religion of which it does not of the system.
fine notes have been likened to the words appear that the writers would have discovered The slaves have among them a confident water-bubble, whitlow, &c. This mode of illus- the merits had it not been established by law. hope of emancipation from the British Govern- trating the song of a bird may perhaps at first one may doubt whether any one will be more ment; and my impression is, that should that sight appear unnecessary, but it is the only than amused by the venerable priest, who is hope be destroyed, or much longer deferred, method in which a just idea can be given; introduced probably among libertine lords and they will rise and take it themselves.
and if by this description the bird should be giddy girls, to maintain the sanctity of terms, My conscientious belief is that immediate immediately recognized by those who had not and attempt the illustration of doctrines, which emancipation may safely take place, and that before heard it, as I conceive it would, the ob- these well-meaning writers do not perceive that any substitute for that measure, under the ject is, of course, accomplished.
the worthy gentleman's college, diocesan, and pretence of education, or further preparation, When the nightingale is singing, concealed library, have but very imperfectly enabled him will be quickly followed by the most frightful in a bush, he will not suffer himself to be ap- to understand. If the reader even wished to results.
proached too near; and, though he does not be more than amused, it is easy to imagine immediately fly, he ceases to sing, and signi- how much he would be likely to be instructed fies his displeasure by a peculiar croak-re- and affected by such an illustration or defence sembling the word curre, pronounced with a of the Christian religion as the writer of a
fashionable novel would deem a graceful or matter made quite a different sound, a cir- | top, or bursting through the sides of the admissible expedient for filling up his plot. cumstance which led him to conclude that mountain ; a complete liquid mass of melted
One cannot close such a review of our fine the bottom was solid. Reidsdel observes, that mineral matter, running like a river, and dewriters without melancholy reflections. That no sound at all was produced by throwing stroying the face of nature wherever it comes cause which will raise all its zealous friends to stones into the gulph, but he heard a roaring The explosions of Ætna bave been recorded a sublime eminence on the last and most so- like the sea. The crater stood to the east, with from a very early period. Diodorus Siculus lemn day the world has to behold, and will one opening, which no longer exists. Mr. mentions eruptions of it 500 years before the make them great for ever, presented its claims D'Orville tells us that he and his companion, Trojan war, or 1693 years before the Christian full in sight of each of these authors in his having fastened themselves by ropes, held by æra. This is that which drove, he says, the time. The very lowest of those claims could men at the top, went down the shelving sides Sicani from the eastern part of Sicily, which not be less than a conscientious solicitude to to the very mouth of the gulph. They beheld they then inhabited. Thucydides mentions beware of every thing that could in any point a conic mass of matter in the middle, to the three eruptions, of which the second was the injure the sacred cause. This claim has been height of about sixty feet, the base, as far as most remarkable. It happened the second slighted by so many as have lent attraction to they could trace it, nearly 800 feet, from year of the seventy-fifth Olympiad, when an order of moral sentiments greatly discord- which small lambent fames and smoke issued Phædon was archon of Athens, and when the ant with its principles. And so many are gone in every direction. While they were there, army of Xerxes was defeated by the Atheniinto eternity under the charge of having em the north side of the mountain began to throw ans, at Platæa. Both the victory and eruption ployed their genius, as the magicians their out flames and ashes, accompanied by a bel are recorded in an ancient inscription on the enchantments against Moses, to counteract the lowing noise, on which they retired. Strabo Oxford marble. During this eruption, AmSaviour of the workl.
describes the top of the mountain as a level phinomus and Anapis, two Sicilian youths, Under what restrictions, then, ought the plain, with a smoking hill in the centre. Spa- rushed into the midst of the flames, and saved study of polite literature to be conducted ?. I Tanzani as bifurcated, for he saw another emi- the lives of their aged parents, at the immicannot but have foreseen that this question nence a quarter of a mile distant, with ano nent peril of their own, on which account a must return at the end of these observations; ther crater, though not of equal dimension. temple has been consecrated to their memory. and I am sorry to have no better answer to M. Houel speaks of three eminences, 1782, The third eruption mentioned by Thucygive than before, when the question came in like an isosceles triangle, only two of which dides occurred in the year before Christ, 425, the way, inconveniently enough, to perplex the could be perceived from any distance, in the in the eighty-eighth Olympiad, and desolated conclusion to be drawn from the considera- midst of which is the principal crater, in dia- part of the Catanian territory. He mentions tions on the tendency of the classical literature. meter about sixty feet. According to Fazello, it in the third book on the Peloponnesian war, Polite literature will necessarily continue to be there was a hill produced in 1444, which fell in these words :-"About the spring of the a large department of the grand school of in- into the crater after an eruption, and mingled year à torrent of fire overflowed from Mount tellectual and moral cultivation. The evils, with the melted mass. Borelli writes that the Ætna, in the same manner as formerly, wliich therefore, which it may contain, will as cer summit of the mountain rose up like a tower, destroyed part of the lands of the Catanians, tainly affect in some degree the minds of the and, during the eruption of 1669, fell into the who are situated at the foot of that mountain, successive pupils, and teachers also, as the The whole structure and appearance which is the largest in all Sicily. It is said hurtful influence of the climate, or of the of the mountain is thus evidently subject to that fifty years intervened between this flow seasons, will affect their bodies. To be thus great changes.
and the last which preceded; and that, in the affected is a part of the destiny under which The stones ejected from Etna are granitic, whole, the fire has thus issued thrice since they are born in a civilizer country. It is in or calcareous, surrounded with columns of Sicily was inhabited by the Grecians." dispensable to acquire the advantage; it is basalt, which M. Dolomieu terms "prismatic inevitable to incur the evil. The means of lava.” Spalanzani supposes the shore to be counteraction will amount, it is to be feared, to volcanic for twenty-three miles. The same TILE COCOOY, QUEEN BEETLE. 110 inore than palliatives. Nor can these be writer observes that there is on Ætna a great proposed in any specific method. All that I scarcity of water, owing, as he imagines, to This astonishing insect is about one inch can do is, to urge on the reader of taste the the rain's falling on scoriæ, in which it sinks and a quarter in length; and, what is wondervery serious duty of continually recalling to his for want of those various argillaceous strata ful to relate, she carries by her side, just mind, and, if he be a parent or preceptor, of which retain it in other mountains. Others above her waist, two brilliant lamps, which cogently representing to those he instructs, the athirm that the mountain is well watered, that she lights up at pleasure with the solar phosreal character of religion as exhibited in the there are intermitting springs which flow du- phorus furnished her by nature. These little Christian revelation, and the reasons which ring the day only, and stop in the night, a lamps do not flash and glimmer like that of command an inviolable adherence to it. fact which may arise from the melting of the the fire-fly, but give as steady a light as the
snow, which ceases as the night comes on; gas light, exhibiting two perfect spheres, as that there are streams always pouring from large as a minute pearl, which affords light
the side of ihe mountain, unquestionably ori- enough in the darkest night to enable one to DESCRIPTION OF MOUNT ÆTNA ginating in some permanent source; that there read print by them. On carrying her into a AND ITS ERUPTIONS.
are poisonous springs, fine salt springs, &c. dark closet in the day time, she immediately
An approaching eruption of Mount Ætna is illuminates her lamps, and instantly extinThe great crater itself may be described as indicated various ways. There is at first an guishes them on coming again into the lighta cup, or hollow at the top of a conical hill, increase of the white smoke issuing from the But language cannot describe the beauty and rising equally on all sides. The hill is com top of the crater, intermingled with volumes sublimity of these lucid orbs in miniature, with posed chiefly of sand and ashes, thrown up of black smoke in the centre. These are at which nature has endowed the queen of the from the mouth at different periods; and attended by slight explosions, and followed by insect kingdom.-New York Adrertiser. present it is ten miles in circumference, and a red flashes, or rather streams of fire, perpequarter of a mile in height. The crater pre- tually increasing in number, and growing in sents the appearance of an inverted cone, the dimension, till the whole becomes one entire inside of which is covered with salts and sul- black column, highly electrical, illuminated
RAPID FLIGHT. phur of various colours; it is oral in its figure, by frequent lightnings, and attended by oc The rapidity with which the hawk and shelving down from the aperture. Sir w. casional thunder. These phenomena are fol- many other birds occasionally fly, is probably Hamilton, 1769, calculated the circumference lowed by showers of red hot stones and ashes : not less than at the rate of one hundred and at two miles and a half; Mr. Brydone, 1770, the former projected often to a great distance, fifty miles an hour; the common crow twentyat three miles and a half; Mr. D’Orville, and the latter wafted sometimes by the winds, five miles an hour; a swallow, ninety-two 1727, at three or four miles. In 1788, Spa- and carried 100 miles, setting fire to build-miles an hour; and the swift three times lanzani, who visited this phenomenon, de- ings, and destroying the face of vegetation. greater. Migratory birds probably about fifty scribes the inner sides as terminating in a Recupero tells us that he had known rocks miles an hour. plain of half a mile in circuit, in the centre of thrown up to the altitude of 7000 feet. M. which is a circular aperture of five poles in Houel saw one of these stones, which had diameter, contained within the cavity, appa- been projected from the mouth of Ætna, Printed by J. Haddon and Co.; and Published rently in a state of ebullition. Several stones whose weight was not less than sixteen tons. by J. Crisp, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternoster that he threw in fell dead as into a thick It is generally three or four months before the Row, where all Advertisements and Communipaste ; but those that did not fall into the lava makes its appearance, boiling over the cations for the Editor are to be addressed.
Among the antiquities of this and other | logists say, a broken fragment from some about twelve feet over its base. Its shape countries are many remains of art for neighbouring crags, the veins and general bears some resemblance to that of a large which after generations find it difficult character of the stone being precisely ship inclined upon its keel ; its length is to account. Their origin is sometimes de- similar. It is not, however, in such a about thirty-one yards; and its weight pendent on long-lost secrets, and they situation as it would occupy had it simply has been computed at nearly 1800 tons. only serve to exercise the wonder and the fallen from those crags; and if there ever A little earth on its top affords nourishspeculations of posterity. The above was a generation of men who could ment to a few small trees. engraving represents an instance in which amuse themselves by removing it to its The whole scene is vast, wild, and nature has played a similar part. The present station, they must have been fel- precipitous. Its chief features are subhuge mass called the Bowder Stone is low-tenants of this world with the Mam-lime hills and crags, so irregularly situ. found nearly opposite to Castle Crag, moth and Leviathan.
ated that the emission of any loud sound in a most romantic part of Cumberland, It rests on some fragments of rock, and occasions the most tumultuous reverberaand the difficulty is to guess how it came lies almost hollow; the road winding tions. “It is utterly impossible," says there. It would seem to be, as the geo-round its eastern side, which projects a popular writer, "for a lively imagina.
tión; unused to the delusion, to expe- | handle of his stick in his mouth, he would I will be very entertaining between truth and rience it without a momentary belief that move about his garden in a short hurried step, lying. I have a notion you will find books, he is surrounded by the unseen-spirits of now stopping to contemplate a butterfly, a but in great confusion as to catalogues, classthe mountains reproving his intrusion dower, or a snail, and now earnestly engaged ing, &c. into their sacred recesses in vocal thun- | He would take from his own table to his study day on ship-board ; learn to take and apyly
« 7. Describe minutely how you pass one in some new arrangement of his flower-pots." der.” The universal uproar produced the back-bone of a hate or a fish's head; and lunar, or other observations, and how the midamidst these eminences by a burst of he would pull out of his pocket, after a walk, shipmen, &c., do it. laughter has been most characteristically a plant or stone to be made tributary to an “8. What sort of fish you get, and how delineated by Wordsworth in the fol- argument. His manuscripts were as motley dressed. I should think your business would lowing lines :
as his occupations; the workshop of a mind be to make yourself master of the middle
ever on the alert: evidences mixed up with Greek. My compliments to Buonaparte, if * 'Twas that delightful season, when the broom, memorandums for his will; an interesting you meet with him, which I think is very Full flower'd, and visible on every steep, discussion brought to an untimely end by the likely. Pick up little articles of dress, tools, Along the copses runs in veins of gold :
hiring of servants, the letting of fields, send- furniture, especially from low life--as an acOur pathway led us on to Rotha's banks;
ing his boys to school, reproving the refractory tual smock, &c. And when we came in front of that tall rock Which looks towards the east, I there stopp'd there one of his children's exercises--in anomembers of an hospital; here a dedication, “9. What they talk about; company.
“ 10. Describe your impression upon first short, And traced the lofty barrier with my eye
ther place a receipt for cheap soup. He would seeing things; upon catching the first view of From base to summit: such delight I found amuse his fireside by family anecdotes--how Constantinople; the novelties of the first day To note in shrub and tree, in stone and flower, one of his ancestors (and he was praised as a
you pass there. That intermixture of delicious hues
pattern of perseverance) separated two pounds “ In all countries and climates, nations and Along so vast a surface, all at once,
of white and black pepper which had been languages, carry with you the best wishes of, In one impression, by connecting force
accidentally mixed patiens pulveris,” he dear Carlyle, Of their own beauty, imaged in the heart. might truly have added; and how, when the
Your affectionate friend, -When I had gazed, perhaps, two minutes space, Paley arms were wanted, recourse was had to
“ W. Paley." Joanna, looking in my eyes, beheld
a family tankard which was supposed to bear That ravishment of mine, and laugh'd aloud.
Such was Paley. A man singularly without them, but which he always took a malicious guile, and yet often misunderstood or misreThe rock, like something starting from a sleep,
pleasure in insisting had been bought at a presented; å man who was thought to have Took up the lady's voice, and laugh'd again : That ancient woman,* seated on Helm-crag, sale
110 learning, because he had no pedantry, and Was ready with her cavern ; Hammar-scar,
.“ Hæc est
who was too little of a quack to be reckoned And the tall steep of Silver-how, sent forth
Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique ;" a philosopher ; who would have been infallibly A noise of laughter; southern Loughrigg heard, And Fairfied answer'd with a mountain tone :
the life of a man far more happily employed praised as a useful writer on the theory of Helvellyn far into the clear blue sky
than in the composition of political pamphlets, government, if he had been more visionaryCarried the lady's voice; old Skiddaw blew or in the nurture of political discontent. Nay, and would have been esteemed a deeper diHis speaking-trumpet; back out of the clouds when his friend Mr. Carlyle is about going vine, if he had not been always so intelligible; Of Glamarara southward came the voice ; out with Lord Elgin to Constantinople, the who has been suspected of being never serious And Kirkstone tossed it from his misty head. very head-quarters of despotism, we do not because he was often jocular, and before those, Now whether (said I to our cordial friend, perceive, amongst the multitude of most cha- it should seem, who were not to be trusted with Who, in the hey-dey of astonishment, racteristic hints and queries which Paley ad
a joke; who did not deal much in protestations Smild in my face) this were, in simple truth, dresses to him, a single fling at the Turk, or a
of his faith, counting it proof enough of his A work accomplish'd by the brotherhood
single hope expressed that the day was not sincerity (we are ashamed of noticing even Of ancient mountains, or my ear were touch'd With dreams and visionary impulses,
very far distant when the Cossacks would be thus far insinuations against it) to bring arguIs not for me to tell; but sure I am,
permitted to erect the standard of liberty in ments for the truth of Christianity unanswered That there was a loud uproar in the hills ;
and unanswerable-to pour forth exhortations his capital. And while we both were listening, to my side
"I will do your visitation for you (Mr. to the fulfilment of the duties enjoined by it, The fair Joanna drew, as if she wish'd Carlyle was chancellor of the diocese), in case
the most solemn and intense--and to evince To shelter from some object of her fear.” of your absence, with the greatest pleasure his own practical sense of its influence, by it is neither a difficulty nor a favour.
crowning his labours with a work to the glory "Observanda-1. Compare every thing with and praise of God, at a season when his hand SKETCH OF DR. PALEY. English and Cumberland scenery--e.g., rivers
was heaviest upon him—a work which lives, with Eden, groves with Corby, mountains with and ever will live, to testify that no pains of “ He never seemed to know," says his son, Skiddaw ; your sensations of buildings, streets, body could shake for a moment his firm and “ that he deserved the name of a politician | persons, &c. &c.; e. g., whether the Mufti be settled persuasion, that in every thing, and at and would probably have been equally amused like Dr. the Grand Seignior, Mr.
every crisis, we are God's creatures, that life at the grave attempts made to draw him into,
“ 2. Give 'us one day at Constantinople death resigns us to his merciful disposal. —
is passed in his constant presence, and that or withdraw him from, any political bias.” He minutely from morning to night—what you would employ himself in his Natural Theology, do, see, eat, and hear.
Quarterly Revieur. and then gather his peas for dinner, very likely 3. Let us know what the common people gathering some hint for his work at the same
have to dinner; get, if you can, a peasant's lime. He would converse with his classical actual dinner and bottle for instance, if you
REVIEWS neighbour, Mr. Yates, or he would reply to his
see a man working in the fields, call to him to invitation that he could not come, for that he bring the dinner he has with him, and dewas busy knitting. He would station himself scribe it minutely.
A TREATISE ON ASTRONOMY. By Sir John
F. W. HERSCHEL, Knight Guelp., F.R.S., at his garden wall, which overhung the river,
&c. &c. Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia, and watch the progress of a cast-iron bridge 6 4. The diversions of the common people; Vol. XLIII. in building, asking questions of the architect, whether they seem to enjoy their amusements, and carefully examining every pin and screw and be happy, and sport, and laugh; farm
If our readers have never yet interested with which it was put together
. He would houses, or any thing answering to them, and themselves in astronomy, they have now an loiter along a river, with his angle-rod, musing of what kind; same of public-houses, roads. opportunity of acquainting themselves with upon what he supposed to pass in the mind of
“5. Their shops; how you get your breeches that science, through the medium of a volume a pike when he bit
, and when he refused to mended, or things done for you, and how (i. e., which is almost equally suited to the tastes of bile; or he would stand by the sea-side, and
well or ill done); whether you see the tailor, a literary and a scientific reader. The perspeculate upon what a young shrimp could converse with him, &c.
spicuity with which this distinguished writer mean by jumping in the sun.
“ With the
“6. Get into the inside of a cottage ; de conveys his valuable instructions is such as to scribe furniture, utensils, what you find ac
clear him entirely from the charge of empi. tually doing.
ricism which has in former times marked the ' On Helm-crag, that impressive single mountain, at the head of the Vale of Grassmere, is a “ All the stipulations I make with you for students of the more profound physical sciences. rock which, from most points of view, bears a doing your visitation is, that you come over to He brings down the truths and discoveries striking resemblance to an old woman cowering. Wearmouth soon after your return, for you which he has elaborated, by means of great
research, and great scientific learning, to the vious phenomena of the heavens, he has the , which we can form no conception from any analevel of almost every capacity, and fits them following most elegant and interesting pas-logy offered by our own system, may be circulafor the reception of such as are but very par- sages.
ting. tially instructed in the subject. A few speci ** Saturn's Rings.-The rings of Saturn must
“Enormous Distances of the Stars. In the promens of these distinguishing traits, as exhi- present a magnificent spectacle from those regions portion of 200,000 to 1, then, at least, must the bited in the volume before us, will be more
of the planet which lie above their enlighiened distance of the nearest fixed star from the sun utisfactory than any description of ours. The sides, as vast arches spanning the sky from hori-) exceed that of the sun from the earth. The latter
zon to horizon, and holding an invariable situation distance, as we have already seen, exceeds the mollowing remarks respecting the moon will be
among the stars. On the other hand, in the re-earth's radius in the proportion of 24,000 to 1; read with interest, considered not merely as peculations, but, in most instances, as facts gions beneath the dark side, a solar eclipse of fif- and, lastly, to descend to ordinary standards, the
teen years in duration, under their shadow, must earth's radius is 4000 of our miles. The distance attested by inathematical proof. afford (to our ideas) an inhospitable asylum to
of the nearest star, then, cannot be so small "The generality of the lunar mountains present animated beings, ill compensated by the faint
4,800,000,000 radii of the earth, a striking uniformity and singularity of aspect. light of the satellites. But we shall do wrong to 19,200,000,000,000 miles ! - How much larger They are wonderfully numerous, occupying by far judge of the fitness or unfitness of their condition it may be we know not. the larger portion of the surface, and almost unifrom what we see around us, when, perhaps, the
“ The only mode we have of conceiving such versally of an exactly eircular or cup-shaped form,
very combinations which convey to our minds intervals at all is by the time which it would foreshortened, however, into ellipses towards the
only images of horror, may be in reality theatres require for light to traverse them. Now light, limb; but the larger have, for the most part, flat of the most striking and glorious displays of bene
as we know, travels at the rate of 192,000 bottoms within, from which rises centrally a small, ficent contrivance.
miles per second. It would, therefore, occupy sieep, conical hill. They offer, in short, in its
“The small Planets. No doubt the most re
100,000,000 seconds, or upwards of three years, highest perfection, the true volcanic character, as
markable of their peculiarities must lie in this in such a journey, at the very lowest estimate. it may be seen in the crater of Vesuvius, and in
condition of their state. A man placed on one of Whiat, then, are we to allow for the distance of Breislak's map of the volcanic districts of the them would spring with ease sixty feet high, and
those innumerable stars of the smaller magniCampi Phlegriei
, or those of the Puy de Dome, sustain no greater shock in his descent ihan he tudes, which the telescope discloses to us? If in Desmarest's of Auvergne. And, in some of does on the earth from leaping a yard. On such we admit the light of a star of each magnitude to the principal ones, decisive marks of volcanic planets giants might exist ; and those enormous be half that of the magnitude next above it, it stratification, arising from successive deposits of animals, which on earth' require the buoyant will follow that a star of the first magnitude will ejected matter, may be clearly traced with power-power of water to counteract their weight, might require to be removed to 362 times its distance to ful telescopes. What is, moreover, extremely sin. there be denizens of the land. But of such spe- appear no larger than one of the sixteenth. It gular in the geology of the moon is, that although culation there is no end.
follows, therefore, that among the countless mulnothing having the character of seas can be traced
“ Enormous Dimensions of Comets.-It remains titude of such stars, visible in telescopes, there (for the dusky spots which are commonly called
to say a few words on the actual dimensions of must be many whose light has taken at least a seas, when closely examined, present appearances
The calculation of the diameters of their thousand years to reach us; and that when we incompatible with the supposition of deep water), heads, and the length and breadths of their tails, observe their places, and note their changes, we yet there are large regions perfectly level, and offers not the slightest difficulty when once the are, in fact, reading only their history of a thouapparently of a decided alluvial character.
elements of their orbits are known, for by these sand years' date, thus wonderfully recorded. ** The moon has no clouds, nor any other in we know their real distances from the earth at
Double Stars - But it is not with the revolu. dications of an atmosphere. Hence its climate any time, and the true direction of the tail, which tions of bodies of a planetary or cometary nature must be very extraordinary ; the alternation being
we see only foreshortened. Now, calculations round a solar centre that we are now concerned ; that of unmitigated and burning sunshine hercer instituted on these principles lead to the surpris- it is that of sun around sun--each, perhaps, acthan an equatorial noon, continued for a whole ing facts that the comets are by far the most companied with its train of planets and their satelfortnight, and the keenest severity of frost, far ex voluminous bodies in our system. The fol- lites, closely shrouded from our view by the splenceeding that of our polar winters, for an equallowing are the dimensions of some of those dour of their respective suns, and crowded into a zime. Such a disposition of things must produce which have been made the subjects of such in space bearing hardly a greater proportion to the a constant transfer of whatever moisture may exist quiry :-The tail of the great comet of 1680, im
enormous interval which separates them, than the on its surface, from the point beneath the sun to mediately after its perihelion passage, was found distances of the satellites of our planets from their that opposite, by distillation in vacuo after the by Newton to have been no less than 20,000,000 of primaries bear to their distances from the sun manner of the little instrument called a cryophorus. leagues in length, and to have occupied only two
itself. A less distinctly characterized subordinaThe consequence must be absolute aridity below days in its emission from the comet's body; a de- tion would be incompatible with the stability of the vertical sun, constant accretion of hoar frost cisive proof this of its being dashed forth by some their systems, and with the planetary nature of in the opposite region, and, perhaps, a narrower active force, the origin of which to judge, from their orbits. Unless closely nestled under the zone of running water at the borders of the en
the direction of the tail, must be sought in the protecting power of their immediate superior, the lightened hemisphere. It is possible, then, that
sun itself. Its greatest length amounted to sweep of their other sun in its perihelion passage evaporation on the one hand, and condensation on
41,000,000 leagues, a length much exceeding the round their own might carry them off, or whirl the other, may, to a certain extent, preserve an whole interval between the sun and earth. The them into orbits utterly incompatible with the equilibrium of temperature, and mitigate the ex
tail of the comet of 1769 extended 16,000,000 conditions necessary for the existence of their intreme severity of both climates.
leagues, and that of the great comet of 1811, habitants. It must be confessed that we have “Telescopes must yet be greatly improved be- 36,000,000. The portion of the head of this last here a strangely wide and novel field for speculafore we can expect to see signs of inhabitants, as comprised within the transparent atmospheric en
tive excursions, and one which it is not easy to nanifested by edifices or by changes on the surface of the soil. It should, however, be observed, 180,000 leagues in diameter. It is hardly con
avoid luxuriating in. velope, which separated it from the tail, was
“ Nebula.--The nebulæ furnish, in every point that, owing to the small density of the materials ceivable that matter once projected to such enor of view, an inexhaustible field of speculation and of the moon, and the comparatively feeble gravi- mous distances should ever be collected again by conjecture. That by far the larger share of them tation of bodies on her surface, muscular force the feeble attraction of such a body as a comet
consist of stars, there can be litile doubt; and in would there go six times as far in overcoming the a consideration which accounts for the rapid pro- the interminable range of system upon system, weight of materials as on the earth. Owing to gressive diminution of the tails of such as have and firmament upon firmament, which we thus the want of air, however, it seems impossible that been frequently observed.
catch a glimpse of, the imagination is bewildered any form of life analogous to those on earth can
“ The Fired Stars.--Now, for what are we to and lost. On the other hand, if it be true, as, to subsist there. No appearance indicating vegetalion, or the slightest variation of surface which suppose such magnificent bodies scattered through say the least, it seems extremely probable, that a can fairly be ascribed to change of season, can
the abyss of space? Surely not to illuminate our phosphorescent or self-luminous matter also exists,
nights, which an additional moon of the thousandth disseminated through extensive regions of space, any where be discerned. * If there be inhabitants in the moon, the earth
part of the size of our own would do much better, in the manner of a cloud or fog-now assuming must present to them the extraordinary appear- reality, and bewilder us among vain conjectures. the wind, and now concentrating itself like a
nor to sparkle as a pageant void of meaning and capricious shapes, like actual clouds drifted by ance of a moon of nearly two degrees in diameter, Useful, it is true, they are to man as points of cometic atmosphere around particular stars; what exhibiting the same phases as we see the moon to
exact and permanent reference ; but he must we naturally ask is, the nature and destination of do, but immoreably fixed ift their sky (or, at least, have studied astronomy to little purpose wlio can
this nebulous matter. Is it absorbed by the stars changing its apparent place only by the small amount of the libration), while the stars must
suppose man to be the only object of his Creator's in whose neighbourhood it is found, to furnish, by seem to pass slowly beside and behind it. It will derful apparatus around us, provision for other care, or who does not see, in the vast and won- its condensation, the supply of light and heat?-
or is it progressively concentrating itself by the appear clouded with variable spots, and belted races of animated beings. The planets, as we
effeet of its own gravity into masses, and so laywith equatorial and tropical zones corresponding have seen, derive their light from the sun; but ing the foundation of new sidereal systems or of to our trade-winds; and it may be doubted whe-that cannot be the case with the stars. These, insulated stars? It is easier to propound such ther, in their perpetual change, the outlines of our doubtless, then, are themselves suns, and may Meanwhile
, appeal to fact, by the method of concontinents and seas can ever be clearly discerned.”
With respect to some other of the most ob- centre round which other planets, or bodies of stan't and diligent observation, is open to us; and,