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noticed, that the hieroglyphics constituted a real | let, he communicated a few anonymous remarks to means of preventing. I have understood that written language. Of the three inscriptions sculp- the Society of Antiquarians. In the summer of in Suffolk, and in some of the southern countured on its sides, a considerable part of the first the same year, he applied himself vigorously, first ties, the larvæ of the cockchafer are so exceedis unfortunately wanting; the beginning of the to the enchorial, and afterwards to the hiero- ingly abundant, that the crops of con are second and the end of the third are also mutilated; glyphic inscription ; and, by an attentive and me. but the last, which is in Greek, terminates with ihodical comparison of the different parts with almost destroyed by them, and that their the important information that the decree which it each other, he was able, in the course of a few ravages do not cease even when they have contains (in honour of Ptolemy Epiphanes), had months, to send to the Archeologia a “conjectural attained to a winged state. Various plans been ordered to be engraved in Three different translation ” of each of the Egyptian inscriptions, have been proposed to put a stop to their decharacters—the Sacred, or hieroglyphic, the Encho- distinguishing the contents of the different lines predations; but I have little doubt that their rial, or letters of the country (synonymous with with as much precision as his materials would then abundance is to be attributed to the scarcity the demotic), and the Greek. So that here was an admit of. He was obliged, however, to leave of rooks, as I have somewhere seen an account authentic specimen of hieroglyphic characters, many important passages still subject to doubt ; that rooks in those counties (I have not been expressly accompanied by a Translatio.
but he hoped to acquire additional information in them) are not numerous, either from the Now, the first step to be taken evidently was, before he attempted to determine their signification trees being felled in which they nestled, or to obtain an exact translation of this translation with accuracy; and, having made the first great step, that they have been destroyed by the prejuAccordingly, the Society of Antiquaries having he concluded that many others might be added with diced farmers. I am the more inclined to be caused a correct copy of the Triple Inscription to facility and rapidity, Meanwhile, in order to fa- of this opinion, because we have many rooks be engraved and circulated, Porson and Heyné, cilitate the inquiry, he endeavoured to make himthe two best scholars of the age, employed them self familiar with the remains of the
old Egyptian is not known as a destructive insect; and I
in this neighbourhood, where the cockchafer selves in completing and illustrating the Greek language, as these are preserved in the Coptic and text which constituted the third part of the inscrip- Thebaic versions of the Scriptures, - hoping, with | know that insects of that class and their larte tion ;--- a task, we may observe, in the performance the aid of this knowledge, to discover an alphabet are the most favourite food of the rook. of which the superior industry and vigilance of which would enable him to read the enchorial in I will mention another proof of the utility the German gave him a decided advantage over scription, at least, into a kindred dialect; and, of the rook, which occurred in this neighlourthe more active genius of the English Professor. though he felt himself compelled gradually to hood many years ago. A flight of locusts This, as we have said, was the first step ; but the abandon this expectation, he soon after published visited Craven, and they were so numerous as next was far more arduous. No data had been anew (in the Museum Criticum of Cambridge) his to create considerable alarm among the farmyet obtained by means of which a comparison conjectural translation with considerable additions might be instituted between the Greek, which the and corrections. Finally, in the article EGYPT, in relieved from their anxiety ; for the rooks
ers of the district. They were, however, soon labours of Porson and Heyné had restored, and the fourth volume of the Supplement to the Ency- Hocked in from all quarters by thousands and the hieroglyphical and enchorial texts, of which clopædia Britannica, published in December, not a single character was known. In these cir- | 1819, he digested and arranged in a methodical
tens of thousands, and devoured them so greecumstances, there was but one course to be form the result of his researches, and, in particu- dily that they were all destroyed in a short adopted; and that was, to adjust the inscriptions, lar, gave a Vocabulary, comprising upwards of time. Such, at least, is the account which is so that they might, as nearly as possible, corres 200 dames or words, which he had succeeded in given; and I have heard it repeatedly menpond, and, from the situation of the proper names deciphering in the hieroglyphic and enchorial tioned as the reason why the late Lord Ribin the Greek inscription, endeavour to ascertain texts, and in the Egyptian manuscripts. We do blesdale was so partial to rooks. But I have their places in one or both of the other inscrip- not hesitate to pronounce this article the greatest no means of ascertaining how far this is true, tions." If characters merely phonetic entered into effort of scholarship and ingenuity of which mo
except general report. the composition of the hieroglyphic and enchorial dern literature can boast.
It was stated in the newspapers, a year or texts, it was evident that, by this means, the value of some of them would be ascertained. It was,
two back, that there was such an enormous therefore, a matter of indifference whether the
quantity of caterpillars upon Skiddaw, that comparison was first made between the Greek and
they devoured all the vegetation on the mounhieroglyphic, or between the Greek and enchorial
tain, and people were apprehensive they would inscriptions; but a notion happening to prevail SERVICES OF THE ROOK (Córvus fru- attack the crops in the enclosed lands; but the that the enchorial was altogether alphabetical, the
gilegus, L.) TO MAN,
rooks (which are fond of high ground in the first attempt was made upon it. Accordingly, M.
summer), having discovered them, in a very Silvestre de Sacy having examined the parts of And a Notice of the Prejudice prevailing short time put a stop to their ravages.-T.G., this text, corresponding, by their relative situa
Clitheroe, Lancashire. June 30th, 1832. tion, to two passages of the Greek inscription, in
Mr. Waterton, in his valuable essay “On the which the proper names Alexander and Alexundria
A strong prejudice is felt by many persons supposed Pouch under the Bill of the Rook," occur, soon recognised two well-marked groups of against rooks, on account of their destroying (vol. v. p. 512,) incidentally shows that the characters nearly resembling each other, and which grain and potatoes ; and so far is this carried rook is a very extensive destroyer of insects. He also made out, very satisfactorily, the locus of that I know persons who offer a reward for - Magazine of Natural History. the name of Ptolemy; but beyond this he found it every rook that is killed on their land; yet so impossible to advance a single step, and ultimately mistaken do I deem them, as to consider that abandoned the pursuit as hopeless. no living creature is so serviceable to the
Edited by the late W. GREENFIELL', Superintendant of Matters were in this state when Dr. Young farmer, except the live stock he keeps on his the Editorial Departinent of the British and Foreiga
Bible Society. commenced his labours. Little or nothing had farm, as the rook. In the neighbourhood of been done to interpret the hieroglyphics ; but the my native place is a rookery belonging to THE PSALMS Metrically and Historically germ of all the succeeding discoveries may be said Wm. Vavasour, Esq., of Weston, in Wharf
The peculiarity in this Edition is, that, in adulition to to have been found, when the idea of fixing the dale, in which it is estimated there are ten the metrical arrangement, the type is as large as that used places of proper names had once been suggested, thousand rooks, that one pound of food a-week
in the largest Edition of the Comprehensive Bible, while and of considering the corresponding groups of is a very moderate allowance for each bird, figures as representing their sounds. Having been and thať nine-tenths of their food consists of Cornhill; Darton and Co., Gracechurcb-street; Dartoa
Sold by S. Bagster, Paternoster-row; J. and A. Arch, induced, as he states, “ by motives both of private worms, insects, and their larvæ; for, although and Son, Holborn; E. Fry, Honudsditch ; and all other friendship and of professional obligation," io offer
Booksellers in Town and Country. to the editors of a periodical publication an article they do considerable damage to the fields for containing an abstract of the Mithridates of Ade
a few weeks in seed-time and a few weeks in lung, a work then lately received from the Conti. harvest, particularly in backward seasons; yet
UBSTANCE of an ADDRESS to the LAwhich the latter asserted, that the unknown lan which (if we except a few acorns and walnuts the great Question of NEGRÓ EMANCIPATION: de guage of the Rosetta Stone, and of the bandages in autumn) form at all other times the whole
livered at Mr. Anderson's Chapel, John-street, Glasgow, often found with the mummies, was capable of of their subsistence. Here, then, if my data Shilling.
March 5, 1833, by GEORGE THOMPsox. being analysed into an alphabet consisting of little be correct, there is the enormous quantity of more than thirty letters: but, having merely retained a general impression of this original and 468,000 pounds, or 209 tons,
of worms, insects, London; and of all other Booksellers in Town anã Country: striking remark, he thought do more of these in and their larvæ, destroyed by the birds of a scriptions till, early in 1814, they were recalled to single rookery; and to every one who knows his attention by the examination of some fragments how very destructive to vegetation are the Printed by J. Haddox and Co.; and Published of papyrus which had been recently brought to larvæ of the tribes of insects (as well as worms) by J. Crisp, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternostex England by Sir W. R. Boughton, and on which, fed upon by rooks, some slight idea may be Row, where all Advertisements and Communi after a hasty inspection of Mr. Akerblad's pamph- formed of the devastation which rooks are the cations for the Editor are to be addressed.
the size of the volume is small.
excited by a stole of the editor, Professor Vater in these seasons, consists of insects and worms
, SURES ANCLAS
COW, Apple Ess to the end
The most interesting objects of atten- | ancient architecture which were connect whose dilapidated walls and moss-grown tion at Malmesbury (says Britton, in his ed with the religious institutions once so towers at present serve to give only a faint Beauties of Wiltshire) are those relics of numerous and Aourishing in this country, idea of their former magnificence. Among
these, the Abbey Church is the most pro- from the history of the Old and New bunter, would spend his þife with her, and minent and important. The present re- Testaments; and though many of them secure to her comfort and subsistence, while mains of this oñce spacious and noble are distorted and ill-designed, yet, as
the warrior would be constantly absent, intent edifice consist of a part of the nave and specimens of early art, they are very
upon martial exploits. Winona's expostulations aisles of the church, the grand sðuthern curious. The inner doorway, without were, however, of no avail; and her parents,
having succeeded in driving away her lover, porch, and a wall belonging to the south columns, is also ornamented with sculp-began to use harsh measures, in order to comtransept. Imperfect and decayed as this ture. Below the arch is an impost, on pel her to unite with the man of their choice. structure is, enough is left to show the which is a basso-relievo, which seems to To all her entreaties, that she should not be peculiar character of its architecture. The have been intended for a representation forced into an union so repugnant to her feelprevailing style is Norman, with an inter- of the Deity, supported by two angels. ings, but rather be allowed to live a single mixture of the English, or pointed. The On the left hand of the door is a large all times enjoyed a greater share in the affecwestern front, the original lower tier of piscina in the wall. On each side of the tions of her family, and she had been indulged windows, the massive pillars between the porch is an arcade, above which are more than is usual with females among Innave and aisles, and the southern porch, seated six large sculptured figures, sup- dians. Being a favourite with her brothers, display the semicirculararch, exemplifying posed to be designed for the apostles, they expressed a wish that her consent to this the earliest species of architecture in this with human figures over their heads in the union should be obtained by persuasive means, building: The next variety occurs in the attitude of Aying. The western front is rather than that she should be compelled to it intersecting arches which ornament the much mutilated ; but enough of it remains against her inclination. With a view to remove lower part of the wall on the western and to show that it must have had an im- some of her objections, they took means to pro
vide for her future maintenance, and presented southern sides. The arches springing posing effect in its original state, In to the warrior all that, in their simple mode of from the pillars which divide the nave 1732, the doorway appears, from draw- living, an Indian might covet. About that from the aisles are pointed. Above them ings, to have been perfect; but at present time, a party was formed to ascend from the is a tier of broad semicircular arches, only one side remains. One of the capi- village to Lake Pepin, in order to lay in a store each of which includes four others, with tals which support the arch is charged of the blue clay which is found upon its banks, an open colonnade to the roof of the with a figure of Sagittarius, and it is pro
and which is used by the Indians as a pig
Winona and her friends were of the aisles; and over these is a series of long, bable that the other signs of the Zodiac narrow, pointed-arch windows, with mul- were continued round the arch. The run- visited the lake that her brothers offered their
company. It was on the very day that they lions and tracery.
ning scrolls are gracefully formed, and presents to the warrior. Encouraged by these, Such are the great characteristic fea- resemble some Grecian and Roman orna he again addressed her, but with the same ill tures of this edifice, which, whether con ments. The only ancient sepulchral success. Vexed at what they deemed an unsidered as a whole or examined in detail
, monument remaining is an altar tomb, justifiable obstinacy on her part, her parents affords ground for some interesting reflec- placed within the chapel; upon it is a used threats to compel her into obedience. tions.
recumbent statue in royal robes, said to The earliest notice relative to this Ab- be that of King Athelstan, to whom the despair'; I said I loved him not, I could not
“ Well," said Winona,“ you will drive me to bey Church appears to be the statement tomb has been assigned. But, if it was live with him ; I wished to remain a maiden, of its dimensions, contained in the “ Iti- | intended to commemorate that prince, it but you would not. You say you love menerary of William of Worcester," who must have been erected long after his that you are my father, my brothers, my wrote in the reign of Henry the Sixth. death, and on a spot distant from the relations ; yet you have driven from me The account given by Leland of the state place of his interment, which William of the only man with whom I wished to be of the building, in the time of Henry the Malmesbury states to have been in the from the village ; alone he now ranges
have compelled him to withdraw Eighth, is more interesting. He says, choir beneath the high altar.
through the forest, with no one to assist him, the Abbey was “a right magnificent
none to spread his blanket, none to build his thing; where were two steples, one that
lodge, none to wait on him; yet was he the had a mightie high pyramis, and felle THE MAIDEN'S ROCK ON THE
man of my choice. Is this your love? But daungerously, in hominum memoriá, and
even it appears that this is not enough ; you sins was not re-edified. It stode in the
would have me do more; you would have me middle of the transeptum of the chirch,
There was a time (our guide said, as we rejoice in his absence; you wish me to unite and was a marke to al the countre about: passed near the base of the rock) when this with another man—with one whom I do not
you now admire for its untenanted love—with whom I never can be happy. Since The other yet standith : a greate square beauties, was witness to one of the most melan- this is your love, let it be so; but soon you toure, at the west ende of the church." choly transactions that has ever occurred will have neither daughter, nor sister, nor relaBoth the towers which Leland mentions among the Indians. There was in the village tion, to torment with your false professions of have been long since destroyed, leaving of Keoxa, in the tribe of Wapasha, during the affection.” As she uttered these words she no traces of their forms or architectural time that his father lived and ruled over them, withdrew, and her parents, heedless of her characters. Indeed, so great has been Winona, which signifies the first-born.”
young Indian female, whose name was complaints, resolved that that very day Winona
She should be united to the warrior. While all the dilapidation of this building, that not had conceived an attachment for a young
were engaged in busy preparations for the more than a sixth part of it remains hunter, who reciprocated it; they had fre- festival, she wound her way slowly to the top standing; and the preservation of this quently met, and greed to an union, in which of the hill. When she had reached the sumwas owing to its being fitted up for the all their hopes centred; but, on applying to mit, she called out with a loud voice to her use of the inhabitants of the town after her family, the hunter was surprised to find friends below; she upbraided them for their the Reformation. At that period it pro- those of a warrior of distinction who had sued she,
himself denied, and liis claims superseded by crueky to herself and her lover, “ You,” said bably underwent some repairs; the east for her.
were not satisfied with opposing my and west ends were walled up, some of with the nation; he had acquired a name by endeavoured, by deceitful words, to make me
The warrior was a general favourite union with the man whom I had chosen; your the windows enlarged, the area pewed, the services which he had rendered to his vil faithless to him; but, when you found me re&c.
lage when attacked by the Chippewas; yet, solved on remaining single, you dared to The exterior and interior portals of the notwithstanding all the ardour with which he threaten me.
You knew me not; if you grand southern porch are elaborately de- pressed his suit
, and the countenance which thought I could be terrified into obedience, corated with sculptures. The former dis
he received from her parents and brothers, you shall soon see how well I can defeat your plays eight enriched mouldings, continued the usual commendations of her friends in dirge; the light wind that blew at the time
Winona persisted in preferring the hunter. To designs.” She then commenced to sing her all round from the base on each side. favour of the warrior, she replied that she had waited the words towards the spot where her The subjects of them are apparently taken made choice of a inan, who, being a professed friends were ; they immediately rushed, some
No. of Indi
towards the summit of the hill to stop her,
in Europe ; excepting that it is monarchical others to the foot of the precipice to receive
and hereditary; that the power of the chief her into their arms, while all, with tears in The following very comprehensive and ruler or emperor is absolute; and that he detheir eyes, entreated her to desist from her interesting article, illustrative of the pre- legates it to viceroys in the several provinces,
Her father promised that no sent condition of the Chinese, has been some of which provinces, it may be observed, compulsive measures should be resorted to handed to us by Mr. Fisher, the gentle contain each of them more inhabitants than But she was resolved ; and, as she concluded man to whom we are indebted for our
the whole of the British empire in Europe ; the words of her song, she threw herself from former articles on this subject, and forms mediately
to the emperor for the whole of their
and that all the viceroys are accountable imthe precipice, and fell a lifeless corpse near her distressed friends. Thus (added our guide) part of one inserted in the last number of conduct. has this spot acquired a melancholy celebrity the Gentleman's Magazine.
LANGUAGE. - The language written and It is still called the Maiden's Rock; and no As the relations of Great Britain with the spoken by the inhabitants of this region differs, Indian passes near it without involuntarily subjects of the Emperor of China are now in its whole form and structure, from the lancasting his eye towards the giddy height, to about to undergo parliamentary
revision, a few guages in use in other parts of the world. For contemplate the place whence this unfortunate statistical notices of the population, govern- many years this peculiarity of language intergirl fell, a victim to the cruelty of her relent- ment, language, literature, arts and sciences, posed, although not an insuperable barrier
, a less parents.—Keating's Expedition.
religion, and jurisprudence of the immense very great obstacle in the way of European dominions of that potentate, may not be alto- intercourse with the Chinese ; an obstacle gether unacceptable to your
which, to the honour of our country, has been POMPEII.
They are derived chiefly from the commu- removed by the industry and exertions of the
nications, either written or printed, of that individual already referred to, who, as a ChrisThere are few things so strange as a walk eminent Chinese scholar and valuable Christian missionary, felt himself stimulated to the through the silent streets of a town which, for tian missionary, the Rev. Robert Morrison, necessary exertion by a conscientious wish to 1700 years, has been hid from the light of the author of the Chinese Dictionary, &c.; or of fulfil his important trust. To him the literary world, when the manners and every-day scenes his son, Mr.John Robert Morrison, who is with world is indebted for a grammar of the Chiof so remote an age stand revealed, unchanged, his father in China.
nese language, a dictionary of the same in six after so long an interval. It appears that, six
volumes quarto, together with other philologiteen years before the shower of sand and ashes The following is a statement of the POPULATION cal writings. There is nevertheless reason to from Vesuvius occurred, an earthquake had
of China and its Colonies, according to a believe that but very few either of Europeans nearly ruined the town ; so that the houses are
Census taken in the 18th year of the reign of or Americans are qualified, even at the present roofless, partly from this cause, and partly from
Kea-king, A. D. 1813, and under the autho-hour, for personal communication with the the weight of ashes which fell, otherwise
rity of his Imperial Majesty.
natives of China in the language of the latter. they stand just as they were left. The streets
Of that language, so little known to the are narrow, but paved, and the marks of the Provinces, &c.
Families. natives of other regions, Dr. Morrison observes carriage wheels in the lower pavement are
27,990,871 that it is “read by a population of different evident. In Murat's time, 4000 men were
28,958,764 nations, amounting to a very large proportion employed in excavating; and so a great num
14,004,210 of the human race, and over a very extensive ber of houses, perhaps one-third of the town,
23,037,171 geographical space; from the borders of Rushave been uncovered. The houses were small, Keangsoo
37,843,501 sia on the north, throughout Chinese Tartary generally of two stories, but beautifully painted, Ganhwuy
34,168,059 in the west, and in the east as far as Kamsand the figures of horses, peacocks, &c., are as
30,426,999 chatka ; and downwards through Corea and bright as the day they were painted. There Fuhkeën
14,777,410 Japan ; in the Loo Choo Islands, Cochinare two theatres standing, and one amphithe- Formosa (natives)
1,748* China, and the Islands of that Archipelago, atre, all nearly perfect. At one time we Chekeang
26,256,784 on most of which are Chinese settlers, till you walked up a street, called the Strata de Mer- | Hoopih
27,370,098 come down to the equinoctial line at Penang, cantis. On either side are the shops of Mosaic Hoonan
18,652,507 Malacca, Singapore, and even beyond it on sellers, statuaries, bakers, &c., with the owner's Shense
10,207,256 Jara. Throughout all these regions, however name painted in red, and the sign of the shop
15,193,125 dialects may differ, and oral languages be rudely carved above the door. The mill in the Barkoul and Oroumtsi 161,750 confounded, the Chinese written language is baker's shop, and the oven, amused us much. Szechuen
21,435,678 understood by all. The voyager, the merchant, At another time we passed through the hall Kwangtung or
19,174,030 and the traveller, as well as the Christian misof justice, the temple of Hercules, the villa of Kwang-se
7,313,895 sionary, if he can write Chinese, may make Cicero, and the villa of Sallust. The only villa Yunnan
5,561,320 himself understood throughout the whole of of three stories we observed, belonged to a
Eastern Asia." man called Arius Diomedes (this name was at Shing-king or Leaoutung
LITERATURE AND Science. The Chinese the side of the door); and in the cellar, beside Kirin
307,781 appear to have been a literary and, to a certain some jars of wine still standing, was the skele- Kihlung-keang, or Teit
extent, a scientific people for several ages. It ton of this poor fellow, found with a purse in cihar, &c.
2,398 is now known that they have possessed the art one hand, and some trinkets in his left, fol- Tsinghae or Kokonor, &c.
7,842 of printing books from wooden blocks during lowed by another bearing up some silver and Foreign tribes under Kan
more than 800 years; that is, long before the some bronze vases. From the ticket of a sale,
26,728 invention of printing and revival of letters in stuck upon the wall of a house, it appears that Ditto, ditto, Sze-chuen
72,374 Europe. During the tenth century, the art one person had no less than nine hundred Thibetan colonies
4,889 of taking off on paper an impression from an shops to let. The street of the tombs is the Ele and its dependencies
69,644 engraving was discovered in China, and hence most impressive; one for the gladiators has a
Turfan and Lobnox
700* 2,551 the Chinese acquaintance with the art of printrepresentation of the different modes of fight-Russian Border
1,900 ing arose.” This art of printing from wooden ing carved upon it; and from this it seems
blocks is now practised by the Chinese with so that they occasionally fought on horseback,
Individuals 361,693,879 188,326 much facility, that a MS. Gazette or newswhich, before the discovery of Pompeii, was
4 paper, transferred to blocks or plates of wood, unknown.-Edinburgh Philosophical Journal.
is, in the course of a very few hours, prepared Individuals at 4 in each family 753,304 for printing by the expert use of gouges or Add Individuals
361,693,879 chisels, employed in removing the wood from CORPOREAL IDENTITY.
the blank parts, so as to leave the characters
Total Individuals 362,447,183 standing up, in precisely the same way as they SOME have considered a change of corporeal
would appear in this country in wood-cuts. identity to be effected every three, others every GOVERNMENT.-Upon this subject compa
The art of printing having been so long seven years. Letters marked on the skin, ratively little has hitherto been made known known in China, it has followed, as might however, last during life; and there are some
reasonably have been expected, that the litediseases of which the constitution is only once * These are the numbers, not of individuals, rature of the country has become extensive. susceptible. but of effective men.
There are two collections of Chinese literature
in this country; the one in the library of the feelings of men, and that “none can govern | will be satisfactory to most of your readers to East India Company in Leadenhall-street; the well, or durably, but those who win the peo- learn that the lithographic art seems destined other, which is the property of Dr. Monison, ple's hearts, by an adherence to the principles to be instrumental in promoting a happy in the Mission House, Austin Friars.
of equal rights and a clement justice.". The change. That invaluable invention, in the The following sketch, abridged from the Chinese have nothing that can be called epic success of which, on its first aitiral in Engdoctor's notes, may afford some idea of the poetry. The most ancient poetical composi- land, I ventured, as may be shown by a refercharacter of Chinese literature; which com- tions were a collection of popular songs, made ence to your pages, to feel and to express a prehends books of the following descriptions: at the request of government, in order to ascer strong interest, and to advocate it when the
Writings deemed sacred, or held in high tain the popular feeling, which it is stated the artists of this country thought fit to reject it, veneration, including a compilation of the Chinese monarchs have generally thought it has not only surmounted the opposition of preworks of the ancient moral philosophers of the right to consult. Although the ladies of China judice here, but has been at length introduced age of Confucius (B. C. 800 years), with are not usually literary, there are exceptions; into China; and its first effort there has been numerous notes, comments, and paraphrases and, in an educated family, the writing of the circulation of Christian truth, in connection on the original text, and “with controversies verses, from a theme given at the moment by with a new, and, compared with that with concerning its genuineness, the order of parti- one of the party, is practised as an amusing which the Chinese were previously acquainted, cular words or phrases, and the meaning of trial of skill.
a very superior mode of diffusing knowledge obscure passages," as follows:-“ The text of Geographical and topographical workşabound by the multiplication of copies of books. This the Woo King, which name denotes Five Sa- in China; together with a species of law, de- association I regard as a most happy one for cred Books, and of the Sre Shoo, or Four nominated Collectanea, consisting of collec- the interests of religion. The first work printed Books, which were compiled by four of the tions of appeals and remonstrances, and opi- in Chinese at a lithographic press, and of disciples of Confucius, and from which circum- nions of philosophers, and controversialists, which I have a copy, is entitled "Good Words stance the books receive their title; these con with the endless ei catera of compilers. to admonish the Age,” published in nine tain the doctrines and precepts which their Astronomy.-In China, this branch of science volumes by Leangafa, a native convert, and master, Confucius, approved and communi- and literature extends to a correct calculation now a Christian missionary. cated to them. In respect of external form, of eclipses and some other celestial pheno The Arts of DESIGN (which are in England the Five Books (Woo King) of the Chinese, mena; but it is greatly mixed up with the denominated the Fine Arts) appear to be correspond to the Pentateuch of Moses ; and dreams of astrology, calculating, with weari- among the Chinese in an immature state. All the Four Books (Sze Shoo), in respect of being some minuteness, lucky and unlucky, felicitous their productions, and particularly their staa record of the sayings of a master, compiled and infelicitous, days and hours for bathing, tuary, manifest great care and neatness of by four disciples, have a slight resemblance to for shaving, for commencing a journey, or be execution, with ingenuity; but in their paintthe Four Gospels.” But the contents of these ginning to sow, or to plant, or to make a barings they display very little, and in soine of sacred writings of the Chinese are described as gain, or to visit a friend, &c.
them not any, acquaintance with the rules of altogether dissimilar to the Christian Scrip Medicine. In the science and practice of drawing in perspective. tures; containing, “ with the exception of a this art the Chinese appear to have acquired The Mechanic Arts appear to be in very few passages in the most ancient part of the great proficiency, and much acquaintance with considerable perfection among the Chinese, Woo King, which retain seemingly something natural history, whether belonging to the who work in metals with ease; and their long of the knowledge which Noah must have com- animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdoms. “The acknowledged superiority to the natives of municated to his children,” nothing but “per- theory of the pulse is in China carried by Europe in earthen wares is a fact which cansonal, domestic, and political moralities, with practitioners to a degree of exactness that not be forgotten by any persons who have posout the sanction of an eternal and Almighty baffles the most careful attention of European sessed or who possess China. It is scarcely God, arrayed with every natural and moral surgeons to discriminate. When Chinese and necessary to add, that they have bridges, and perfection—wise, good, just, and merciful; English practitioners have been seated at the houses, and halls, and palaces, and other conand with presenting the fears and the hopes same table, and felt the pulse of the same veniences and contrivances for domestic and of immortality, or revealing the grace of the patient, the one has professed to ascertain social life, in great variety, very much like our Saviour.”. Such is the character which Dr. symptoms, of which the other was unable to own; and that these things they have had for Morrison has given of the sacred writings of ascertain any thing. The Chinese are not at many years, and that they import none of the Chinese.
all convinced, by the reasoning of the west, them. Histories. Those of the Chinese are de- that pulses, being simultaneous in all parts of Religion. As is notorious, the Chinese scribed as voluminous, containing, of course, the body, the feeling of one pulse is therefore are addicted to the grossest idolatry; woraccounts of their domestic and foreign wars, equal to the feel of more than one; for they shipping, with great cost and parade of pubespecially with the Huns and Tartars; often suppose that local disease may make a dif- lic processions, the statues of their deceased tracing, with great gravity, effects to their sup- ference.”
emperors, with such creatures of their imagiposed causes in the operation of the dual sys There are other departments of Chinese nation as the following :—the Gods of the tem of the universe, which the Chinese histo- literature; a sort of family record called Wau Southern, Northern, Eastern, Western, and iians assume to be true, “and by which system Chang, consisting of the prize essays of many Central Mounts; the God of Furnaces, with a of materialism they imagine both the physi- generations, which are preserved and published thank-offering on the day of his ascension ; cal and moral world to be influenced.” The with care; also the moral and religious essays the Budhi, on their days of ascent and descents Chinese historians place their deluge about of different sects; those in particular of the the God of Spring; the Gods of Wealth and 2200 years before Christ, and carry back their Confucian school of atheistical materialists; Wine (in which, perhaps, a few British Chrisantediluvian traditions, concerning a great an- those of the visionary alchymic school of tians may sympathise with the Chinese); the cestor of the Chinese nation, “ who melted Laoukeun ; and those of the Hindoo Polythe- Gods of Learning, of Happiness, of Land and stones and repaired the heavens,” to about istic school of Buddha ; in addition to which Grain, of the Small-pox, of Thunder, War, and 3200 years before Christ; but these historians may be named the essays of a sort of eclectic Fire; also of the Southern and Northern Seas are described as not professing to be very cor- school, which picks and chooses from, and and of the South Pole; the Queen of Heaven, rect in dates, and the principal facts stated by sometimes blends, the other three.
who is considered the Goddess of Sailors; the them are regarded as inere traditions.
“ The Mahommedan and Christian writers Goddess of Childbirth ; and the God of CarIn every other department of literature, Dr. in China have been too few to produce any penters. These gods are worshipped on their Morrison represents the Chinese press as having very sensible impression, beyond now and then several days in the Chinese calendar, which is been for ages prolific, and the accumulations little scorn and philippic, such as is conveyed replenished with them ; together with the anvasi.
in the political sermons, read by an official niversaries of the airing of clothes, the exhiHistorical Novels appear to constitute a person on the days of the new and full moon, bition of paper lanthorns, and the births and favourite department; but, owing to the licen- in the several provincial imperial halls, before deaths of their deceased emperors, to which tiousness of some of them, they have been the governor, deputy-governor, and magistrates they add the birth of Confucius, and the demade the subjects of legal, although ineflectual, in each province."
cease of their own respective ancestors, whom prohibition.
Such is the brief sketch which I have been they commemorate by offerings at their toinbs. Dramatic Works and Poetry. In these the enabled, by reference to the respectable auChinese abound; and we are informed that the thority already named, to offer you of the litecandidates for public employment are
tre of the Chinese. In the last-mentioned amined in poetry, on the ground that poetry and the most important department of that leads to an acquaintance with the passions and literature, viz. that connected with religion, it