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REVIEW.

tories, or the scanty food of the Irish poor, is able | against slave-life. During this protracted period, to effect no sensible alteration in this great law of on some estates the negroes work all the day and

nature, what must be the physical suffering which half the night; on others, six days and three THE SINFULNESS OF COLONIAL Slavery. By every ten years is working out a destruction of nights in the week; and, on many, thirty-six Robert Halley. London: Hamilton. seven per cent !

hours' continuous labour, and ten hours' rest. We “This decrease was, immediately on its discovery, have this last statement upon the evidence of Mr.

ascribed to some inequality in the sexes. Returns Wildman, a humane and Christian proprietor, The rapid progress which the anti-slavery were called for, and that assertion was imrnediately who went out to examine the state of his negroes. cause has recently made cannot fail to gratify refuted.* The free negroes have rapidly increased. He saw immediately there was a gaio of produce every humane and Christian mind. The reli- During the last American war, 740 fugitive slaves, by a loss of life. He reduced the labour of crop gious part of the community have been effec- from the Carolinas, were located in Trinidad, and to sixteen bours in the twenty-four, aod for this tually aroused by the persecution of their were there apprenticed. Though doing the same act was bitterly persecuted by the neighbouring missionaries; and an active, extensive, and ficient food, they had in seven years increased to the change on that estate, the yearly births aver

work as the slaves, yet with limited toil, and suf- planters. But observe the consequence :- before systematic co-operation has thus been ob- above 1000. when the slave-gangs around them aged three for 280 slaves ; when he left they tained. The previous supineness of religious had uniformly diminished. Can there be, bre. amounted to ten. There was the mother of three men was a matter of deep regret to many thren, a more awful condemnation of the whole children, who, on his arrival, complaining of the friends of Christianity. It gave some appear- system?

excess of labour, said, ' slave woman never holds ance of sanction to the impious appeal which “This diminution is taken upon the gross esti- child in her arms.' the slave-holder made to revelation, and greatly mate of the registers. But, says Dr. Collins, in

“ Besides all this, the slave, not like an Englishweakened the hands of those philanthropists excuse of the system, domestic slaves, and work man who gains his livelihood by his toil, has to get who were seeking to burst the bonds of colo- men in towns, increase as rapidly as any other his livelihood when his master's work is done. nial servitude.

class in the West Indies. There must be, there- When can he cultivate his own provision-ground ? It has afforded us pleasure to sce many of fore, a proportionally greater decrease than 50,009 He is allowed for this purpose his Sabbath (no, the ministers of religion, both in the Establish- upon the smaller number of plantation slaves poor man, not his Subbath, but his Sunday) and ment and among Dissenters, exerting their alone. Upon the examination of the registers of part of Saturday. The last Jamaica slave-code influence for the promotion of this righteous the ten years was as much as from twelve to several large sugar plan'ations, the decrease in allows twenty-six Saturdays in the year, which I

have seen disingenuously represented as so many cause. No labour of love can be more appro- twenty per cent, and even much more in the holidays.. But as twenty-six days of labour, even priate to their office; no work of mercy and Mauritius. Indeed, where complete accuracy in that climate, are totally insutficient to maintain justice can more cogently be enforced by the was obtained, in the neighbou, hood of Port Louis, a family, he must be compelled to cultivate his mild principles of their faith. They are thus 12,000 slaves had, in seven years, decreased to provision ground on the Sabbath. The Me: hodist following the example of their Master, in the less than 7,000. But, it may be said, why cite Missionaries state, they did not expect a plantapromotion of human happiness; and cannot the Mauritius, which bears no resemblance to the tion-slave, even though religiously disposed, to fail, hy a patient continuance in such labours, West Indies ? No, I trust it is like no spot on attend worship, if his ground was at any distance, to secure his approval.

God's earth. Its horrid tales are unparelleled, of more than one Sabbath in three or four. Is not The publication before ns was delivered as

teeth torn away--eyes struck out--arms, legs, this the climax of cruelty? British Christians, a lecture at the Monthly Meeting of Congre- bv indisputable evidence, judicial

records. oaths relieved from the cares of life, enjoy the quietuda

breasts, cut off--and more horrid tortures, proved the negro must toil on that sacred day, when you, gational Ministers and Churches in London, of the military, and reports of Commissioners. of devotion, sing the sweet songs of Zion, and on the seventh of February last. It displays I adduce it for the same reason as I refer to the prepare for the everlasting repose of heaven. In an extensive acquaintance with the subject- Antilles ; because the British colours wave over the Mauritius, at least on some estates, the Sab. exposes the futility of the appeal which Color them both, elsewhere the favourite standard of bath is the day of terror and dread : the Saturday nial writers make to revelation in support of liberty, but in the Indian Ocean and the Mexican night is often spent in restlessness and anxiety: their system-and exhibits, in a luminous and Gulf, the emblem of bondage, oppression, and with the holy light that beams grateful on the impressive manner, the murderous character death. Let us tear down our fag; or wash away Christian world, although there impiously deseof Colonial Slavery. Mr. Halley has evidently its stain, whether it be the scarlet of Jamaica, or crated, the slaves are mustered, the weekly register acquainted himself with the details of the the deeper crimson of the Mauritius.

of punishment is exhibited, and the culprits, question which he undertakes to discuss, and

“ But, to confi e ourselves to the West Indies, it stretched upon frames by ropes, are beaten with the manner in which he has exhibited his has been shown in the Anti-Slavery Reporter, ratlans, which tear the flesh from their bones.” information is alike creditable to his head and and never, as far as I know, contradicted, that on heart. He has committed a slight mistake in the ordinary law of increase. compared with the

actual decrease, there has been, since the abolihis statement of the case of Haiti. The eman

SINGULAR PROVIDENTIAL ESCAPE. tion of the slave trade, a waste of life to the cipation of the negroes is represented as having amount of 740,000 huiran beings. I have somealready taken place previously to the civil times endeavoured to obtain data from which to leyan Missionaries in South Africa, contains

The journal of Mr. Kay, one of the Weswar between the royalists and republicans compute the number of Africans originally transBut the reverse of this was the case. The two ported to these Western Islands. It must have

the following remarkable account of the departies took to arms in 1790; but the procla- been much more than 7,000,000. I wish I could liverance of a poor sick Hollentot from the mation of Polverel, giving freedom to the find reason to believe that estimale approached jaws of a lion. The account bears date Deslaves, was not issued till August, 1793; and near the truth. There are now some 700,000. cember 2, 1829.

Neither war the decree of the French Assembly, abolishing the scanty and miserable relics.

" About three weeks or a month ago, he slavery throughout, was passed in February, when raging in Europe nor the plague in Con (the Hottentot in question) went out on a 1794. This fact 'strengthens our case, by its birth-place-nor any other crime of man, or

stantinople—nor the mournful cholera in India, hunting excursion, accompanied by several showing that slavery has been abolished with

curse of God, has effected so general a destruction other natives. Arriving on an extensive plain, safety, even amid the carnage and brutality of as British avarire has wroughi in the West Indies where there was abundance of game, they a civil war. The following extract furnishes a Are the charities of Englishmen frozen? Are discovered a number of lions also, which fair specimen of the author's style:

their hearts, if they have any, incased in steel and appeared to be disturbed by their approach. “I must confine myself to one most fearful adamant?, Delay a little longer-amuse your: A prodigiously large male immediately sepacharge, but that demonstrably true. It is a mur

selves with preparatory measures and gradual rated himself from the troop, and began slowly derous system. Its victims are nigh unto death ; iaid their bodies in the last rest of the weary, and whom were young, and altogether unaccus

and a less tardy liberator will have to advance towards the party, the majority of they are ready to be slain. • In ten years, the slave population of our

transferred their souls to the avenging millions tomed to rencontres of so formidable a nature. colonies has been dimivished by 50,000. Whai beneath the ahar.

When droves of timid antelopes, or springa tale of intense misery does that single fact un.

"The system is murderous through an exhausting bocks only, came in their way, they made a fold! That population should increase, is one of

and merciless exaction of labour. I need not go the most constant laws of nature ; and when pruinto detail; for Mr. Stephe has proved that the great boast of their courage, but the very ap

pearance of the forest's king made thein dential arrangements do not impose a restraint average work of negroes, the women in the same

tremble. While the animal was yet at a upon early marriage, a consideration totally inap. gang as the men, is more than sixteen hours a plicable io the state of the negroes, the increase day; and much of it, as cane-holing, peculiarly distance, they all dismounted to prepare for proceeds with surprising rapidity. But we have laborious. There is also the night-work of the firing, and, according to the custom on such here the very reverse of nature's laws. Let us

crop season, on an average five, and, on occasions, began tying their horses together, hear no more of comparison with the growing estates, six months in the year. Then it is sugar by means of the bridles, with the view of population of Britain. Even the starving papers

keeping the latter between them and the lion, of Ireland rapidly multiply, and spread over the

• The last registers give 333,000 male, and 341,000 fe.

as an object to attract his attention, until they world. If then the prolonged labour of our facmale, slaves.

were able to take deliberate aim. His move

some

ments, however, were at length too swift for the poor fellow naturally expected; but, as if | all would indulge in that rapid violence against them. Before the horses were properly fas- bereft of power, and unable to do any thing persons, which the spirit of party is rarely wanttened to each other, the monster made a tre- more, he again arose, took his departure, and ing to applaud. But as it is

, the man of supemendous bound or two, and suddenly pounced was seen no more. The man, seeing this, took rior mind, standing upon his own strength, upon the hind parts of one of them, which, up his gun, and hasted away to his terrified knows and feels that he is not speaking to the in its fright, plunged forward, and knocked companions, who had given him up for dead. lolling, lounging, indolently listening individown the poor man in question, who was Being in a state of extreme exhaustion, from duals stretched on the benches around him : holding the reins in his hand. His comrades loss of blood, he was immediately set upon his he feels and knows that he is speaking to, and instantly took flight, and ranjoff with all speed; horse, and brought, as soon as was practicable, will obtain the sympathy of, all the great and and he, of course, rose as quickly as possible, to the place where I found him. Dr. Gaulter, enlightened spirits of Europe; and this bears in order to follow them. But, no sooner had who, on hearing of the case, hastened to his and buoys him up amidst any coldness, impahe regained his feet, than the majestic beast, relief, and has very humanely rendered him tience, or indifference, in his immediate auwith a seeming consciousness of his superior all necessary attention ever since, informs me dience. When we perused the magnificent might, stretched forth his paw, and, striking that, on his arrival, the appearance of the orations of Mr. Burke, which transported us in liim just behind the neck, immediately brought wounds was truly alarming, and amputation our cabinet, and were told that his rising was him to the ground again. He then rolled on of the arm seemed absolutely necessary. To the dinner bell in the House of Commons; his back, when the lion set his foot upon his this, however, the patient was not willing to when we heard that some of Mr. Brougham's breast, and laid down upon him. The poor consent, having a number of young children almost gigantic discourses were delivered man now became almost breathless, partly whose subsistence depends upon his labour. amidst coughs and impatience; and when, from fear, but principally from the intolerable As the Almighty had delivered me,' said he, returning from our travels, where we had pressure of his terrific load. He endeavoured from that horrid death, I thought surely he heard of nothing but the genius and eloquence to move a little to one side, in order to is able to save my arm also.' And, astonish- of Sir James Mackintosh, we encountered him breathe; but, feeling this, the creature seized ing to relate, 'several of his wounds are al- ourselves in the House of Commons;on all his left arm, close to the elbow; and, after ready healed, and there is now hope of his these occasions we were sensible, not that Mr. once laying hold with his teeth, he continued complete recovery."

Burke's, Mr. Brougham's, Sir James Mackinto amuse himself with the limb for some time,

tosh's eloquence was less, but that it was biting it in sundry different places down to CHARACTER OF SIR JAMES MACKIN. addressed to another audience than that to the hand, the thick part of which seemed to

which it was apparently delivered. Intended have been pierced entirely through. All this

TOSH'S ELOQUENCE.

for the House of Commons only, the style time the lion did not appear to be angry, but Sir James Mackintosh never spoke on a would have been absurdly faulty: intended he merely ca at his prey, like a cat sport- subject without displaying, not only all that for the public, it was augus and correct. ing with a mouse that is not quite dead; so was peculiarly necessary to that subject, but There are two different modes of obtaining a that there was not a single bone fractured, as all that a full mivd, long gathering and con- parliamentary reputation; a man may rise in would, in all probability, have been the case gesting, has to pour forth upon any subject. the country by what is said of him in the had the creature been hungry or irritated. The language, without being antithetic, was House of Commons, or he may rise in the Whilst writhing in agony, gasping for breath, artificial and ornate. The action and voice House of Commons by what is thought and and expecting every moment to be torn limb were vehement, but not passionate; the tone said of him in the country. Some debaters from limh, the sufferer cried to his companions and conception of the argument of too lofty have the faculty, by varying their style and for assistance, but cried in vain. On raising and philosophic a strain for those to whom, ge- their subjects, of alternately addressing both his head a little, the beast opened his dreadful nerally speaking, it was directed. It was im- those without and within their walls, with efjaws to receive it

, but providentially the hat, possible not to feel that the person addressing fect and success.: Mr. Fox, Mr. Pitt, Mr. Shewhich I saw in its rent state, slipped off, so you was a profound thinker, delivering a la- ridan, Mr. Canning were, and Lord Brougham that the points of the teeth only just grazed boured composition. Sir James Mackintosh's is, of this number. Mr. Burke and Sir James the surface of the skull. The lion now set his character as a speaker, then, was of that sort Mackintosh spoke to the reason and the imafoot

upon the arm from which the blood was acquired in a thin house, where those who gination, rather than to the passions; and this, freely Rowing; his fearful paw was soon cov- have stayed from their dinner have stayed for together with some faults of voice and manner, ered therewith, and he again and again licked the purpose of hearing what is said, and can, rendered these great orators (for great orators it clean! The idea verily makes me shudder therefore, deliver up their attention undis- they were) more powerful in the printed rewhile I write. But this was not the worst; tractedly to any knowledge and ability, even if ports, than in the actual delivery of their for the animal then steadily fixed his flaming somewhat prolixly put forth, which elucidates speeches. We ourselves heard Sir James Mackeyes upon those of the man, smelt on one side, the subject of discussion. We doubt if all intosh's great, almost wonderful, speech upon and then on the other of his face, and, having great speeches of a legislative kind would not | Reform. We shall never forget the extensive tasted the blood, he appeared half inclined to require such an audience, if they never tra- range of ideas, the energetic grasp of thought, devour his helpless victim. "At this critical velled beyond the walls in which they were the sublime and soaring strain of legislative moment,' said the poor man, 'I recollected spoken. The passion, the action, the move- philosophy, with which he charmed and transhaving heard that there is a God in the ment of oratory which animates and transported us; but it was not so with the House heavens, who is able to deliver at the very last ports a large assembly, can never lose their in general. His Scotch accent, his unceasing extremity; and I began to pray that he would effect when passion, action, movement are in and laboured vehemence of voice and gesture, save me, and not allow the lion to eat my the orator's subject; when Philip is at the the refined and speculative elevation of his Alesh, and drink my blood. While thus en- head of his Macedonians, or Catiline at the views, and the vast heaps of hoarded knowledge gaged in calling upon God, the beast turned gates of Rome. The emotions of fear, revenge, he somewhat prolixly produced, displeased the bimself completely round. On perceiving this, horror, are emotions that all classes and de- taste and wearied the attention of men who the Hottentot made an effort to get from under scriptions of men, however lofty or low their were far more anxious to be amused and exhim ; but no sooner did the creature observe intellect, may feel :-here, then, is the orator's cited, than to be instructed or convinced. We his movement, than he laid terrible bold of proper field. But again; there are subjects, see him now! his bald and singularly formed his right thigh. This wound was dreadfully such as many, if not most, of those discussed head working to and fro, as if to collect and deep, and evidently occasioned the sufferer in our House of Commons, the bigher bearings then shake out his ideas; his arm violently most excruciating pain. He again sent up of which are intelligible only to a certain or- vibrating, and his body thrown forward by his cry to God for help; nor were his prayers der of understandings. The reasoning proper sudden quirks and starts, which, ungraceful as in vain. The huge animal soon afterwards for these is not understood, and cannot there they were, seemed rather premeditated than quietly relinquished his prey, though he had fore be sympathised with, by the mass. In inspired. This is not the picture which Denot been in the least interrupted. Having order not to be insipid to the few, it is almost mosthenes would have drawn of a perfect oradeliberately risen from his seat, he walked necessary to be dull to the many. If our tor; and it contains some defects that we wonmajestically off, to the distance of thirty or Houses of legislature sat with closed doors, der more care had not been applied to remedy. forty paces, and then laid down in the grass, they would be the most improper assemblies -New Monthly Magazine. as if for the purpose of watching the man. for the discussion of legislative questions that The latter, being happily relieved of his load, we can possibly conceive. They would have Printed by J. Haddon and Co.; and Published ventured to sit up, which circumstance imme- completely the tone of their own clique. No by J. CRISP, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternoster diately attracted the lion's attention ; never one would dare or wish to soar above the com Row, where all Advertisements and Communi.... theless, it did not induce another attack, as mon-places which find a ready echoing cheer cations for the Editor are to be addressede

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Tuis unrivalled edifice was founded by the irresistible interest which it inspires present workmen in masonic power, their Henrythe Sixth, together with the princely is to be traced to the richness of decora- utter inability to raise a mighty standard establishment to which it is attached. By tion for which this style is distinguished in this Whatever may be the referring to his will we find that his de- Let it be inquired,” says an enthusias- cause, it is impossible for any one to signs in these undertakings have not been tic writer, referring to this edifice, “where- approach it without a feeling of reveaccomplished by his successors, although, in doth the charm consist that so com

The architectural skill of the when we regard the magnificence of the pletely takes possession of our senses in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is here whole mass of buildings, and the pre- gazing from west to east on the whole displayed in its utmost perfection. Witheminence of the chapel over all other length of the interior? Is it from its out, the prodigious stones of which it Gothic buildings, we can scarcely regret admirable state of repair, neatness of consists, the vast buttresses by which it the deviation. With respect to the lat- condition, regularity of decorations, just- is supported, the loftiness and extent of ter, it is of the order of architecture ness of proportion, beauty of design, or the building, the fine proportions of the which has generally been termed florid from that indescribable something that towers and pinnacles; and, within, the Gethic; but it is difficult to say whether reminds us of the humble abilities of our grand extended view, the admirable

FIRST OF APRIL.

66 that

one of which is no less than a ton weight. / retain, took their rise whilst these kingdoms the time of Romulus, when the Romans carried

arched roof, without the support of any | work of three succeeding kings---Henry obsolete sports of the ancient Hoc-tide, an old pillars, displaying all the richness of its the Sixth, who founded it, the Seventh, Saxon word, said to import the time of fine fan-work, and the matchless paint who farthered, and the Eighth, who scorning and triumphing, which must have

been observed about this time of the year, ings on its windows, all combine to im- finished it.”

might have degenerated into the April fooleries.” press the beholder with emotions which

Another author “ thinks that he clearly decan be better felt than described. The

ALL FOOLS' DAY.

monstrates its origin from the primitive Chrisattention, moreover, is not withdrawn

tians, who, by way of conciliating the Pagans from these objects by any busts, statues,

to a better worship, humoured their prejudices or inscriptions; but the whole furniture

" The first of April, some do say,

by yielding to a conformity of names, and even and decoration is highly calculated to

of customs, where they did not essentially inIs set apart for All Fools' Day;

terfere with the fundamentals of the gospel perpetuate the effect of the first coup But why the people call it so, d'ail.

Nor I, nor they themselves do know.

doctrine. Among these, in imitation of the But on this day are people sent

Roman Saturnalia, was the Festum Fatuorum.” An exception to this statement is taken

On purpose--for pure merriment;

A contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine by the learned historian of Cambridge. And though the day is known before,

conjectures that “the custom of imposing upon "It must be confessed,” says he,

Yet frequently there is great store

and ridiculing people on the first of April may some littlenesses and human weaknesses Of these forgetfuls to be found,

have an allusion to the mockery of the Saviour are too obvious-I mean those minute

Who're sent to dance Moll Diron's round; of the world by the Jews. Something like

And, having tried each shop and stall, devices of the arms of York and Lancas

this, which we call making April fools, is And disappointed at them all,

practised also abroad, in Catholic countries, on ter with roses, portcullises, fleurs de lis, At last some tells them of the cheat,

Innocents' Day."
and crowns.
These little patches on Then they return from the pursuit,
And straightway home with shame they run,

Dr. Pegge thinks the custom arose from the greatness, these heterogeneous intermix

And others laugh at what is done.

rejoicing at the commencement of the new tures, religiously considered, are quite

But 'tis a thing to be disputed,

year, “ which formerly began, as to some purout of place, and, architecturally, are Which is the greatest fool reputed,

poses, and in some respects, on the 25th of quite opposite to sublimity and gran

The man that innocently went

March, which was supposed to be the incarnadeur.”

Or he that him design'dly sent.”

tion of our Lord; and it is certain that the

Poor Robin's Almanack, 1760. commencement of the new year, at whatever The greatest curiosity connected with

time that was supposed to be, was always this edifice is the stone roof, a structure

Yet in the vulgar this weak humour's bred,

esteemed an high festival, and that both among

They'll sooner be with idle customs led, which some do not hesitate to say sur

Or fond opinions, such as they have store,

the ancient Romans and with us. Now, great passes the ingenuity of modern architects

Than learn of reason's or of virture's lore.”

festivals were usually attended with an octave, to imitate. There is a tradition that Sir

Withers. that is, they were wont to continue eight Christopher Wren went once a year to

days, whereof the first and last were the

April the first stands marked by custom's rules, survey this roof, and said that if any man

principal; and you will find the first of April A day of being, and for making foo s."

is the octave of the 25th of March, and the would show him where to place the first

A writer in the Gentleman's Magazine, for close, or ending, consequently, of that feast, stone he would build such another. It July, 1783, says, “I have often wished to know which was both the festival of the Annunciawas constructed in 1513, in consequence the first foundation of several popular customs, tion, and of the new year.” of a grant of £5000 to defray the ex- appropriated to particular seasons, and been

Mr. Donce says, * The making of April pences of carrying on the building. It led to think, however widely they may have fools, after all the conjectures touching its is in the form of a grand Gothic arch, deviated from their original design and mean- origin, is certainly borrowed by us from the without any pillar to uphold it (though of ing, of which we have now wholly lost sight, French, and may, I think, be deduced from immense span), the buitresses and towers they are derived from some religious tenets

, this simple analogy. The French call their of the chapel being its only support.

observances, or ceremonies; I am convinced April fish, (Poissons d'Avril) i. e. simpletons ;

In that this is the case in Catholic countries, or, in other words, silly mackarel, who suffered the middle of this roof, and in the flattest where such like popular usages, as well as reli- themselves to be caught in this month. But, part of it, are fixed perpendicularly, at gious ceremonies, are more frequent than as with us April is not the season of that fish equal distance from one another, stones amongst us; though there can be little doubt we have very properly substituted the word

fools." adorned with roses and portcullises, every but that the custoins I refer to, and which we

A writer in 1708 derives the custom from Each of these is upwards of a yard in

were wholly Catholic.” That the singular custhickness, and projects beyond the other gious observance is most probable, although tom of fool-making had its origin in some reli- off the Sabine women!

The Jews are said to attribute the origin part of the carved work.

There is a the researches of our antiquarians have estab- from the mistake of Noah in sending the dove curious passage in its praise in Fuller's lished little else than that the custom is very out of the ark before the waters had abated, on History of Cambridge, which, for its en ancient and very general. Much has been the first day of the month among the Hebrews thusiasm, deserves to be quoted. “ The written upon the subject, il good deal of leam- which answers to our first of April.

The Romans, on the first day of April, abchapel in this college,” says he, “is one ing and diligence has been displayed, many of the rarest fabrics in Christendom, which, however, have not led to any very ladies performed ablutions under myrtle-trees,

very recondite theories have been formed; all stained from pleading causes; and the Roman wherein the stone-work, wood-work, and satisfactory or plausible conelusion. Having crowned themselves with leaves, and offered glass-work, contend which most deserve none better to offer of our own, we will give sacrifices to Venus. admiration. Yet the first generally car the various opinions of others, and leave our

In the north of England, persons imposed rieth away the credit (as being a Stone- readers to choose the one which may appear to upon are called April gowks. henge, indeed), so geometrically contrived them the most reasonable.

In Scotland, upon April Day, they have a that voluminous stones mutually supportall" here is a corruption of our northern This is done by sending silly people upon fools

Mr. Brand “is inclined to think the word custom of “hunting the gowk," as it is termed. each other in the arched roof, as if art word, auld," for old ; because he finds, in an errands, from place to place, by means of a had made them to forget nature, and ancient Romish calendar, a Feast of old letter in which is written :weaned them from their fondness to de-Fools:?” he adds, “ It must be granted that

"On the first day of April scend to their centre. And yet, though this feast stands there on the first day of ano

Hunt the gowk another mile." there be so much of Minerva, there is ther month, November, but then it mentions, nothing of Arachne in this building-1 at the same time, that it is by a removal It will be remarked, from the foregoing exmean, not' a spider appearing, or cob

• The Feast of Old Fools is removed to this tracts, that writers are little agreed as to the web to be seen on the Irish wood or

day;' such removals, indeed, in the very crowded prime origin of this almost universal custom, cedar beams thereof. No wonder, then, made.” Romish calendar, were often obliged to be which, from its universality, must have been

of a very general nature. The study of the if this chapel, so rare a structure, was the In a note, Mr. Brand suggests “ that the customs, sports, and pastimes of the people is,

TRAVELLER.

by no means, either useless or unprofitable: NOTES ON THE ISLAND OF CUBA. varied and shadowy, with all its inequalities some useful knowledge of mankind will be acquired, for wisdom may be extracted from FROM THE UNPUBLISHED MEMORANDA OF A contrasting their tints with the deep ceruleau

sky, which stretched now in serene and unthe follies and superstitions of our forefathers.

clouded beauty over the wide sea we had lately We have been chiefly indebted to Brand's

No. I.

left; it presented a picture more rich and more interesting work on the antiquities, customs,

diversified than what the most splendid imahabits, &c., of the people of England, in two

It was always my wish, when I should regination could paint or describe. The middle vols. 4to. for the above remarks ; and we cannot visit Jamaica, to spend some portion of my ground of this scene, a wide extent of forest, avoid recommending the interesting works of earliest leisure in á voyage to the Island of over which the evening mists were gathering, Mr. Hone, The Table Book, and Every Day Cuba. Having arranged my affairs, that I showed, hy occasional breaks, the spots where Book, in which much that is novel and inte- might have to myself the undisturbed enjoy the gentle hills and valleys undulated, or resting will be found regarding our popular ment of a few months, 1 engaged, on the 5th where luxuriant pastures and extensive savanantiquities.

T.

of January, 1821, a passage on board the brig nas stretched a wide undappled surface of Emerald, then about to sail for a cargo of grass. Nearer to the eye, the ocean lay, green

timber. We set out from the harbour of and bright, Aickering as it heaved with the SPELL-WORK.

M * *

* *, a north-side port, at ten at red glare of the setting sun-beam, while the

night, the usual hour at which vessels quit giant trees upon its borders were seen growing Many of our readers have heard and read of that part of the coast

. They so settle their within the very margin of the sea.

There was the SPELI. system on sugar plantations, yet few departure as to wait till the land-breeze comes neither sand nor ooze between the forest and of them probably are aware of its fearfully op- sweeping from the mountains strong and the ocean. All was as silent as death. Nopressive character. For the information of steady, in order that they may make a fair thing was heard but the occasional cry of the such we insert the following description of this wind of it, and, having the advantage of run- sea-gull, or the drowsy wing of the pelican as murderous system, taken from No. 104 of the ning before the breeze under the lea of the she lagged over the leaving waters, with her Anti-Slavery Reporter. . We have lately had land, slip from one shore, through waters over-loaded gorge stored with provender for an opportunity of obtaining the opinion of a whose undulations, beneath the lambent pu- her clamorous and expectant young ones, in gentleman thoroughly conversant with the rity and resplendent skies of a West Indian their home on the earthy sea-cliffs. One coteconomy of a sugar plantation, and he strongly night, scarcely rise above the gentle ripples of tage and a few canoes on the main-land, and confirms our previous conviction of its accu a summer tide, and arrive at the other coast a fisherman's hut and a pinnace among the racy.

just as the trade winds are freshening up with keys, were all the evidence that man was an “An intelligent person, who kept spell as a

the increasing brillianey of the opening day. inhabitant of these regions. As I gazed upon book-keeper for four years in Jamaica, is ready to I loitered on deck till I saw the watch-lires on the quiet yet luxuriant scene, I could not help testify, it called upon, to the uniform practice, in the Jamaica mountains grow dim and indis- recurring to the fate of the gentle race that his time, to divide into two spells that part of the tinct in the shadowy mistiness of the receding once owned these shores. The boundless first and second gangs not occupied as coopers, in shores. When I looked out again at sun-rise, wastes before me, which formerly saw them making casks, or as waggoners, or mule-drivers.

the bold and picturesque summit of the pico wandering amid the fragrant and flowerx "The following is a sketch of the working of Torquino, one of the loftiest mountains of shades as “thick and numberless as the gay white book-keeper being allowed to each, who

had Cuba, was listing its head before me, with the motes that people the sun-beam,” scarce now the same length of night-duty as the slaves :

vapours rolling in dense masses over the forest retain a vestige that any but the present pos“On Sunday, at 6, p..., the spell A went to plains. By midday we were safely anchored sessors of the soil had a wakened the echoes of the works and put the mill about, remaining there

within that range of sunken reefs that stretch the exhaustless forests. Friendly and gentle till midnight, when it went to rest as soon as re out from Cape Cruz some miles towards the in their dispositions, simple and artless in their lieved by spell B. At day-dawn, on Monday, straggling line of green islets, bounding the manners, living in the luxury of indolence and spell A 'went to the field, and continued cutting Bay of Bayamo. They are a part of that case, they seemed, in their innocence, amid canes there for the mill till noon. At noon it re cluster of coral rocks and mangrove shoals to the bountiful land they occupied, to realize sumed its place at the works, and continued there which, from their fresh beauty amid the bright the condition of our first parents and the early till midnight on Monday, when it took rest till and placid waters, Columbus, when he first days of Paradise. They knew no wisdom like day-dawn on Tuesday, and was then again in the field cutting canes till noon; and thus it proceeded

saw them, gave the poetical appellation of the knowledge of good and evil, and the curse on each succeeding day of the week, except that

the gardens of the king.On account of the of labour and its attendant misery. But avaon Saturday it did not always retire at midnight, multiplicity of these rocks and reefs, it is cus- rice and ambition came among them; and the but remained sometimes to two or three on Sunday tomary for English vessels, proceeding thither, luxurious repose, that hung like a spell over morning, till all the cane-juice was boiled off.

to take with them a pilot from Jamaica. Ours the thickly-peopled shores and blissful groves During the same week, the spell B came on duty

was Ramon, a Spanish youth, of mixed Indian of the happy islanders, was rerersed, and the at the works at midnight on Sunday night, and con- descent, a native of Maracaibo, a man of un- fragrant bowers, the home of "the swarming tinued there till noon on Monday, when it went commonly mild, bandsome features, but with nyriads of id and light-hearted creatures, home; but, at two, p.m., it was again in the field, a temper which blended the contradiction of became the silent woodland wastes that I then cutting canes for the mill from that time until cheerfulness, and a sullen habit of silence and beheld them. dusk, when it went home to rest till called up reserve, a peculiar trait in the Indian cha

With the first dawn of day-light we were again at midnight to relieve spell A. And so the

racter. Under his guidance we were instructed again under sail, and by sun-set had anwork proceeded the whole week, only that at midnight on Saturday there was no call of spell B, and strong tides which prevail on the exten- extremely shoal, so that we landed with some

to take advantage of the comparatively high chored in Manzanilla Bay. The coast was however late night be the boiling.

“ The succeeding week, the spells were changed, sive bays of this island, to facilitate the navi- difficulty at the Corbel - a temporary fort, so that the spell B began work on the Sunday gation of its waters. We passed through the the walls of which were constructed of the evening at 6 p.m., and so had the very same tale ship's channel, avoided the Canal de Bolandras, husky case which forms the footstalk of the and hours of labour, both at the works and in the whose depth, as its name imports, only enables Palmetto (areca oleracea). The fort itself, field, which the spell A had had the week before, sloops to pass, and anchored for the night, just clevated about eighit feet from the water's and A the same as B had had. Thus each spell

, before sunset, in that wide sweeping curve of edge, was composed of the logs of the cedar during every twenty-four hours, was twelve hours the coast called the Media Luna, with Mar- and hard wood of the country. It was mounted at the works, and six hours in the field, the whole tillo before us.

with ten or a dozen pieces of cannon, of a of their sleep being taken from the six hours which

Being now at that part of the shore where calibre sufficiently heavy to carry shot with then alone remained to them. And the same

the Torquino Mountains form the south-effect to a great distance-a necessary provimust of absolute necessity be the case still, if the manufacture of sugar be continuously carried on,

eastern background of the landscape, the beau- sion, in consequence of the shallow waters of on estates not having more than from iwo hundred tiful peak, as it rose majestically over the con- the bay. This temporary defence has been to two hundred and fifty negroes, embracing a

tiguons bills, at the hour of sunset, became an since removed, and a substantial fortress large majority of sugar estates. Is not this toil object of peculiar grandeur. The volume of erected in its place ; but, frail as it was at the dreadful, and rest wearing and exhausting? And fleecy clouds which all the afternoon had been period of my visit, it was not to be despised as it affects the women still more than the men. Can gathering midway around its summit, illu-, a protection to the coast. women, by any possibility, breed under such cir- mined by the intense rays of the setting sun, vious to my arrival, a Columbian brig of war, cumstances ? 'It is altogether impossible." shune like a mantle of burnished gold. Through the Libertador, in company with a felucca,

these arose, glowing in purple radiance, the having run up the coast, landed a party of mountain itself, looking out distinct, but armed seamen in the harbour, under cover of

A few weeks pre

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