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LETTER FROM A PERSON IN JAMAICA | enchantment that dwells with the romantic. sweet small devotions of home! in which I TO A FRIEND IN ENGLAND. Over the valleys, refreshed by their influence, was wont to offer a little incense-a cake-a
the waters dash onward in continual cascades. chaplet of flowers,—when will my circumIf what I have said respecting a journey into The trees adorning their banks, scattered over stances be such as to secure my old age from the interior of the island shall have awakened in the long and vivid grass, add ever-varying poverty and calamity !". you an expectation of interesting descriptions, beauty to the whole. Where nature is perI am afraid I shall disappoint you in what I mitted still to revel in wild luxuriance, nothing shall detail in this communication. The fact can be a more pleasing vicissitude than the
ON THE HABITS OF TAME BIRDS. is, that the scenery in Jamaica, though novel coolness of the woodland roads, upon which and extremely striking—sublime in some of its the overarching fig spreads the dense shade of
BY MATTHÆUS SYLVATICUS. features, and beautiful in others—possessing its thousand branches. every thing to awaken inquiry, and to satisfy After gaining the successive eminences that
It is a common observation, confirmed by curiosity — is associated with so little of senti- mark this distance, as the traveller advances those naturalists who have had the greatest ment, and that little of no pleasurable charac- to the interior of the island, rising now in experience, that our knowledge of the wonders ter, that, to one who has imbibed the maxim loftier and more rugged elevations, he is sur of creation is still in its infancy. One very that to feel delighted is nothing without feel- prised by the sudden opening into extensive interesting point, on which we are much in the ing the mind instructed and the heart im- plains, stretching far, and parallel to the range dark, is that faculty of the brute creation called proved, its natural beauties in its social de- of the deep inland mountains. Here, beneath instinct. Now, Sir, it has always been my formities imprint no interesting emotions.
clumps of shade, left to adorn an occasional opinion, that one clearly substantiated fact To the voyager, approaching the shores of swell, or to overshadow the waters of the tends more to elucidate truth than any numJamaica, the country appears, from the ex- cattle-pond, the peculiar herds and flocks are ber of theories and hypotheses, either wholly treme clearness of the atmosphere, to be one
seen to repose. From these levels the hills unfounded in fact, or built upon some casual splendid mass of mountain scenery, rising in precipitately rise in frequent cones, between exception to the general rule; and, with this boldness and fertility from the ocean.
The whose hollows the labour of cultivation has feeling, I submit the following statement as a bright green of the nearer objects, and the planted the coffee shrub. Beyond, the eye en- candidate for a corner in the “ Field Naturaldark blue of the more distant, under a piercing counters a boundless amphitheatre of wood, ist's Magazine.”. sun and a cloudless heaven, so nearly assimi —forests of stupendous trees,-the magnificent I am extremely fond of what I call practical late to each other, that the valleys between ceiba, the wild tamarind, the St. Mary-tree, natural history; but, as I reside in a large each successive ridge, from the sea to the in- and the stately cedulla; heights over which the town, you will suppose I may find soine little land mountains, cannot be traced by the eye. lofty and majestic palm rears its empire—an difficulty in pursuing it. I am, however, so It is only when we approach these lands of unexplored, exhaustless, and leafy solitude, happy as to possess a garden, about 140 feet eternal freshness, in the grey clearness of the covering with splendour of colour the vast in length by 40 in breadth; in which, besides sunrise, or in a cloudy sky and a moist and range of mountains, till these again mingle as many flowers as it will contain, I usually slightly dense atmosphere, that the character of with the clouds.
keep one or more tame birds, in the full enthe country is readily discoverable. Then, in the clear and distinct colours of the aerial per- The blooming rose its fragrance breathes in vain,
-In their rough bewildered vales
joyment of unelipped wings, and at free liberty
to leave my demesne if they feel so disposed; spective, we perceive hill succeeding hill, exAnd silver fountains fall, and nightingales
but several have thought proper not to do so tensive valleys intervening, and the interior Attune their notes, where none are left to hear."
for three or four years; and I believe that, mountains rising in majesty over all.
Dyer's Fleece, b. iv. when they at last disappeared, they were either Quitting, about the middle coast of the
stolen or devoured by cats. The bird with island, the shore, which opposes its rocks Within a month from this, I expect to be at which I have had the most intimate compacovered with foliage and Aswers to the blue what I call my home, partaking a little domes- nionship is the magpie, and I will now proand tranquil waters, the eminences are seen in tic happiness, the only portion of earthly seli- ceed to tell you a little of what I have observed bold yet not urgentle acclivity, with valleys of city afforded me here. . Believe me, when in him. I shall not attempt to give you the pleasing inequality between. As, with a beauty away from the circumscribed dominion of the characters of individual magpies, which I becalculated to awaken attention, the convexities household gods, my portion is a silent heart lieve differ as willely as those of individuals of of every retiring height are rounded into a brooding wretchedness. I write this to you the human species: their loquacity and proregularity of form, so the separating hollows from among scenes of complete loneliness; the pensity to theft are well known; but I do not are marked with an evenness of surface that only sounds that break the silence of the soli- find many who are aware of the high notions gives to the transitions an appearance uncha- tude are the music of the mocking-bird, the which a magpie possesses of his own rights in racterised by abruptness. Though diversified voice of the dove, the evening call of the wild whatever he deems his property. My magpie by frequent rocks, rugged and unequal, they guinea-fowls, and the rushing of waters deep- considers my garden as his estate; he walks seldom burst in those bold, barren, and im-ening occasionally the murmurs of the sea- jealously behind any stranger who goes into mense masses, to claim the appellation of breeze. Amid these scenes, I find a happiness it; and if any
be made to touch a crags, or to create any remarkable deviations in a converse with nature, since the society of plant, a stick, or a stone, he flies at the offender from the general character of the country. man affords me none. I must not, however, with every demonstration of rage and fury. He
The different foliage that crown these conti-omit one striking feature presented amid the perambulates his boundaries, i. e. the top of nual undulations, coloured in the brightest scenes here. In the many naked persons one The surrounding wall, and never by any chance and most contrasting green, combine beauty encounters, enjoying the cool freshness of the goes beyond them. Every evening, he volunwith their variety. Where the hand of the woods and waters, the mind familiar with tarily enters a cage appropriated to him, shuts cultivator has pruned the exuberance of na classic imagery does not fail to recall the the door after him, and goes to roost on the ture, no scenery can be more delightful than fabled beings of the olden time-Dryads and perch. On one occasion, having some greenthe groves of the dark-leaved pimento, with Naiads, nymphs that loved the woods and house plants turned out in the borders, I which she had spontaneously clothed the face streams; while some brown and brawny native, wished to send them, for the winter, to a friend of the uplands. Detached in groups, with an tending his flocks and herds, or stripping to in the country: a cart was accordingly brought interval that admits not their branches to in- seek a repast in the floods, personates the to the gate, and a man commenced removing tervene, they expose to the view the bright fauns and sylvans of the same primeval times the plants from my garden ; but Mag, seeing verdure of the turf beneath. As this tree of fancy and of fable. Though my circum- his estate thus plundered, 'made a vigorous suffers no unkindred rival to rear itself within stances supply me with a theme in which, as attack upon the spoiler; he would jump on the shadow of its leaf, the close, even, and un you may perceive, imagination can run riot, each pot as the man took it up for removal, spotted sward, nourished by the showers of its my strange misfortunes make up the greatest and peck his hand until the blood sprung from dew-drops, enjoying a free air and unceasing portion of my thoughts. The hope of my it; and he followed him, constantly pecking shade, tlourishes in perennial beauty. From return to the domestic and social luxuries of his heels, to the garden gate, but no further; their aromatic leaves and flowers, the breezes, England is now fast receding from my view. for he then would run back to me, chartering that pour from every glen, waft a perfume of I know the consolations friendship would give; loudly, and looking up to me for approbation. the most delicious fragrance with the coolness but I should be inclined to exclaim with He once entered the open window of a room which they bring.
Nævolus, in the Satires of Juvenal, though where breakfast was set out, before the family Though every scene be calculated to impart not with the same impulse, “Reserve them came down stairs; he drank largely out of the delight, it is amid those through which the for happier men. My Destinies would rejoice milk jug, tasted the butter, and concluded by rivers take their course that we experience the if my efforts could avail me any thing. Ở the I throwing down upon the floor the toast, spoons,
knives, and every thing that he could move. in twelve. The legislature is so far impressed | been uniformly attended, is the best evidence Having done this
, he sat on the back of a chair with the importance of faithful and systematic of the convicts' interest in the exercise, and of apparently quite delighted at his exploit. If religious instruction, by a resident chaplain, as its effect upon their feelings. One, who had any one looked particularly at a flower, he to grant this officer, at the last session, two been in prison but a few weeks, sent for me to would nip it off, and bury it for security, I hundred and fifty dollars annually, in addition let me know what a change had been wrought had, for some time, a tame jackdaw to keep to the pay which he before received from the in his feelings respecting it. 'I always hated him company. This bird is fond of getting state. The earnings of the convicts, during to hear prayers (said he), and the first time into dark holes and corners, which Mag studi- the year ending October 31, 1829, amounted that I heard you pray in the prison I could ously avoids. In a small lobby, opening into to 39,933 dollars 45 cents; the expenses, in- hardly contain the contempt that I felt for the garden, there is a little cupboard in the cluding the pay of the officers, to 34,070 dol- you and your prayer ; now, I feel it a great wall, about a yard from the ground. I once lars 85 cents; leaving a balance in favour of privilege to kneel down and pray with you.' saw the jackdaw enter this cupboard, and, the institution of 5862 dollars 60 cents. “ The Sabbath-school still holds a promiwith great labour, drag out a bunch of large The following letter is from the chaplain of nent place in our system of instruction, and keys, which he threw down to his friend Mag, the prison, dated May 29, 1830:
claims our highest regard. Its number has who was waiting below. Jack then descended, “I have now spent two years among the been gradually increased, till it now contains and the two together worked in good earnest at convicts in this prison. I review the period about one hundred and sixty pupils, in thirtypulling the keys into the garden, no doubt in- with deep emotion. I think it has been the one classes, which are under the care of thirtytending to hide them, had I not stopped their most useful, certainly the happiest, portion of two theological students as teachers, one of proceedings. This jackdaw frequently hid my life. They who have asked me, 'How whom takes the immediate oversight of the himself in a dark corner by the larder door, can you immure yourself in so dreary a place, whole. I scarcely know which most to adwaiting patiently until the cook came to open and among such a class of men?' have yet to mire, the devotedness of the teachers, or the it; he would then try to slip in unperceived learn what is the richest luxury that a bene- ardour and industry of the scholars. The behind her, and hide himself behind a large volent heart can enjoy. If left to my choice, liveliest interest is manifested by both. А cheese-pan, in' hopes of being left among the no earthly consideration would tempt me to mutual and strong attachment springs up begood things.
leave this for any other field of labour on tween them. The teachers seem willing to I once had a magnificent cock pheasant in earth.
forego any other privilege for the sake of the same manner; he was as tame as the mag “ The ordinary religious services have been meeting and instructing their pupils; and pie, but not so amusing or cunning. I also had regularly performed. To the preaching on the among the scholars, generally, no other pua thrush who was perfectly tame; he would Sabbath the convicts have uniformly listened nishment is more dreaded than the exclusion wade up to his neck in a little pond of gold with fixed attention, and often with deep and from the school. It has been interesting to fish, which was under the branches of a large overwhelming emotion. The services are al me to observe, upon the discharge of these mulberry-tree, for the purpose of getting the ways characterized by perfect order and ap- scholars from prison, how often the first infruit that fell into it. In short, I have not met parent solemnity. It has been the common quiry has been, where they might find their with any bird in whom kind treatment would remark of casual visitors, as well as others, teacher.” not give rise to tameness and affection.-Field that they never witnessed an equal degree of The discipline of the institution, to secure Naturalist's Magazine.
attention, and apparent seriousness and inter- such a result, would be supposed good; but a est, in any other congregation. From the single fact will place it in a stronger light. chapel, I have followed them, in the after- At midnight, during the last year, there was
noon, to their solitary cells, and there, in the a cry of fire. It was soon ascertained that it PRISON DISCIPLINE.
best possible circumstances for producing was in the prison. An extensive shop, filled We have, in our accompanying num
effect, have pressed home upon their con with combustible materials, directly under the
sciences, individually, the truths which they eaves of the north wing, in which were conber, given an account of the prison sys- had heard in the public assembly, in such fined five hundred and fifty convicts in sepatem in Jamaica.
We will now present manner as I conceived to be the best adapted rate cells, was in flames. The fire spread with the last report of the prison at Auburn, to their different capacities and states of feel- great rapidity, and very soon communicated in North America, just stating that there ing. In these visits I have often witnessed with the windows of the building in which the are reports, from a number of similar es the power of truth, in making the stoutest convicts were locked up; and, before any protablishments in the same country, of an
heart, the heart that could be approached in gress could be made in arresting it, the flames
no other circumstances, to tremble. This I equally favourable character.
burnt through the windows, and threatened regard as the most important part of my duty, the convicts in their night-cells with suffocaThe prison at Auburn maintains the same and that which has been most evidently ac- tion. The keepers, at the hazard of their general character which it has sustained for a companied by the blessing of God. The truths | lives, rushed through fire and smoke, and succourse of years. It continues to be, as it was of the Bible, applied closely to the conscience, ceeded in unlocking every door, and disfive years ago, a specimen of neatness from bare generally produced a visible effect upon charged into the yard at midnight five hunthe gate to the sewer. In this respect, it fur- their feelings, and, in some instances, I have dred and fifty convicts. Two avenues had nishes a good lesson to many private families. every reason to believe, exerted a transform- now been opened to the street, through either Combinations in villany, and communications ing influence upon their hearts. I have found of which the convicts might have escaped, in of evil, are to a great extent, if not wholly, the men readily accessible, almost without the confusion of passing the water, and the prevented. Silence, industry, and order, reign exception; softened in their feelings, willing passing and repassing of citizens. Instead, throughout the establishment. The health, and glad to converse upon the subject of reli- however, of attempting to escape, they formed among a population of more than 600 within gion, convinced of the necessity of a radical a most efficient fire-company, extinguished the walls, is about equal to that of the most change in their own hearts, and often power the Hames, and, when this was done, were favoured country villages in New England, fully awakened to the immediate obligation of found in their places, no one having atand greater than that of the city of Boston; yielding to the demands of the gospel. No tempted to escape. The chaplain, in view of the deaths in the last six years having been thing is more common than to hear them ex
this fact, says,
* My attachment to my people one in seventy-one, and, during the last year, press their surprise that they never thought of is constantly increasing.” less than one in one hundred. The cases of these things before, and their gratitude that Such being the facts in regard to discipline, sickness in the hospital have been, on an aver-they have been arrested and brought into a and the proceeds of labour, the question arises, age, six nearly, or about one in one hundred. place where they are taught them, and where whether there is evidence, after their discharge, The moral influence is good, as might be ex- they cannot but think of them. In this la- of its being reformatory, Intelligence has pected from the public worship, the Sabbath- bour I have been assisted by the use of tracts, been received, during the last year, in answer school, the reading and study of the Bible, the which the keeper has kindly given me per- to letters addressed to post-masters and sheriffs, solitude, the private admonition, the absence mission to put into their hands on the Sab- in all parts of the State of New York, concernof temptation, the mild and wholesome dis- bath, and which, by a suitable selection and ing two hundred and sixty discharged concipline, and the daily acknowledgment of God, adaptation to particular cases, have not un victs, of whom one hundred and forty-six are which is proved by numerous cases of refor- frequently proved to be efficient co-workers in reformed. Concerning many of the one hunmation, and, comparatively, few cases of reproducing and strengthening salutary impres-dred and forty-six here mentioned, informacommittal. The well-authenticated cases of sions upon their minds.
tion has been received, three years in succesreformation are more than one hundred and “ The profound and impressive stillness, sion, giving them the same character; and forty, and the re-committals are less than one with which the daily eveuing devotions have some of them the character of decidedly pious
Three years ago this system of inquiry conversant with our English poets; and there- | most experienced in his endeavours to explain concerning discharged convicts was first in- fore the reader will be the less surprised when why so many flashes of lightning have occurred stituted. The first year, it brought favourable I tell him that Drummond is the earliest over London, perhaps some thousands, when returns concerning fifty-two; the second year, writer of the true sonnet whom I can properly not more than twenty of its towers have felt concerning one hundred and twelve ; and the be said to know. One of the sonnets of this their effects in the revolving of several centuthird year, as already stated, concerning one admirable genius, addressed to the nightingale, ries. Iron is acknowledged to be one of the hundred and forty-six.
is so beautiful that I must be allowed to gra- best conductors; and, as every steeple is surThere is another class of facts proving the tify myself by transcribing it.
mounted by a pointed spindle for the vane, we same thing concerning the reformatory cha
TO THE NIGHTINGALE.
might suppose part of the contents of electric racter of the prison at Auburn. The recom, Sweet bird, that sing'st away the early hours
clouds would be attracted to them, and the demitments in 1827, out of four hundred and
Of winter, past or coming, void of care,
struction of the structures follow from the want twenty-seven, were only nineteen. And in Well pleased with delights which present are,
of a continuation of the same metal to the 1829, out of five hundred and seventy, only Fair seasons, budding sprays, sweet-smelling
earth. The celebrated Franklin, aware of the seventeen.
numerous partial attractors to be found on The health of the institution is also remark To rocks, to springs, to rills, from leafy bowers towers, churches, and other buildings, sugable. The cases of sickness in the hospital
Thou thy Creator's goodness dost declare, gested the use of iron rods, linked and pointed, being, on an average, one to one hundred,
And what dear gifts to thee he did not spare ; to ascend their sides and the highest parts of according to the physician's report, and the A stain to human sense in guilt that lowers.
the edifice; the efficacy of which cannot be What soul can be so sick, which by thy songs, deaths one to seventy-five annually.
for a moment doubted, as the upper ends of Attired in sweetness, sweetly is not driven Quite to forget earth's turmoils, spite, and wrongs; into drops, without the inhabitants of the
the rods are frequently ascertained to be melted HISTORY OF THE SONNET.
And lift a reverend eye and thought to heaven?
houses to which they are generally affixed, in The sonnet, as is generally known, is alto-To airs of spheres,-yes, and to angels' lays.
America, being sensible of the least shock gether of Italian origin; and its structure is
In the times succeeding to those of Surrey, the excellent safeguards been discovered 128 years
during the passage of the fluid. Had those ascertained with so much rigid precision as to
sonnet was constructed, though not with rigid be insusceptible of any, or only of the most which it is to consist, the first eight are to ad- stiemore happilya bese Duru wrand, the peculiar month of June, 1679, a flash of lightning de trifling, variation. Of the fourteen lines, of accuracy, by Sidney, Spenser, Shakspeare, and past
, the cupola of the Escurial might possibly object, as it would seein, of Milton's applause scended on the brass ball of 750 pounds mit one change only of rhyme for their termination; and are to be distributed into two has frequently been animated with a great and
and iinitation. By Milton this minute poem weight, which was supported by a pyramid of stanzas, of which the first verse chimes with the last, and the two intermediate ones with mighty soul
. That which he wrote when the stone, and beat both to the ground. each other. The six concluding lines may which he addressed to Cyriac Skinner (the
assault was intended to the city," and those either be confined within terminations of two similar sounds altemately arranged, or may be grandson of the great Lord Coke), to Fairfax,
FREE LABOUR. to Vane, and to Cromwell, are eminent for disposed, with two additional rhymes, into a their vigour and loftiness. Some greater accu
It is assumed that the slaves will become quatrain and a couplet. Like every short poem, the sonnet requires strict unity of sub-racy, perhaps, might be required in the finish- idle on obtaining their freedom ; but this is a
mere assumption. The report of the privy ject; but it solicits ornament from variety of ceived and executed in a grand and broad council (1788) speaks, on the authority of witthought, on the indispensable condition of a
style. Like a small statue by the chisel of nesses from the British West India islands, of perfect subordination. The sentence may over
Lysippus, or a miniature from the pencil of the “invincible repugnance of the free negroes How the verse, but must not transgress the Angelo, they demonstrate that the idea of to all sorts of labour." Messrs. Fuller, Long, This little poein is impressible with
excited independently of the
and Chisholm declare, at “ free negroes are various characters; and, while with Petrarch it greatness may
magnitude of size.--Symmons's Life of Milton. never known to work for hire, and that they is tender and pathetic, with Dante, in equal consistency with its nature, it is elevated and the general character of Petrarch's sonnets by
The English reader may form some idea of have all the vices of the slaves.” Mr. Brath
waite states, that “if the slaves in Barbados forcible. Pecnliarly adapted to the language the following specimen. It is translated by were all offered their freedom on condition of and the taste of its native Italy, it has been Lady Dacre, and was evidently written after working for themselves, not one tenth of them considered, though in my opinion without the death of his Laura.
would accept it.” Governor Parry reports that sufficient reason, as insuperably unaccommodated to those of Britain. When happily conNot skies serene, with glittering stars inlaid,
“free negroes are utterly destitute of indusstructed, it will be found to gratify every
Nor gallant ships o'er tranquil ocean dancing,
try;" and the council of the island add, that, Nor gay careering knights in arms advancing,
“ from their confirmed habits of idleness, they English ear, attuned to the harmony of verse;
Nor wild herds bounding through the forest
are the pests of society."-Report, 1788, part 3. and the idea, which it suggests, of difficulty
Strange that, in the face of these declaraencountered and overcome, must contribute, as Nor tidings new of happiness delay'd,
tions, proceeding from persons in high official has been more than once remarked, to heighten
Nor poesie, Love's witchery enhancing, trust and authority, the free blacks have, by the power of its effect.
Nor lady's song beside clear fountain glancing, their superior industry, driven the lower order During the prevalence of our Italian school
In beauty's pride, with chastity array'd; of whites from almost every trade requiring of poetry, this short and pregnant composition Nor aught of lovely, aught of gay in show,
skill and continued exertion. I believe that was much in favour with our bards; and in Shall touch my heart, now cold within her tomb the childhood, as it may be called, of the Who was erewhile my life and light below!
not one in twenty of the working shoemakers
in Barbados is a white man. The working English Muse, it was made the vehicle of his So heavy-tedious-sad-my days unblest, love by the tender, the gallant, the accom
That I, with strong desire, invoke Death's carpenters, masons, tailors, smiths, &c., are, plished, and the ill-fated Surrey.*
for the most part, men of colour; and this at Her to behold, whom ne'er to have seen were best!
a time when a large white population are in When I speak of Surrey as a sonnetteer, I
the lowest state of poverty and wretchedness. either take the fact on the credit of others, or /
In the application for casual charity, the numadopt the vague language of writers who call
EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING.
ber of white persons soliciting relief is far every short poem, comprised within fourteen
greater than that of the free coloured. The lines, a sonnet. Surrey has justly been hon
The effects of lightning have ever been par- free black and coloured inhabitants have aloured by Mr. Wharton with the title of our ticularly dreadful on high buildings, and yet ways contributed in their full proportion to first English classic : but I am not acquainted it is singular that steeples and towers are not the parochial taxes, for the support of the with one regular sonnet which he has constructed. I am far from being profoundly might be adduced to prove that coitages and more frequently injured by it; many instances poor whites, wbile their own poor receive no
parochial relief, but are supported by private the earth have felt the force of this subtle contributions among the more wealthy of their From the notoriety of the fact, it can scarcely iluid, when objects infinitely more elevated own colour. Do these facts indicate habits of ment of the English nobility (Henry Howard, have escaped without injury., Philosophers irreclaimable idleness ?--Archdeacon Elliot's
Lectures. eldest son of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk) fell á speculate almost in vain upon the phenomena victim, in the flower of his age, to the jealousy of exhibited by the electric fire in its passage that capricious and remorseless tyrant, Henry through the atmosphere, and such substances VIII.
as it meets in its way; and it would bafile the
ter, his majesty was pleased (that none might be left there doubtful of his favour) graciously
to assure them, that he willingly granted all rok eti to via SMUT 2011
wa TUTULDA UT!
they desired, or could wish, and that they might admit Dr. Roderick to be their Provost as soon as they pleased ; which they received with the greatest joy and gratitude imaginable.
“ After this, his majesty went to Trinity College, and in the first court thereof was congratulated by the Hon. Dr. Montague, the master, and in the second by Mr. Norris, a fellow of that College, and with a copy of English verses in the new-built library, the structure whereof his majesty was very well pleased with.
And here his majesty was pleased to accept of a dinner, provided by the University, in the College-hall; where, at the upper end, was a table raised five steps above the floor, at which sat his majesty, and at one
end his Royal Highness Prince George of THE GNU.
Denmark, who attended him hither ; and at
the other tables, on each side of the hall, were This animal is found chiefly in South-ways with their horns. This, however,
their Excellencies the Spanish and Dutch ern Africa, and combines in its form the lasts but for a moment: the whole troop ters, together with the nobility and principal
Ambassadors, with several other foreign minisbeauties and adaptations for strength and soon flies across the desert with amazing gentry in great numbers. All which his maspeed of several animals. It is generally speed. The males bellow like a bull
, jesty was graciously pleased to accept, sending described as having the head square, the and the young have a kind of nasal from table a message to his Grace the Channeck thick, the shoulders deep, the body murmur. They have been much observed, cellor, that he drank to him, and wished prosshort and rounded, the legs long and and described by numerous African tra- perity to the University of Cambridge. Immefinely formed, and composing altogether vellers; and the general testimony seems diately after dinner, his majesty returned to an animal exceedingly compact and ac to be that, either from some obliquity of Newmarket through infinite throngs of people, tive. They are remarkably lively, trot- disposition, or from a plenitude of animal who crowded from all parts to have the hap
piness of seeing his majesty." ting, ambling, and galloping with great spirits, which imprisonment and persecuswiftness; and so sportive that even tion cannot subdue, they are rarely or when alarmed they always commence by never domesticated,
EIGHT MONTHS' RESIDENCE IN playing with each other, striking side
JAMAICA, IN 1830 AND 1831. The following article is handed to us by the writer, whose name we have, with the highest testimonies to his veracity and respectability.
I had the misfortune to become acquainted, VISIT OF WILLIAM III. TO THE UNI “ The next day, his majesty was pleased to in the spring of 1830, with a gentleman then VERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, 1689. make a visit to the University, and arrived lately returned from Jamaica, after having
here in the morning, being met without the resided in the island for nearly twenty years. The following interesting article is extracted town by the mayor and aldermen of the corpo- At that time I was wholly unacquainted with from the London Gazette, October 10th, 1689. ration in their formalities, who complimented the real nature of colonial slavery, and drew
“ On Sunday last, the vice-chancellor, the his majesty, by Mr. Pepys, their present mayor, my conclusion on the subject, partly from heads of colleges, and doctors in all faculties, and made a present of a large basin and ewer. hearsay, and partly from the perusal of letters with several regents and non-regents, in their They marched before him into town, at the written by relatives resident in the slave coloproper habits, waited upon his majesty at New- entrance whereof his majesty was received by nies, who all agreed in their praises of the market, being introduced into his royal pre- rows of scholars, according to their several system. These conclusions, although I trust sence by his Grace the Duke of Somerset, degrees, on each side of the streets leading to they never could have confirmed me a lover Chancellor of the University. The Rev. Dr. the public schools, and amidst the loud accla- of slavery, did actually—I confess with shame Covell, Vice-Chancellor, addressed himself to mations of all sorts of persons. His majesty, -go a great length in rendering me an apolohis majesty in a proper and elegant speech, alighting at the schools, received there the gist for the system. Such were my views congratulating the glorious successes his ma- public thanks of the University, by the Vice- when I came in contact with this gentleman, jesty had been blessed with in his endeavours Chancellor and their orator, for the great -and, having long had thoughts of trying to rescue this church and nation from the im- honour that was then done them; and an ex- my fortune in the West Indies, I rejoiced that minent dangers that threatened both, and traordinary Commencement being then held on I had at length met with an individual who which were more particularly pointed against this signal occasion, for conferring degrees on could inform me of the true nature of things the Universities, and concluded with an persons of worth in all faculties, Mr. Kiddler in Jamaica. I therefore lost no time in humble recommendation of themselves to his and Mr. Pelling were created doctors in his making every possible inquiry of him, that majesty's protection, wherein the Protestant majesty's presence, being presented by the might tend to afford me correot views on the religion had so much concern. To which his Regius Professor, Dr. Beaumont, with that subject. The information he gave me was majesty was pleased to return in answer, that unimitable elegancy which is eso peculiar to uniformly laudatory of the system, and garas God had blessed him in this undertaking, him.
nished with pleasing descriptions of the so he should faithfully discharge his trust in “From the schools, his majesty walked to contented and enviable condition of the preserving the church of England, and giving King's College, where Mr. Layton, a fellow of slave population, delivered with a tone of so all protection and favour to the Universities. that society, declaring in his speech the appre- much seeming earnestness as to leave me no They then waited upon his majesty to church, hensions they were under least they might room to doubt their truth. I agreed at once and at their return from thence were conduct- have offended his majesty by a late petition, to a proposal that I should accompany bis ed to the king's house, where, by directions wherein they only mentioned one single per- brother to Jamaica, --both of us having made from his majesty, they were received and son as duly qualified to succeed in the vacancy up our minds to make trial of a planter's life. splendidly entertained at dinner by Sir James of their Provost, and humbly beseeching his On being furnished with recommendatory letForbes, clerk of the green cloth.
majesty's favourable construction of that mat. ters, we sailed from Greenock in the end of
April, and, after a pleasant passage, arrived | such, ere I had well been fifteen minutes on in reply to either driver or overseer only occaat Falmouth, Jamaica, on Sunday, the 13th the estate. The overseer, observing my un- sions renewed punishment. My observation of June, 1830.
easiness, desired that I might retire for a few induces me to believe that many of the punishAfter having gratified ourselves with a minutes. Glad in the opportunity thus afforded ments arise from hatred engendered in the walk through the town, and listened to the me of withdrawing myself from the scene, I breast of the drivers; the severest punishsongs of praise (in which we mentally joined) did so accordingly: but whether it was that ments are being continually inflicted on the that were ascending from out a chapel crowded the heart of the overseer relented, or that he same individual without just cause. One with negroes, we adjourned to the lodging did not wish to show extraordinary rigour wretched creature, of the name of Polly Betty, house of a free black woman, named Clark, during my first appearance, I cannot pretend was continually flogged by the driver in the where we took apartments. This advocate of to say; however, the poor negro, after a field. Her life was a continued scene of “vested rights” actually possessed her own shower of oaths and abuse had been liberally wretchedness and misery, as, in addition to brother and two sisters as slaves,-uniformly bestowed upon him, received comparatively the cruel treatment she received at the hands treated them as such, --flogged them with her few lashes,-not half, I should consider, of of the driver, she was afflicted with an incu. own hand, or under her immediate superin- the allowable quantum. They proved suffi- rable disease, which rendered her incapable of tendence. Frequently have I heard her bawl cient, however, to cause him to roar in agony, doing so much work as the others. Fler deout to them, “Now, mind what you be about; and imploringly to entreat the overseer that ficiency of natural strength he endeavoured to you'll catch something you don't like else.” he would pardon him. “Do, my good massa! supply by the constant application of the whip, Both of her sisters had at the time infants at do let me go dis one time,” was his oft-re- There was a little girl also on the estate, the breast; but even this circumstance did not newed exclamation. The appeal struck deeply named Elizabeth, who, some how or another, screen them from the harsh usage of their into my heart, and was sufficient to have wrung was particularly hateful to the old driver, unfeeling relative, who, though but lately a pity from any one unaccustomed to such Jack. She was flogged, without mercy, alslave herself, now exercised all the despotism scenes. After he had “ dismissed the case,” most daily, frequently for no visible offence, of an owner.
he remarked to me, “If I were not occasion- and worked all day long in sorrow and in I called next day on the Hon. William ally to flog these fellows they would get the tears. She was actually quite lame from the Miller, the Custos, and delivered to him one upper hand of me;" and lie laboured to effects of the lash; she went hobbling along to of my introductory letters. He received me prove, by a long stretch of puerile argument, her work bent down like an aged person. with affability and politeness, in his elegant that the slaves of Jamaica were far more Frequently did this poor, ill-used girl feign mansion, and said that if I called next day comfortably situated than the peasantry of sickness in order to escape the horrors of her an appointment would be written out for me. Britain. The anti-slavery advocates at home unpitied lot; but this subterfuge was, of His apparently mild and urbane disposition, had their share of abuse; and, in particular, course, easily detected, and she subjected to contrasted with the revolting spectacle I wit he remarked that the part Dr. Thomson, of additional rigour. nessed in the court-yard before his house, Edinburgh, had taken, was enough to expose Neither age nor sex protects the victims of were, to me, perfectly irreconcileable. There every planter's throat to the knife of the negro. slavery from the cart-whip. From seven to I beheld about a dozen convict slaves, chained I was destined, however, to see the fallacy of seveniy, and beyond that age, there is no reto each other, who were busy macadamizing these futile assertions fully verified in my own prieve from its arbitrary infliction. An inthe yard,-a surly looking driver, whip in sad experience.
Offensive African, called familiarly Old Billy, hand, superintending their operations. But After a few days spent in looking about the of upwards of seventy years of age, was shamemy feelings were infinitely more shocked by estate, I had, on the fourth day, my written fully flogged during my stay at Llandovery, witnessing in the public strect, in the face of instructions given to me by the overseer, which for some alleged mistakes connected with the day, six or eight workhouse slaves dragging at ordered me to attend daily the youngest gang, dressing of the overseer's garden ; but it struck their heels a cart heavily laden with stones ; ) and to look after the small stock of the estate. me forcibly at the time, and has been my firm men and women chained legs and arms to thé 1 very soon discovered that the work which belief ever since, that this poor, defenceless old vehicle: they were literally driven by a stout the slaves of all ages had to perform was creature was flogged by the overseer out of black, armed with a tremendous cart-whip, terribly severe.
mere cruel sport, to amuse some strangers who which he carried ready poised, and occasion I may safely say that, after having been a were with him, and for no other reason whatally applied to their naked backs, shouting, at week on the estate, my mind was completely ever. The case of this unfriended creature the same moment, with loud execrations. I made up as to the atrocious character of the was particularly painful to me; nor will the never was so horrified and disgusted in my system. I set it downl, without the least liesi- agonizing expression of his countenance, and life, as on beholding this degrading sight. tation, as one of detestable injustice, cruelty, his dismal cries, ever be effaced from my The poor creatures never raised an eye, but and oppression. And from this period, until memory. The condition of the aged and looked despondingly to the ground; their my final departure, my whole mind was bent worn out, who have such strong claims to whole appearance telling a tale that spoke of on leaving the country, and slavery, for ever; proper maintenance in old age, is wretched accumulated misery and woe. They looked, and I never enjoyed peace of mind till I had beyond description. From hunger, and the in fact, as if on earth they had no hope, and attained my object. Nevertheless, I was an dreadful infliction of the lash, death is their that death itself would be a welcome relief. unwilling witness of the system for nearly only relief. It was now that my belief in the comforts of eight months.
The drivers are uniformly the strongest and slavery began to be a little shaken. I after I need hardly declare that the negroes in most active negroes the estate can furnish, wards ascertained that these gangs were partly Jamaica are overworked. Out of crop they toil and, to save their own backs, never fail to act composed of convict slaves, and partly of slaves from sun-rise to sun-set ; that is, generally, up to their instructions. They are liberally sent thither by their masters, to undergo ex- throughout the year, from 5 A. M. to 8 P. M.; and allowed rum; and of an afternoon, when their treme punishment.
during crop, which lasts five months in the year, acquired cruel dispositions are heightened by On calling next day (Tuesday) at Mr. Mil- for thirty-six hours out of the forty-eight, al- its use, the scenes of cruelty that then took ler's office, I received a letter to the overseer lowing an hour and a half each day for meals, place were, to my mind, revolting in the utof Llandorery estate. I hired a horse on the sleep only being conceded to them every alter- | most degree. Wednesday morning, and on my journey I nate night. The majority are, also, to speak The negroes at Llandovery were given to passed two gangs, with drivers, and whips at in plain terms, half starved, seven salt her- understand that if they considered themselves their backs; and, after witnessing on my rings, and a few indigestible esculent roots, ill-used they might complain to the attorney, route the most enchanting scenery, arrived in being their only support. The old worn-out on his periodical visits to the estate. But this the afternoon at Llandovery.
men and women have still less food, chiefly was a course scarcely ever resorted to. They The overseer received me with open-hearted subsisting on the partial bounty of their fel. were well aware that such a proceeding could attention, and, after a few common-place in- low slaves—or, indeed, upon cats and rats, only have one effect, that of calling down quiries about my passage, had just commenced when they are fortunate enough to procure aggravated cruelty upon them. an eulogium on the comforts of the slaves, them.
During my residence, a Mulatto washerwhen a negro was brought to the foot of the I assert, also, that they are uniformly harshly woman was severely flogged for merely hinting steps, followed by four others and a driver, in treated, and, in numerous cases, cruelly so, and that she would adopt this course.
I kept no order to undergo punishment. All the stories that for trivial faults. If a slave is only a few journal during my residence at Llandovery, I had ever heard about the cruelty of the minutes behind the time he ought to be at an omission I deeply regret, as I should have planters towards their slaves now rushed in a work, he is either flogged by the black driver been enabled, by adopting this course, to have moment on my thoughts, and I deeply la on the instant, or receives thirty-nine lashes given actual dates to many monstrous acts of mented that I should be dooined to witness on the arrival of the overseer. A word spoken oppression and cruelty. I think I may safely