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Sierra Leone—that is, those who have themselves so very apt that they can already difficult to conceive where these animals

The articles at present supplied to each | fourth with the carpenter, who assures us his that these creatures must either decompose and the bad quality and scantiness of the food and active aloft than the white boys of the be discussed, but of low, flat islands in the slaves appear in general to be clean in their every respect, with so much zeal and alacrity islands are generally long and narrow; they


from a short description of Murray Town, a the statements so often made by the adTwo or three years ago, his Majesty's erected in April, 1829, and peopled with three whatever condition, is essentially inferior

village two or three miles west of Freetown, vocates of slavery, that the African, in ship Dryad was appointed to the western hundred and twenty-six Africans just imported, to the rest of the species, or that his discoast of Africa on the service for the sup- placed here under the management of a dispression of the slave-trade. Since its charged black soldier of the Royal African position is so radically indolent as to renreturn from that station, Mr. Peter Leo- Corps. It comprises four wide streets

, the huts der compulsion indispensable. We connard has given to the public an interest- ranged on each side, and separated from each clude with the following statement to the

same effect, respecting those settlers in ing account of his observations, from other by pieces of cultivated ground. which we extract the following statements

Again, in referring to the conduct of Canada who have escaped by flight from respecting the character and condition of the manumitted negroes on board ship, , a state of slavery in America the negroes there. The first respects the his accounts are equally satisfactory. I was struck (says Fergusson, in his Notes on state of education in Freetown.

It has been a custom with the liberated Canada) with the conspicuous activity and in

African department, for a long period, to send dustry of a negro family. Numbers of these In Freetown (says Mr. Leonard), there are on board our ships of war a number of African poor creatures, as opportunity favours, are ever two government schools, on Bell's system, for lads recently emancipated, to be employed, as watching to escape from bondage in the Slave the education of black children of every race, may be deemed fit, by the officer commanding. States of the Union, and are to be met with in Maroons, Settlers, and liberated Africans. In They receive no pay, are supplied with two various parts of Canada.

It has been alleged the male school, there are at present three thirds of a rations daily, and are scantily that the negro will prove too indolent for lahundred and eighty-five pupils, divided into clothed from the store of the department at bour in a state of freedom—a remark which, ten classes ; in the female school, two hundred Freetown. Eleven of these boys, received without stopping to prove unphilosophical, and and sixty-four, into eight classes. The boys direct from this department, we have had on at variance with every principle of human are taught reading, writing, and arithmetic board for upwards of twelve months, and about nature, was here most signally contradicted. only; the girls, besides these, are instructed in fifteen of them for shorter periods, received The same remark applies to several other needle-work. Every attention seems to be paid from different ships on the station, which had farms, noticed even in my limited excursion; to their instruction; and, besides being re

taken them on board, like ourselves, at Sierra and the one in question exhibited a set of as markably clean, neatly dressed, and well-be- Leone, but a short time before. The youngest busy and happy dingy faces as a philanthropist haved, the progress they have made in these of the first eleven who came on board appeared could wish to look on; while the appearance rudimental branches of education deserves the about fourteen, the eldest nineteen years old. of the farm spoke to the steady labour which highest praise. I examined several classes in They were recently manumitted, of course

had been employed; and the barn (the test of each school, and studiously compared the ac unable to utter a word of English, and, being a thriving colonist) was decidedly the handquirements of the liberated African with the nearly all of different tribes, were also incapa- somest and largest that I passed. other children. There was no perceptible ble of communing with each other-in fact, difference. The lights and shades of intellect perfect specimens of young sayages just esseemed to bear much the same proportion caped from the wild and desolated country FORMATION OF CORAL ISLANDS. among them as among the children of our

which gave them birth. Soon after their own labouring classes at home. For the age arrival they were put to different employments explain than the prodigious quantity of coral

Few things are more curious or difficult to of these children, their progress, under the on board, and certainly no extraordinary de- formed in the sea, especially in the tropical system of education adopted, seemed to be gree of care was taken concerning their invery rapid.

struction ; but, for all this, two of thein, who regions. Coral is the produce of different Respecting the manumitted negroes in have assisted the rope-maker, have shown species of vermes, or worm tribes, and it con

sists chiefly of carbonate of lime. Now, it is manufacture as good rope as their master, who

probeen rescued by the capture of slave- honestly acknowledges such to be the fact.

cure such prodigious quantities of this subships, and located in Sierra Leone, he Another was placed to assist the armourer; sulphate of lime, but no other calcareous salt,

stance. Sea-water, indeed, contains traces of gives the following account :and is already a very passable blacksmith ; a

as far as we know. Hence it would appear male emancipated slave on his location cost

progress is astonishing, and that he is already about £1 10s., which, together with his six highly useful to him; and a fifth with the sulphate of lime, though the quantity of that months' allowance of twopence a-day, make sail-maker, and his improvement is in a simi- salt contained in sea-water seems inadequate the whole of the mere personal expense of lar ratio. The rest have been placed to vari- to supply their wants, or they must form car

bonate of lime from the constituents of seaeach male adult to his Majesty's government which has been only equalled by their zeal water, in a way totally above our comprehen


ly allowance is, of course, extended in the cases of persons

and good humour, and by the willingness sion, Be that as it may, there is one consewho, from age or infirmity, are incapable of with which they set about their work." or quence of this copious formation of coral in the supporting themselves. Females receive two

the others, who have been still a shorter time tropical regions of considerable importance to pence a-day for three months only, and as

on board than these, six were received from navigation, which has been clearly pointed out many of the children as possible above a cerhis Majesty's ship Medina, before she sailed by Mr. Dalrymple, and is now pretty well

understood. tain age, on condemnation of the vessel, are

for England, who had been a considerable
time on board of her, and had met with great marks this accurate observer, more curious, or

There is not a part of natural history, reapprenticed out, as has been already stated, to

kindness, and had received the most attentive persons of respectable appearance in the colony: instruction at the hands of her experienced perhaps to a navigator more useful

, than an

inquiry into the formation of islands. The arrived, who, from the excessive crowding, commander. They had been taught a seaman's duty, and were infinitely more expert

origin of islands in general is not the point to and water, are almost always tilthy, emaciated,

wide ocean, such as are most of those hitherto and covered with disease, the manumitted ship; and, while with us, did their duty, in discovered in the vast South Sea. These persons, sleek, and well fed, and very well that their behaviour called forth the most un. satisfied with their condition. After a short qualified praise. While at Ascension, one of are formed by a narrow bar of land, inclosing these boys became affected with a disease of with some channel of ingress at least to the

the sea within it; generally, perhaps always, stay in the colony, the industrious are occasionally permitted to cultivate patches of waste

the brain and spinal marrow, which produced tide, commonly with an opening capable of land in the country, besides their own allotted paralysis of the lower extremities, and evenpiece of ground, with the understanding that tually carried him off. The attention of the receiving a canoe, and frequently sufficient to their occupation of the former shall be tem- duous; and, when the fatal event took place, nature. What led Mr. Dalrymple first to this other boys to their poor friend was most assi

admit even larger vessels.

The origin of these islands will explain their porary. By selling the produce of this they they exhibited every mark of deep, unfeigned deduction was an observation of Abdul Rooare enabled to obtain many of the comforts, and a few of the luxuries, enjoyed by their

bin, a Sooloo pilot, that all the islands lying European neighbours. Some idea may be We hope these extracts will be received off the north-east coast of Bomeo had shoals formed of the actual condition of these people as additional evidence to the falsehood of I to the eastward of them. These islands being


covered to the westward by Borneo, the winds | always abound greatly with fish; and such as I ing of the topmost branches, which fell to the from that quarter do not attack them with vio- he has seen, with turtle-grass and other sea earth with a noise like the breaking of glass, lence. But the north-east winds, tumbling plants, particularly one species, called by the yet so loud as to make the woods resound. As in the billows from a wide ocean, heap up the Sooloos gammye, which grows in little glo- the day advanced, instead of branches, whole coral with which those seas are filled. This, bules, and is somewhat pungent as well as trees began to fall; and, during twenty-four obvious after storms, is perhaps at all other times acid to the taste. It need not be repeated that hours, the scene which took place was as subimperceptibly effected. The coral banks, raised the ends of those islands only are the places to lime as can well be conceived. There was no in the same manner, become dry. These banks expect soundings; and they commonly have wind perceptible, yet, notwithstanding the are found at all depths at all distances from a shallow spit running out from each point. calmness of the day, the whole forest seemed shore, entirely unconnected with the land, and Adbul Roobin's observations point out another in motion; falling, wasting, or crumbling, as detached from each other; though it often circumstance, which may be useful to navi- it were, piecemeal. Crash succeeded to crash, bappens that they are divided by a narrow gut, gators: by consideration of the winds to which until, at length, these became so rapidly conwithout bottom.

any islands are most exposed, to form a pro- tinuous as to resemble the incessant discharges Coral banks also grow, by a quick progres- bable conjecture which side has deepest water of artillery, gradually increasing, as from the sion, towards the surface; but the winds, and, from a view which side has the shoals, an irregular firing at intervals of the outposts, to heaping up the coral from deeper water, chiefly idea may be formed which winds rage with the uninterrupted roar of a heavy cannonade. accelerate the formation of these into shoals most violence.-Thomson. Phil. Trans. Pines of 150 feet and 180 feet in height came and islands. They become gradually shallower,

thundering to the ground, carrying others beand, when once the sea meets with resistance,

fore them; groves of hemlocks were bent to the coral is quickly thrown up by the force

the ground like reeds; and the spreading oaks of the waves breaking against the bank; and

and towering sugar maples were uprooted like hence it is that, in the open sea, there is

ICE-STORM IN AMERICA. stubble, and often without giving a moment's scarcely an instance of a coral bank having so

warning. Under every tree was a rapidly aclittle water that a large ship cannot pass over,

The following account of this curious cumulating debris of displaced limbs and hut it is also so shallow that a boat would phenomenon is extracted from Mr. Tay- branches ; their weight increased more than ground on it

. Mr. D. has seen these coral lor's notes on the weather at Philipsburg, tenfold by the ice, and crushing every thing banks in all the stages; some in deep water, Pennsylvania, in the “ Magazine of Na- in their fall with sudden and terrific violence. others with a few rocks appearing above the tural History” for March, 1833.

Altogether, this spectacle was one of indescrisurface, some just formed into islands, without

bable grandeur. I could not resist devoting the the least appearance of vegetation, and others, Feb. 8th.–This morning a heavy rain set whole day to the contemplation, notwithstandfrom such as have a few weeds on the highest in after the thaw, and increased in violence ing the continued rain, of the desolating and part to those which are covered with large throughout the day and night; and now com

tremendous effects of this unusual phenoinetimber, with a bottomless sea at a pistol-shot menced the most singular, and even sublime, non.

It was necessary, however, to be careful distance.

meteorological phenomenon I have observed to remain at a prudent distance from the fallThe loose coral, rolled in ward by the billows in this region. It was an occurrence of un- ing timber. Of all the scenes in the American in large pieces, will ground, and, the reflux usual vote, and extended over a large area in forests, this was the most awful I had witbeing unable to carry them away, they become this and the adjoining state, and is commonly nessed. The roar, the cracking and rending, a bar to coagulate the sand, always found in- referred to under the name of the “ice storm." the thundering fall of the uprooted trees, the termixed with coral ;, which sand, being easi- I shall be somewhat minute in describing so startling, unusual sounds and sights produced est raised, will be lodged at top. When the much respecting it as fell under my own ob- by the descent of such masses of solid ice, and sand bank is raised by violent storms, beyond servation, as noted at the time. Immediately the suddenness of the crash, when a neighthe reach of common waves, it becomes a rest on the descent of the rain, it froze, so as to bouring tree gave way, I shall not easily ing-place to vagrant birds, whom the search of envelope the trees and earth with a thick coat- forget. Yet all this was going on in a dead prey draws thither. The dung, feathers, &c., ing of transparent ice, and to render walking calm, except, at intervals, a gentle air from increase the soil, and prepare it for the recep no easy process.

the south-east slightly waved the topmost tion of accidental roots, branches, and seed, Feb. 9th.–Such an accumulation of ice had pines. Had the wind freshened, the destruccast up by the waves, or brought thither by now formed upon the branches of the forest tion would have been still more appalling. It birds. Thus islands are formed; the leaves trees as presented a beautiful and extraordi

was awful to witness the sudden prostration of and rotten branches, intermixing with the nary spectacle. The small underwood, or oaks of the largest class. These trees were the sand, form in time a light black mould, of “ brush," was bowed to the earth, while the greatest sufferers; and it seemed remarkable which in general these islands consist, more noblest timbers were every where to be seen

that the deciduous trees should be less able to sandy as less woody, and, when full of large bending beneath the enormous load of ice bear the additional burden than the heavily trees, with a greater proportion of mould. with which their branches were incrusted, and laden evergreens. The branches of the oaks Cocoa-nuts, continuing Tong in the sea without the icicles which thickly depended from every rapidly gave way, while the thickly encased losing their vegetative powers, are commonly point. The heavy foliage of the hemlock and foliage of the hemlocks hung drooping around to be found in such islands; particularly as spruce was literally encased, or rather formed the stems, upon their long pliant branches, they are adapted to all soils, whether sandy, solid masses of ice, the smallest twig or blade until they appeared like a solid mass, or morich, or rocky.

of grass being surrounded by more than an numental pillar of ice. In order to obtain The violence of the waves within the tropics inch of ice, and resembled the vegetable sub- some data for estimating the increased weight must generally be directed to two points, ac stances sometimes occurring in masses of which the forest trees had now to sustain, I cording to the monsoons. Hence the islands crystal. Rain fell in torrents all this day, and

cut off and weighed several boughs of differformed from coral banks must be long and the chief part of the ensuing night, until there ent species, and compared them after the ice narrow, and lie nearly in a meridional direc were about four inches of clear ice overspread was removed by thawing. The following is the tion. For even supposing the banks to be ing the surface of the ground. The change result:round, as they seldom are when large, the sea, which this phenomenon effected in the usual

Weight in the Weight when meeting most resistance in the middle, must appearance of the woods was striking. The heave up the matter in greater quantities there bushes, and smaller trees, extending to those 1. A branch of white pine than towards the extremities; and, by the offifty feet in height, were now bent to the

[Pinus Strobus] 15lbs. same rule, the ends will generally be open, or ground, and pressed upon each other beneath | 2. Another bough

2lb. 17

1 at least lowest. They will also commonly have their unwonted burden, resembling, in some 3. Hemlock or

spruce soundings there, as the remains of the banks, respects, fields of corn beaten down by a tem branch

20 not accumulated, will be under water. Where pest. Above, the tall trees drooped and swung 4. Another

17 the coral banks are not exposed to the common heavily; their branches glittering, as if formed monsoon, they will alter their direction, and of solid crystal, and, on the slightest move By this it appears that the evergreens had be either round, or extend in the parallel, or ment of the air, striking against each other, about twenty times their accustomed burden. be of irregular forms, according to accidental and sending down an avalanche of ice. During circumstances.

the night of the 8th, and on the succeeding The interior parts of these islands, being sea, morning, the limbs of the trees began to give sometimes form harbours capable of receiving way under such an unusual load. Every vessels of some burthen, and Mr. D. believes where around was seen and heard the crash


frozen state.


[graphic][merged small]


This animal, in some of its various at length the mullet betook himself to

THE OCEAN. species, is found upon coasts in almost shallower water; the seal pursued, and all parts of the world. They are amphi- the former, to get more surely out of bious, although there are some shores on danger, threw itself on its side, by which which they are rarely or never known to means it darted into shallower water than Ou, thou vast ocean! Ever sounding sea ! land, and are said to be as regularly mi- it could have swam in with the depth of Thou symbol of a drear iminensity ! gratory as birds of passage. Their habits its paunch and fins, and so escaped. On Thou thing that windest round the solid world

Like a huge animal, which, downward hurld are, in general, indolent and harmless, these coasts the seal sleeps on rocks, sur

From the black clouds, lies weltering and alone, although at certain times, and especially rounded by the sea, or on the less acces- Lashing and writhing till its strength be gone. when they have their young to defend, sible parts of cliffs left dry by the ebb of Thy voice is like the thunder, and thy sleep they are remarkably fierce. The growth the tide, and, if disturbed by any thing; Thou speakest in the east and in the west of these animals, when young, is very rolls off into the sea. They are extremely At once, and on thy heavily laden breast remarkable; the seal-hunters in Caith- watchful, and never sleep longer than a Fleets come and go, and shapes that have no life ness declare that in nine tides (108 minute without moving, then raise their or motion yet are moved and meet in strife. hours) they become as active as their heads, and, if they perceive no danger, The eartha hath nought of this ; no chance nor parents.

lie down again for a similar interval. Ruffles its surface, and no spirits dare Some general notion of the habits of Nature seems to have given them this Give answer to the tempest-waken air ; the seal may be gathered from Pennant's precautionary instinct, as being unpro- But o'er its wastes the weakly tenants range British Zoology, and from Crantz's His- vided with auricles or external ears, and at will, and wound its bosom as they go : On the shores of consequently not hearing very quickly, nor But in their stated rounds the seasons come,

Ever the same, it hath no ebb, no flow; tory of Greenland. Cornwall they are seen in the greatest from any great distance.

And pass like visions to their viewless home, plenty in the months of May, June, and But it is to the Greenlander, and other and come again, and vanish; the young spring July. They vary in size from that of a arctic tribes, that these animals are indis- Looks ever bright with leaves and blossoming, cow to that of a small calf. They feed pensably useful. In fact, they constitute When the wild autumn, with a look forlorn, on all kinds of fishes, and are so swift, in their flocks, and are more essential to Dies in his stormy manhood; and the skies their proper depth of water, as to exer- them than sheep to us. Their flesh is Weep, and Aowers sicken, when the summer flies. cise an undisputed tyranny, diving with the most palatable and substantial food oh! wonderful thou art, great element : great rapidity, and re-appearing in a very of these people; with their fat they make And lovely in repose : thy summer form short time at a distance of fifty yards. In the oil which, during so large a propor- Is beautiful, and when thy silver waves shallow water, however, their prey more tion of their time, is necessary for lamp Make music in earth's dark and winding caves, easily evade them. Dr. Borlase states, light; with their skins they clothe them- I love to wander on thy pebbled beach, in one of his letters, that a person in the selves and cover their boats, sewing it And hearken to the thoughts thy waters teachparish of Sennan saw a seal in pursuit of with their fibres and sinews, and also “ Eternity, eternity and power.” a mullet, which turned to and fro in make use of their blood, and most other deep water, as a greyhound does a hare; parts, for various useful purposes.

MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE, and his apostles; and he has more explicit SOURCE OF THE SCAMANDER,
and solemn references to the grand purpose of

Now called the Mender.
human life, to a future judgment, and to
No. IX. •

eternity, than almost any other of our elegant On the 11th of March, having collected our

moralists has had the piety or the courage guides and horses as upon the preceding day; BRITISH CLASSICS-JOHNSON.

to make. There is so much that most power we set out again from Evgillar, and proceeded The powerful and lofty spirit of Johnson fully coincides and co-operates with Christian up the mountain, to visit the cataract which was far more capable of scorning the ridicule, truth, that the disciple of Christianity the constitutes the source of the Mender, on the and defying the opposition, of wits and world more regrets to meet occasionally a sentiment, north-west side of Gargarus. Ascending by lings. And yet his social life must have been respecting, perhaps, the rule to judge by in the side of its clear and impetuous torrent, we greatly unfavourable to a deep and simple the review of life, the consolations in death, reached, in an hour and a half, the lower consideration of Christian truth, and the culti- the effect of repentance, or the terms of boundary of the woody region of the mounvation of Christian sentiment. Might not acceptance with God, which he cannot recon- tain. Here we saw a more entire chapel than even his imposing and unchallenged ascen cile with the evangelical theory, nor with those either of those described in our excursion the dency itself betray him to admit, insensibly, an principles of Christian faith in which Johnson preceding day, situated upon an eminence injurious influence on his mind ? He asso avowed his belief. In such a writer he cannot above the river. Its form was quadrangular ciated with men of whom many were very but deem such deviations a matter of grave and oblong. The four walls were yet standing, learned, some extremely able, but compa- culpability.

and part of the roof; this was vaulted, and ratively few made any decided profession of Omission is his other fault. Though he did lined with painted stucco. The altar also repiety; and perhaps à considerable number introduce in his serious speculations more dis- mained, in an arched recess of the eastern exwere such as would in other society have tinct allusions to religious ideas than most tremity ; upon the north side of it was a small shown a strong propensity to irreligion. This other moralists, yet he did not introduce them and low nich, containing a marble table. In however dared not to appear undisguisedly in so often as may be claimed from a writer who the arched recess was also a very ancient Johnson's presence; and it is impossible not frequently carries seriousness to the utmost painting of the Virgin ; and below, upon her to revere the strength and noble severity that pitch of solemuity. There scarcely ever was left hand, the whole-length portrait of a saint, made it so cautious. But this constrained an author, not formally theological, in whese holding an open volume. The heads of these abstinence from overt irreligion had the effect works a large proportion of explicit Christian figures were encircled by a line of glory. Upon of preventing the repugnance of his judgment sentiment was more requisite for a consistent the right hand side of the Virgin there had and religious feelings to the frequent society entireness of character than in the moral wri- been a similar painting of some other saint, of men from whom he would have recoiled, if tings of Johnson. No writer ever more com but part of the stucco, whereon it was painted, the real temper of their minds, in regard to pletely exposed and blasted the folly and no longer remained. The word ITAPEENON, the most important subjects, had been unre- vanity of the greatest number of human pur- written among other indistinct characters, apservedly forced on his view. Decorum toward suits. The visage of Medusa could not have peared upon the wall. The dimensions of this religion being preserved, he would take no ri- darted a more fatal glance against the tribe of building were only sixteen feet by eight. Its gorously judicial account of the internal cha- gay triflers, the competitors of ambition, the height was not quite twelve feet, from the racter of those who brought so finely into proud exhibitors in the parade of wealth, the floor to the beginning of the vaulted roof. play his mental powers and resources, in con- rhapsodists on the sufficiency of what they Two small windows commanded a view of the versations on literature, moral philosophy, and call philosophy for happiness, the grave con- river, and a third was placed near the altar. general intelligence; and who could enrich

sumers of life in useless speculations, and Its walls, only two feet four inches in thickevery matter of social argument by their learn- every other order of " walkers in a vain show.” ness, afforded, nevertheless, space for the roots ing, their genius, or their knowledge of man His judicial sentence is directed, as with a of two very large fir-trees: these were actually kind. But if, while every thing unequivocally keen and mephitic blast, on almost all the growing upon them. All along the banks of hostile to Christianity was kept silent in his most favourite pursuits of mankind. But it this river, as we advanced towards its source, company, there was nevertheless a latent im

was so much the more peculiarly his duty we noticed appearances of similar ruins; and piety in possession of the heart, it would in to insist, with fulness and emphasis, on that in some places, among rocks, or by the sides evitably, however unobviously, infuse some one model of character, that one grand em- of precipices, were seen remains of several thing of its spirit into the communications of ployment of life, which is enjoined by Heaven, habitations together; as if the monks, who such men.

And, through the complacency and will stand the test of that unshrinking se- retreated hither, had possessed considerable which he felt in the high intellectual inter- verity of judgment, which should be exercised settlements in the solitudes of the mountain. course, some infection of the noxious element by every one who looks forward to the test Our ascent, as we drew near to the source of would insinuate its way into his own ideas which he is finally to abide. No author has the river, became steep and stony. Lofty sumand feelings. For it is hardly possible for the more impressively displayed the misery of mits towered above us, in the greatest style of strongest and most vigilant mind, under the human life; he laid himself under so much Alpine grandeur ; the torrent, in its rugged genial influence of eloquence, fancy, novelty, the stronger obligation to unfold most ex- bed below, all the while foaming upon our and bright intelligence, interchanged in ami- plicitly the only effectual consolations, the true left

. Presently we entered one of the sublimest cable collision, to avoid admitting some efluvia scheme of felicity as far as it is attainable on natural amphitheatres the eye ever beheld; (if I may so express it) breathing froin the earth, and that delightful prospect of a better and here the guides desired us to alight. The most interior qualities of such associates, and region which has so often inspired exultation noise of waters silenced every other sound. tending to produce an insensible assimilation; in the most melancholy situation. No writer has Huge craggy rocks rose perpendicularly to an especially if there should happen to be, in more expressly illustrated the rapidity of time, immense height, whose sides and fissures, to addition, a conciliating exterior of accomplish- and the shortness of life; he ought so much the very clouds, concealing their tops, were ment, grace, and liberal manners. Thus the the more fully to have dwelt on the views covered with pines, growing, in every possible very predominance by which Johnson could of that great futurity at which his readers are direction, among a variety of evergreen shrubs, repress the direct irreligion of statesmen, scho- admonished by the illustration that they will wild sage, hanging ivy, moss, and creeping lars, wils, and accomplished men of the world, speedily arrive. No writer can make more herbage. Enormous plane-trees waved their might, by retaining him their intimate or poignant reflections on the pains of guilt; vast branches above the torrent. As we apfrequent associate, subject him to meet the was it not indispensable that he should oftener proached its deep gulph, we beheld several influence of that irreligion acting in a manner have directed the mind suffering this bitterest cascades, all of foam, pouring impetuously too indirect and refined either to excite hosti- kind of distress to that great sacrifice once from chasms in the naked face of a perpendility or caution.

offered for sin ? No writer represents with cular rock. It is said, the same magnificent It must however be admitted that this illus more striking, mortifying, humiliating truth cataract continues during all seasons of the trious author, who, though here mentioned the failure of human resolutions, and the year, wholly unaffected by the casualties of only in the class of essayists, is to be ranked feebleness of human efforts, in the contest rain or melting snow. That a river so ennoamong the greatest moral philosophers, is less with corrupt propensity, evil habits, and adapted bled by ancient history should at the same at variance with the essentials of the Christian temptation; why did not this melancholy ob- time prove equally eminent in circumstances economy than the very great majority of servation and experience prompt a very fre- of natural dignity, is a fact worthy of being either of these classes of authors. His specu- quent recollection, and emphatical expression, related. Its origin is not like the source of lations tend in a far less degree to beguile the of the importance of that assistance froin on ordinary streams, obscure and uncertain—of approving and admiring reader into a spirit high, without which the divine word has so doubtful locality and indeterminate characterwhich feels repelled in estrangement and dis- often repeated the warning that our labours ascertained with difficulty, among various petty gust on turning to the instructions of Christ I will fail?

subdivisions, in swampy places, or amidst in

significant rivulets, falling from different parts and cast dust upon their heads, according to most difficult to be explained, and we will of the same mountain, and equally tributary; a national usage, supplicating his forgiveness borrow the illustration adopted in the Edinit bursts at once from the dark womb of its for the fault which they had committed. For burgh Review. “ Suppose the spoken language parent, in all the greatness of the divine origin twenty years the name of Kosciusko had not of England to be what it is—but that no other assigned to it by Homer. The early Chris- been heard in Poland save as that of an exile; sort of writing, except by pictures or symbols, tians, who retired or fled from the haunts of yet it still retained its ancient power over had yet been invented-and that it was wanted society to the wilderness of Gargarus, seem to Polish hearts--a pou never used but for to record, in some legend or inscription, that have been fully sensible of the effect produced some good and generous end.

an individual called James had done or sufby grand objects, in selecting, as the place of The Emperor Alexander honoured him with fered something. The word James here was their abode, the scenery near the source of the a long interview, and offered him an asylum evidently a mere sound, and could not be deScamander-where the voice of nature speaks in his own country. But nothing could in- scribed or defined in any other way than as in her most awful tone-where, amidst roaring duce Kosciusko again to see his unfortunate that sound by which the individual in queswaters, waving forests, and broken precipices, native land. In 1815 lie retired to Soleure, tion was suggested to those who heard it. It the mind of man becomes impressed as by the in Switzerland, where he died, October 16th, could not, therefore, be directly intimated to influence of a present Deity.

1817, in consequence of an injury received by posterity, by a mere visible symbol or picture, The course of the river, after it thus emerges, a fall from his horse. Not long before he had that such a sound had in his day been assowith very little variation, is nearly from east abolished slavery upon his Polish estate, and ciated with that individual; and, if this was to west. Its source is distant from Evgillar declared all his serfs entirely free, by a deed what was proposed to be done, it is plain ahout nine miles; or, according to the mode registered and executed with every formality enough that some new device or contrivance of computation in the country, three hours; that could ensure the full performance of his must of necessity be adopted; and, according half this time is spent in a gradual ascent intention. The mortal remains of Kosciusko to the late discoveries, the device was as folfrom the village. The rock whence it issues were removed to Poland at the expense of lows:—They set down a series of pictures of consists of micacious schistus, containing veins Alexander, and have found a fitting place of familar objects, the names of which, in the of soft marble. While the artist was employed rest in the Cathedral of Cracow, between spoken language, began with the sounds which in making drawings, ill calculated to afford those of his companion in arms, Joseph Poni were successively to be expressed, and which, adequate ideas of the grandeur of the scenery, atowski, and the greatest of Polish warriors, taken together in that order, made up the I climbed the rocks, with my companions, to John Sobieski.—Gallery of Portraits, No. I. compound sound or Name that was wanted. examine more closely the nature of the chasms

For the sound now expressed by the letter J, whence the torrent issues. Having reached

for example, they would set down the figure these, we found, in their front, a beautiful


of a Jug or Jar; for that corresponding to A, natural bason, six or eight feet deep, serving

an Ape or Acorn; for M, a Man or a Mouse; as a reservoir for the water in the first mo

We intimated our intention, in a late num

and for S, a Spear or Spur; and thus, by a ments of its emission. It was so clear, that ber, of entering briefly into the interesting sort of Symbolical Acrostic, they would speli the minutest object might be discerned at the subject of Egyptian hieroglyphics; and, in out the word James, and intimate, to all who bottom. The copious overflowing of this reser

doing so, we have no hesitation in character- read the figures into the spoken tongue, the

It is voir causes the appearance, to a spectator be- izing the subject as an interesting one.

name or sound which it was intended to comlow, of different cascades, falling to the depth so, as standing in immediate connexion with

memorate.” the country which witnessed the birth and of about forty feet; but there is only one

From all these kinds of writing, a tolerably source. Behind are the chasms whence the fostered the infancy of science and letters; full language, though a very inconvenient one, water issues. We entered one of these, and it is interesting, because it is only compara

was formed. It would occupy far more than passed into a cavern. Here the water appeared tively lately that any information has been the sheet in the hands of the reader to give rushing with great force, beneath the rock, resting, because past discoveries and coinci- of writing, and to describe the process by

obtained respecting it; and it is further inte intelligible instances of each of these modes coldest spring we had found in the country, dences make it certain that we have at length which the laborious men we have referred to the mercury in the thermometer falling, in two found the clue which is to guide us through a

have spelt out a translation. Haring, thereminutes, to thirty-four, according to the scale field of study which has for centuries been fore

, given a general idea of what sort of a of Fahrenheit. When placed in the reservoir

The discoveries to which we allude are clude with an account of the way in which

written language the Egyptian was, we conimmediately above the fall, where the water was most exposed to the atmosphere, its tem-chiefly, the results of the researches of the this knowledge of it (and much more) has been perature was three degrees higher. The whole English Dr. Young, and the French M. Cham

obtained. We quote from the Edinburgh rock about the source is covered with moss.

pollion, of whom the former led the



Review. Close to the bason grew hazel and plane trees; father of history, as Herodotus is called, and Institute was sent out to Egypt during the occuhad long been known, on the testimony of the

It is well known that a Commission of the French naked and fearful precipice.--Clarke's Travels of early historians, that there were various pation of that country by their forecs

, for the purkinds of writing common among the Egyp- pose of investigating every thing that related to its tians; and modern study has accurately deter- | ancient history; and that the greatest interest was

mined what they are. They may be generally taken in the proceedings of this body by no less a ANECDOTE OF KOSCIUSKO.

classed under two heads; the popular, or person than Napoleon himself. Under their aus

epistolographic, and the sacred. The first of pices much was done, undoubtedly, for the eluciWhen the Russians, in 1814, had penetra- these represents words by characters desig. dation of its antiquities, and the progress of its ted into Champagne, and were advancing nating the letters which compose them, and arts; but as to its language and letters, its hierotowards Paris, they were astonished to hear constitute in fact a scanty alphabet. But the slyphics and papyri, absolutely nothing. They that their former adversary was living in re second was distinguished by some most curi- had not time, perhaps—perhaps they had not tirement in that part of the country. The ous peculiarities, and was of several kinds,

The fact, however, is certain; and it is, circumstances of this discovery were striking. which were employed on different subjects

no doubt, a little mortifying to them, and, indeed, The commune in which Kosciusko lived was and occasions. In one, objects were represented ral, that an accident, which occurred in the course

to the pride of human skill and learning in genesubjected to plunder, and among the troops by imitation; thus the Egyptians, when making of their military labours, did more for the elucidathus engaged he observed a Polish regiment. use of this kind of writing, drew a circle to tion of these interesting subjects, than all the study Transported with anger, he rushed among signify the sun, and a crescent for the moon. which had been bestowed on them for upwards of a them, and thus addressed the officers : In another, they represented objects meta- thousand years. While a division of the French * When I commanded brave soldiers they phorically; thus, they would designate a brave troops occupied Rosetta, a party of workmen, emnever pillaged; and I should have punished man by the figure of a lion, &c. In another, ployed in digging for the foundations of Fort St. severely subalterns who allowed of disorders they denote objects by more obscure and re- Julian, discovered and disinterred a huge block or such as those which we see around. Still mote analogies; as if they should have repre-pillar of black basalt, exhibiting the remains of more severely should I have punished older sented the word justice by the blind-folded three distinct inscriptions; but, having been soon officers, who authorized such conduct by their female figure with scales which we see in the afterwards dislodged by the British, this monuculpable neglect." “And who are you,” was present day. And, in another, they designate brought to England, among other trophies, and the general cry,


you dare to speak with words (chiefly proper names) by a number of deposited in the British Museum. such boldness to us?” “I am Kosciusko." common objects one after another; the initials The effect was electric; the soldiery cast down of whose names, taken together, would make

A cursory inspection of the pillar of Rosetta

was sufficient to establish, as incontrovertible, their arms, prostrated themselves at his feet, I the name in question. This last kind is the l Bishop Warburton's profound observation, already


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