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1695, which engaged him in the immediate business of the state. With regard to the church, he published a treatise the same year, to promote the scheme which King William had much at heart, of a comprehension with the Dissenters. This, however, drew him into a controversy, which was scarcely ended when he entered into another, in defence of his essay, which continued till 1698; soon after which, the asthma increasing with his years, he became so infirm that, in 1700, he resigned his seat at the board of trade, as he could no longer bear the air of London sufficiently for a regular attendance upon it. After this he continued constantly at Oates, where he employed the remaining years of his life entirely in the study of the Holy Scriptures. He died in 1704, aged seventythree. Whoever is acquainted with the barbarous state of the philosophy of the human mind, when Mr. Locke paved the way to a clear notion of knowledge, will be able to appreciate this great man's abilities, and discover how much we are indebted to him for the improvements that have since been made. His Discourses on Government, Letters on Tole

ration, and his Commentaries on some of JOHN LOCKE.

St. Paul's Epistles, are justly held in the

highest esteem.
Joun Locke, F.R.S., was the son of November, 1684, he was deprived of his
Mr. John Locke, of Pensford, in Somer- place of student in Christ Church. In
setshire, and was born at Wrington, near | 1685 the English Envoy at the Hague

Bristol, in 1632. He was sent to Christ demanded him, and eighty-three other
Church in Oxford, and here became ac- persons, to be delivered up by the States

We shall extract, for the sake of an quainted with the works of Des Cartes, General

, upon which he lay concealed instructive contrast, two accounts from which first attracted his attention to phi- till 1686, and during this time formed an

the last report of the Prison Discipline losophy. He applied himself with vigour acquaintance with Limborch, Le Clerc, Society-the one of prisons in the West to his studies, particularly to physic, in and some few other learned men at Am- | Indies, the other of prisons in America. which he gained a considerable know-sterdam. In 1689 he returned to England The latter must, from its length, be inledge, though he never practised it. In in the fleet which brought over the Prinserted in our Supplement. 1664 he went to Germany as secretary cess of Orange. Being esteemed a suf In Jamaica, an act was passed by the legisto Sir William Swan, Envoy from the ferer for the principles of the revolution, lature in January, 1830, for the better regulaEnglish Court to the Elector of Branden- he obtained the post of commissioner of tion of the prisons. There is a public gaol in burgh, and some other German princes. appeals, worth £200, and was offered to island has a particular place of confinement In 1665 he returned to Oxford, where he be sent abroad as envoy at the court of for offenders who are to be tried at the Quarapplied himself to natural philosophy, the Emperor, the elector of Brandenburg, ter Sessions and Slave-court. Many of the and became acquainted with Lord Ash- or any other where he thought the air prisons are of a temporary nature, and very ley, who introduced him to some of the most suitable to him ; but he waived all incommodious and insecure. For want of most eminent persons of that age. In these, on account of the infirm state of room, untried prisoners are frequently confined 1670 he began to form the plan of his his health, which led him to prefer an

with convicts, and males and females are Essay on Human Understanding. About Offer made by Sir Francis Masham and placed together. There is no labour or em

ployment in any of the gaols, and no ineans this time he became F.R.S. In 1672 his lady, of an apartment in their coun

of solitary confinement. The limited space, his patron, Lord Ashley, now Earl of try seat at Oates, in Essex, twenty-five and want of ventilation, the neglect of inShaftesbury, and Lord Chancellor of miles from London. This place proved spection, and, above all, the entire absence of England, appointed him secretary of the perfectly agreeable to him in every re- public interest with which these prisons seem presentations. In 1673 he was made spect. He found in Lady Masham a

to be regarded, render confinement in them a secretary to a commission of trade, worth lady of a contemplative and studious grievance of no ordinary character to such of £500 a-year; but that commission was turn, inured from her infancy to deep But to the slave the imprisonment is one of

the free population as are committed to them. dissolved in 1674. The Earl of Shaftes- speculations in theology, metaphysics, aggravated cruelty. Slaves, seized in execubury, after his discharge from the Tower, and morality. In this family Mr. Locketion of their masters' debts, are dragged, for retired to Holland in 1682, and Mr. lived with as much ease as if the whole no criminal offence whatever, from the planLocke followed his patron thither. He house had been his own; and he had the tation to the gaol, and there kept crowded had not been absent from England a additional satisfaction of seeing this lady together--men, women, and children—until written certain tracts against the govern- plan which he had laid down for the best house for personal chastisement. The ordinary year when he was accused of having bring up her only son exactly upon the liberated for sale. Slaves charged with slight ment, which were afterwards discovered method of education. He was made a punishment on these occasions is thirty-nine to have been written by another; and in commissioner of trade and plantations in ) lashes; and it is frequently inflicted with great


severity. The slaves are prostrated on the their appraised value from the funds of the genius that should be thus faithful to true ground, and the body is indecently exposed to colony.

religion might be regarded as trees by the the gaze of by-standers; the arms are extend In the return from which these particulars side of that “river of the water of life," ed, the wrists being made fast; the legs are are taken, allusion is, in some cases, made to having in their fruit and foliage a virtue to brought close together, and secured at the the conduct of the prisoners during their con contribute to “the healing of the nations." ancles by a rope, which passes through a hole, finement. In one parish (St. Catherine's) the But, on the supposition that there were a man and is pulled tight, stretching every muscle superintendant of the workhouse states that sufficiently discerning, impartial, and indefatieven to agony.

nearly one half of the slave convicts thus sen-gable for a research throughout the general An attempt was lately made, at a vestry tenced for life are well disposed, steady, quiet, body of our poetical literature, it would be meeting of the parish of St. Andrew's, in attentive, and obedient. How deeply is it to curious to see what kind of religious system, Jamaica, to obtain an abolition of the cruel be lamented that men, whose good conduct and what account of the state of man, as system of stretching negroes, who are about to had thus extorted from their gaoler this fa- viewed under moral estimate, and in relation be flogged.* An opinion was given by the vourable testimony, should be kept in chains, to the future destiny, would be afforded by a medical attendant of the institution, that that and subjected to imprisonment and hard la digested assemblage of all the most marked mode of punishment was the least likely to bour for the remainder of their days! And for sentiments, supplied by the vast majority of injure the slave. It had already, he said, what offence? Frequently for no moral crime. the poets, for such a scheme of moral and been proposed to use the halberd for the pur- In some cases, perhaps, for resistance to op- religious doctrine. But, if it would be expose, as in the army; but he thought that the pression, justified by the best feelings of human ceedingly amusing to observe the process and contortions of the body, during the infliction nature; while in others the timid slave, who the fantastic result, it would, in the next of a flogging, might cause the dislocation of has committed unintentionally a venial of place, be very sad to consider that these falthe wrists. One member of the vestry stated fence, for which he is threatened with punish- lacies have been insinuated, by the charms of that he was ready to make oath that he knew ment, flies to the woods that he may escape poetry, into countless thousands of minds, a negro who was of no service to his owner, the infliction of the lash. It is not, however, with a beguilement that has, first, diverted from the effects of stretching by means of the in the public gaols alone that the slave is them from a serious attention to the gospel, block and tackle, and he had no doubt that treated with unjustifiable severity. There is then confirmed them in a habitual dislike of there were many other such instances. Ano on every estate a place of confinement, of the it, and finally operated to betray some of them ther member was also against the use of the proceedings in which no record is kept. A to the doom which, beyond the grave, awaits block and tackle. He himself knew a negro slave may be here incarcerated and logged at the neglect or rejection of the religion of who was totally useless in consequence of the mere will and caprice of his owner or Christ. being stretched in the workhouse. He thought overseer, free from the control and inspection You have, probably, seen Pope cited as a the halberd the milder of the two punishments

. of any magistrate. The law affixes no limit Christian poet, by some pious authors, whose During this discussion the majority of the to confinement in the stocks or bilboes on the anxiety to impress reluctant genius into an commissioners retired from the board, one or plantation, nor provides any means for control appearance of favouring Christianity has cretwo at a tine, and the meeting was adjourned against the abuse of such punishments. These dulously seized on any occasional verse which sine die! At the date of the last official re- places of confinement are entirely removed seemed an echo of the sacred doctrinos. No turn of the state of gavls and workhouses in from the public eye. No record is required to reader can exceed me in admiring the discriJamaica, there were in that island 488 slaves be kept of the flagellations which are inflicted, minative thought, the shrewd moral observain confinement who had been committed by a however severe; and to such treatment thé tion, the finished and felicitous execution, and public court, or by the order of three magis- slave population of our West India colonies is the galaxy of poetical beauties, 'çhich comtrates. Of this pumber 174—viz., 146 men, daily exposed, without the possibility of re bine to give a peculiar lustre to the writings and 28 women-were condemned to hard la- dress, if only the party who inflicts the punish- of Pope. But I cannot refuse t, perceive that bour in chains for life, for the offence of ment is prudent enough to limit the stripes to almost every allusion, in his lighter works, to having absconded from their masters for six thirty-nine, or take care that no free person the names, the facts, and the topics, that spemonths or more. Others, convicted of the witness it, when that number is exceeded. cially belong to the religion of Christ, is in a same offence, were condemned to imprison- These wrongs could only be tolerated in a style and spirit of profane banter; and that, ment and hard labour for different periods, society whose sense of public justice has been in most of his graver ones, where he meant to varying from one to twelve months; many subverted by the most odious and debasing of be dignified, he took the utmost care to divest were also sentenced to receive thirty-nine all human institutions; and it is in vain to ex his thoughts of all the mean vulgarity of lashes when committed, and again on their pect in the West Indies any just system of Christian associations. “Off, ye profane !" discharge. Of this class there were, at that eriminal law, so long as slavery shall be per miglit seem to have been his signal to all period, eighty-two-viz., sixty-three men, and mitted to inflict its cruelties upon the negro evangelical ideas, when he began his Essay nineteen women. A further number of six- race, and spread its pestiferous and deadly in on Man; and they were obedient, and fled; teen had been committed as runaways;" fluence throughout the other classes of the for if you detach the detail and illustrations, having asserted their claim to freedom, but community.

so as to lay bare the outline and general prinpossessing no documentary evidence of the

ciples of the work, it will stand confest an fact, they were condemned, although un

elaborate attempt to redeem the whole theory claimed by any one; the slave being, in such MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE of the condition and interests of man, both in cases, usually sold for the benefit of the island.


life and death, from all the explanations imBesides these prisoners, there are in the gaols

posed on it by an unphilosophical revelation various other descriptions—felons, misdemea

No. X.

from heaven. And, in the happy riddance of nants, deserters, slaves levied on for their mas

this despised, though celestial light, it exhiters' debts, or by the collector for taxes, and


bits a sort of moon-light vision, of thin, imwho are committed to the gaol or workhouse

palpable abstractions, at which a speculatist until claimed or sold. The punishment for an In extending the censure to the poets, it is may gaze, with a dubious wonder whether assault upon, or even offering violence to, a gratifying to meet an exception in the most they be realities or phantoms, but which a white person, is imprisonment and hard labour elevated of all their tribe. Milton's consecra- practical man will in vain try to seize and for life. In this return a female slave appears ted genius might harmoniously have mingled iurn to account, and which an evangelical to have been condemned to this terrible punish- with the angels that announced the Messiah man will disdain to accept in exchange for ment" for assaulting her master;" another to be come, or that, on the spot, and at the those forms of truth which his religion brings woman, “ for offering violence to her master," moment of his departure, predicted his coming to him as real living friends, instructors, and is condemner to six months' hard labour, and again; might bave shamed to silence the consolers, which present themselves to him, at to thirty-nine lashes, both on her committal muses of paganism, or softened the pains of his return from a profitless adventure in that and discharge. In many instances these se a Christian inartyr. Part of the poetical works shadowy, dreary region, with an effect like vere sentences are pronounced, not by a public of Young, those of Watts, and of Cowper, that of meeting the countenances of his affecSlave-court, but by three magistrates, and the have placed them among the permanent bene- tionate domestic associates on his awaking

in such cases, indemnified for the factors of mankind; as owing to them there is from the fantastic succession of vain efforts slaves thus sentenced for life, by being paid a popular poetry in the true spirit of Chris- and perplexities, among strange objects, inci

tianity, a poetry which has imparted, and is dents, and people, in a bewildering dream. * Vide The Watchman, or Free Press, a colo- destined to impart, the best sentiments to in- But what deference to Christianity was to be nial newspaper, February 5 and 9, 1831. numerable minds. Works of great poetical expeeted when such a man as Bolingbroke

owners are,

was the genius whose imparted splendour was ( know what all the multitude of statues which times as old ; so that I am át a loss to conceive to illuminate, and the demigod * whose ap- surround this building can represent, and any motive for making this exhibition, except probation was to crown, the labours which, may at the same time tell you, to increase the desire to get money by it. Had the feaaccording to the wish and presentiment of the your surprise and curiosity, that the interior of tures been tolerably preserved, it might have poet, were to conjoin these two venerable the building contains a still greater number, been excusable to show them to those who adnames in endless fame?

viz. five thousand : so at least we were told by mired the character of St. Charles ; but it is a If it be said for some parts of these dim two persons who showed us the church, and disgusting mockery to exhibit a withered speculations, that though Christianity comes who, being in office, ought to be well in- corpse enshrined in splendour. The eyeless forward as the practical dispensation of truth, formed. Supposing, however, that there may sockets of the head seem to tell how vain are yet there must be, in remote abstraction be- be some exaggeration in this, and concluding the costly gems that sparkle around them; hind, some grand, ultimate, elementary truths, also that many groups in alto-relievo, and and the shrunk brow appears little fitted to which this dispensation does not recognise, smaller than life, are counted as statues, the receive the golden crown that hangs over it. but even intercepts from our view by a system number is still astonishing. They represent We were told that the value of the crosier was of less refined elements, in which doctrines all manner of personagesangels

, apostles

, upwards of thirteen thousand pounds sterling, of a more contracted, palpable, and popular prophets, saints, martyrs, warriors, bishops, and that of the crown, three thousand five hundred, form, of comparatively local purport and rela- all the variety of characters who can be intro- and that the frame in which the body is laid tion, are imposed in substitution for the higher duced in representations of the events recorded contained forty-five thousand ounces of pure and more general and abstracted truths—1 in Scripture. A large proportion of them are silver. After quitting this chapel, we were answer, And what did the poet, or “the mas- extremely well executed, and one, by Agrati, allowed to see the treasury, where we beheld ter of the poet and the song," know about is considered such a masterpiece of sculpture, relics of each of the twelve apostles—a tooth those truths, and how did they come by their that there is engraved upon the pedestal, * Non of one, bones of another, &c.-contained in information ?

me Praxiteles, sed Marc finxit Agrati.” The small bottles, and placed in a sumptuous case ; subject is extremely curious, being St. Bartho we also saw several patches of the garments

lomew flead; his skin is entirely stripped off, of the Virgin Mary. And here I made a MILAN.

and hangs over his shoulders, and the great strange mistake; for, being told they were

merit of the statue is its accurate representa- upon a splendid stand before me, I touched an Milan is a large and elegant city, with a

tion of the muscles and parts under the skin: old dirty cloth which hung from it, and asked population of 130,000 souls; but having been the execution is admirable. The interior of if that was the garment, thinking it had a twice razed to the ground, by Attila and by the building is vast and rich, but unfortunately marvellous look of antiquity. The sacristan, Frederick Barbarossa, it contains no remains of of very different styles of architecture, the half shocked and half amused, explained that its ancient greatness. It possesses, however; Greek having been mixed with the Gothic; that was merely the covering of the stand, and many handsome palaces, the second cathedral in Italy, several fine theatres, good streets and window usually placed at the western end of inuch resembling printed cotton, cased in gold

one consequence of which is, that the large pointed out a few small bits of cloth, very promenades, and some valuable collections of Gothic churches, and which forms so great an and jewels, which I found were the veritable paintings, statues, and books. The cathedral,

ornament in York Minster, is left out, thereby garments of the Virgin. There is here also a called the Duomo, is in many respects the diminishing the light and destroying the har- nail of the cross, preserved in a case of rock most remarkable building I have yet seen;

mony of the building. This mixture of styles crystal. But these are nothing compared with and I believe it may be pronounced, as far as

to be found in most of the cathedrals of what may be seen at Cologne, where I saw the external decoration goes, to be the most gorge- Italy, and is to be accounted for by the length skulls of the three kings of the east who came tower or doine, corresponding to the size of the of time required for their erection, and the to worship Christ at his nativity, and where

various architects employed. The greatest are kept the bones of St. Ursula and eleren church, it yields in majesty to York Minster and St. Paul's, to say nothing of St. Peter's at curiosity in the Duomo is the subterranean thousand virgins, who came from England in

one ship to convert the Huns, but were barbaRome; but in the richness of its materials, and Archbishop of Milan, who died in 1584, and rously murdered by them. It seems astonishing the profusion and beauty of its ornaments, it who endeared himself to his fellow-citizens by that such gross impostures should so long find far outshines them all. It is a Gothic edifice, his munificent charity to the poor, and by his credence. Of this magnificent cathedral I nearly as long as our largest cathedrals, and fearless administration of the sacrament to the shall only further say, that it contains numewider than any of them, built entirely of white marble, which has retained its colour better dying when a plague raged in the city. This rous altars, rich in marble and gilding, several

noble ecclesiastic is honoured by every mark excellent pictures, splendid monuments, and than any other I have seen; its nave and of gratitude to his memory, and his body is all those decorations which are accumulated double aisles are supported by fifty-two clus- preserved, embalmed in a sumptuous frame in by the munificence, taste, and devotion of tered columns, and fifty half columns; and on the exterior its roof is encircled by a triple the curious. The chapel is built of the finest this chapel, and still shown to the devout or successive ages in the churches of Italy.

Most of the cities of Italy still possess schools row of pinnacles or spires, each about sixty veined marble, and completely lined with rich of painting, and institutions for the encoufeet high, of the lightest and most elegant crimson silk wrought in gold; the frieze is ragement of the fine arts, where collections of form, and crowned by statues as large as life, composed of eight broad tablets of silver, on Its walls, buttresses, and spires, are crusted which are carved the principal actions of the where an annual exhibition of modern paint

pictures by the great masters are kept, and with a profusion of tracery and statues, of life of St. Charles ; and the shrine where the ings takes place, with a dispensation of prizes which you may form some idea when I men- body of the saint is laid flames with precious to the most deserving artists. There is an tion, that on the exterior of the building alone metals and precious stones. The body itself institution of this kind at Milan, which exthere are no less than three thousand four is contained in a frame of massive silver, with tends its views to the promotion of the sciences hundred statues ; and these, being disposed in sides of rock crystal; but this is generally and letters, as well as of the fine arts; it occutasteful manner, do not encumber the build, hidden beneath à cover, which, we were told, pies the old palace of the Brera, and has, being, but give it an effect the most florid and could not be raised without the performance sides a valuable collection of paintings and beautiful. The piunacles are a hundred and of a religious ceremony by a priest, nor the statues, an extensive library, a museum, a twenty in number, and they were all, except two which are ancient, and six or eight added ceremony performed without the payment of theatre of anatomy, and a philosophical appa

five francs. Having consented to be imposed ratus. This is one of the most interesting lately, erected in the time of Napoleon, who nearly completed the edifice, after it had been upon, a priest was sent for to gratify our curi- places to visit in Milan; but I shall not annoy

you by a panegyric on individual pictures or more than four centuries in an unfinished osity ; but the answer was brought that no

Whilst on this subject, however, I state. The Duomo is in the form of a Latin Ordered that this ceremony shall be performed, must tell you, that I have here seen, in the

priest was forthcoming; whether it is actually statues. cross, and it has an octagonal tower rising to

or, as I suspect, the man only told us so to ex- refectory of an old convent, the celebrated a small elevation above the roof, and then sud- tract a larger sum of money from us, he found fresco painting, by Leonard da Vinci, of the denly contracting into a slender tower of the it convenient to dispense with it; raising the Last Supper

. This painter, whose great and spire, and a brazen statue of the Virgin ; this cover, he displayed to us the black and shri- versatile talents displayed themselves as well

velled mummy of the saint, clad in his ponti- in sculpture, poetry, music, architecture, and is extremely elegant, but it is too light to have fical robes, with the mitre on his head, and the geometry, as in that line which has more parany thing of majesty. You may be curious to

crosier by his side. No part of the body ex- ticularly raised his fame, was a native of

cept the face is seen, and this is as much dis- Milan, where the inhabitants are justdy proud * He is so named somewhere in Pope's works. figured as that of an Egyptian mummy ten of him. The fresco of the Last Supper is

much injured by time and a damp situation ; | behold this monument, reflect that their con Othello lifts the dagger over Hedelmone (the but the greater part of the countenances may duct will make it their glory or their reproach. name of Desdemona was too unmusical for still be well discerned, and I have seldom been Let them be persuaded that similarity of man- Parisian ears), Odalbert, the heroine's father, more gratified with any production of the ners, not proximity of blood, gives them an Loredan, and the Doge of Venice rush in. pencil. In point of composition and character, interest in this statue.

The latter personage seizes the dagger, exit seems to me to press

the sublimest

claimingworks of Raphael, and, like the productions of

" Malhoureur, qui fais tu ? that divine artist (with whom Leonardo was After perusing this and similar evidence

Tu vas de ce poignard immoler la virtu !!" contemporary), to have the simple dignity, of the vast talents of Mr. Burke, it will be truth, and grace, which characterise the sculp- highly amusing to read an instance of his for the Parisians to take their choice; and the

The play was published with both catastrophes, of Christ is such a personification of his cha- jocularity. It is related on the testimony coteries found an interesting and unending racter that it can scarcely be regarded without of his biographer, Mr. Prior, and is as topic in the respective merits of the denouereverence and emotion; it expresses all we follows:

ment funeste and denouement heureux. But can conceive of wisdom, purity, benevo

Two strolling players and their wives, who the actor, probably from his English education, lence, and resignation in the prospect of injus- paid frequent visits to the neighbourhood of was less tender

, and more, natural, than his tice and suffering. Judas is the hardened Penn and Beaconsfield, chiefly on account of audience. The denouement heureux sat unvillain; but the rest of the disciples are all the liberal patronage of Mr. Burke, had ac- easily upon him; and, a few nights after its consternation and curiosity at the announce- quired some celebrity from performing, by adoption, as Ducis

, the author, was passing shall betray lim. I think it would improve derable powers of mimickry, all the characters away in one of the dark passages, in full solia man's heart to contemplate this picture in the pieces which they represented. On one

loquy. “ daily. of these occasions a fox-hunter was to be ex.

will not suffer it! Yet, what do I care! I will hibited, to whom a pair of leather small- | kill her: they shall learn to suffer it. Yes, I

clothes was deemed an indispensable article have made up my mind; she must be killed!” EPITAPH ON THE MARQUIS OF of dress, but unfortunately there was no such Ducis, who stood aloof from the whirlwind of ROCKINGHAM.

article in their wardrobe. In this dilemma, this debate, now came forward.-" What is the

Mr. Burke, who was then at General Havi- matter with you, Talma ?”_“I am deterMr. Burke's taste in epitaph, or rather land's, at Penn, and whose invention and as

mined—I must put her to death !”—“I am of character-writing, was put in requisition by sistance commonly contrived to overcome their

your opinion, Talma; but what then ?"_“Her the completion, in August, 1788, the splen- difficulties, was applied to; for a moment he fate is fixed!”—“ Then go through your de did, and, in this country, unequalled, mauso was at fault, but soon recollected that the iden- termination !". The actor went through with leum to the memory of the Marquis of Rock-tical garment formed part of his host's military it

, to the surprise of the general audience, and ingham, erected about a mile in front of

costume. How to procure it, however, was the to the peculiar agonies of the most obviously Wentworth House, in Yorkshire, from which, difficulty; to ask for it they knew would have handsome and fashionable; but there was so as well as from the surrounding country, it appeared in the eyes of the owner a species of much truth and dramatic feeling in his performs a noble and interesting object, ninety profanation ; the old General was held fast in

formance that the death became the estabfeet high. The interior of the base is a dome bed by the gout, the wardrobe stood close to

lished mode, and Talma had all the honours supported by twelve Doric columns, with niches the bed, and in this seemingly secure station of a successful intrepidity.--Blackwood's Mafor the statues of the deceased nobleman and

were deposited the leathern indispensables gazine. his friends, among whom the distinguished

“ Come, Dick," said Mr. Burke to his brother writer of the following piece now takes his Richard, who equally enjoyed a jest of this stand. The inscription, for force, precision, kind,“ we must out-general the General; you

SLAVERY IN ENGLAND. and fitness, has, perhaps, like the mausoleum itself, no equal among the mortuary remains the old soldier on his favourite military topic, mankind that they were all equal, first awamust be the decoy, and I shall be thief; attack

The diffusion of Christianity, by teaching of the country :

lead him to the heights of Abraham, where kened men to the injustice of a system which “ CHARLES, MARQUIS OF ROCKINGHAM. his prowess was displayed with Wolfe, fight “ A statesman in whom constancy, fidelity, in the mean time, if my fingers be nimble, the feudal lords were induced to enfranchise the battle and slay the slain once more; and made one man the property of another. Fre

quently, at the intercession of their confessors, sincerity, and directness, were the sole instru- and my luck good, I shall be enabled to their slaves; and, from the ignorance of the ments of his policy. His virtues were his arts. A clear, sound, unadulterated sense, not per- scheme was successfully accomplished, and times, the administration of justice doxolving plexed with intricate design, or disturbed by subsequently afforded a frequent topic for into the hands of the clergy, opportunities freungoverned passion, gave consistency, dignity, merriment to the visitors at Penn.

quently occurred of showing particular indnland effect, to all his measures. In Opposition,

gence to this unfortunate class of society. In he respected the principles of Government; in

the eleventh century, the pope formally issued Administration, he provided for the liberties of

a hull for the emancipation of slaves; and, in the people. He employed his moments of


1102, it was declared in the Great Council of power in realizing every thing which he had

the Nation, held at Westminster, unlawful for promised in a popular situation.

This was

The French are notoriously delicate in any man to sell slaves openly in the market, the distinguishing mark of his conduct. After murder upon the stage! In the height of the which before had been the common custom of twenty-four years of service to the public, in a Revolution, when the guillotine was perma- the country. critical and trying time, he left no debt of just nently patriotic, and the judges fell asleep, expectation unsatisfied.

wearied with signing sentences of bloodshed, " By his prudence and patience he brought a dagger lifted upon the stage would have

Edited by the late W. GREENFIELD, Superintendant of

the Editorial Department of the British and Foreigs together a party which it was the great object thrown the whole mob of regenerators into Bible Society. of his labours to render permanent, not as an hysterics. On the first representation of instrument of ambition, but as a living depo- Othello, the death of Desdemona before the THE PSALMS, Metrically and Historically

Arranged. Stereotype Edition. 13. 6d., boards. sitory of principle.

audience raised an universal tumult. Tears, The peculiarity in this Edition is, that, in addition to “ The virtues of his public and private life groans, and menaces, resounded from all parts

the metrical arrangement, the type is as large as that nized

in the largest Edition of the Comprehensive Bible, while were not in him of different characters. It of the theatre; and, what was still more de- the size of the volume is small. was the same feeling, benevolent, liberal mind monstrative, and more alarming, several of

S. Bagster, Paternoster-row; J. and A. Arcb, that, in the internal relations of life, concili- the prettiest women in Paris fainted, in the Cornhill Darton and Co., Gracechurch-street;

Darton ates the unfeigned love of those who see men most conspicuous boxes, and were publicly and Son, Holborn; E. Fry, Houndsditch ; and all oilier

Booksellers in Town and Country. as they are, which made him an inflexible carried out of the house. Ducis was alarmed patriot. He was devoted to the cause of li- for his tragedy, for his fame, and for his life. berty, not because he was haughty and in- The author of so much public combustion Printed by J. Haddon and Co.; and Published tractable, but because he was beneficent and might have been sent to expiate his temerity by J. CRISP, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternoster humane. in the Bastile. He took the safer mode, and

Row, where all

Advertisements and Communi“ Let his successors, who from this house altered the catastrophe. At the moment when cations for the Editor are to be addressed.



“ UTILE DULCI."--Horace.

Vol. I.-No. 43.-SUPPLEMENT.

MONDAY, MAY 20, 1833.



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It is believed by some ingenious ety-naparte, and is another instance of his thian order of architecture, raised upon a mologists that the name Bourse, desig- financial ingenuity. Perceiving the de- basement which gives it an elevation sunating a public place, where merchants sirableness of such a building, he imposed perior to that of the neighbouring buildassemble and transact business, is derived an annual tax on the mercantile body, ings. It is surrounded by sixty-four from the edifice called the “ Hotel des ostensibly for the purpose of supplying columns, sixteen on each side, and Bourses," at Bruges, in Flanders, so called the funds necessary for its erection. The encloses not only the hall in which merfrom the escutcheon of the builder which building, however, was suspended by va- chants meet, and the business of the it bore, and which contained three Bourses, rious causes for a number of years, during public funds is transacted, but also those or purses. Near this the mercantile as- which period of delay the payment of the courts whose jurisdiction extends only semblies were held.

tax continued, so that a much greater to litigations arising out of commercial Most of the chief cities of Europe have sum was amassed than was requisite for transactions. The judges in these courts long contained an edifice for this purpose, the completion of the work. It was com are usually chosen from retired meramong which

may be mentioned those of menced in March, 1808, but was not chants, and their decisions are guided London, Bruges, Antwerp, Amsterdam, completed until after the downfall of the more by the principles of equity, and on Rotterdam, &c. Paris, however, though conqueror, and, indeed, until after the the plan of arbitration, than by any it had long been of the first accession of the laté monarch, Charles written law. The interior is decorated commercial cities, has not possessed x. It will be perceived by the above with emblematical paintings, and is exsuch an edifice until a comparatively engraving, which gives a faithful view of ceedingly well adapted for the purpose recent date. It owes its origin to Buo- the edifice, that it is built in the Corin- | to which it is assigned.


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