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the river. In later times this association | tried and executed, along with three and fox, which were destined to be burnt is mentioned as the Mercatores aquæ twenty other monsters, who suffered at alive-pour faire plaisir à sa Majesté. Parisiaci, having the additional privilege the same time. A recapitulation of the To the cries of the cats was added the of laying an impost upon all commodi- scenes which have occurred within this noise of various instruments. The magisties brought to the city by water. They building would present many curious and trates of the city, bearing yellow wax were governed by officers selected from tragic events in connexion with the vari- tapers, advanced in procession towards their own body, which appears to have ous revolutions of the French capital, but the pile, and presented to the king a consisted of the principal inhabitants. our limits will not allow us. We will taper of white wax, ornamented with red Thus far, once established, the transition merely mention the last memorable oc- velvet, with which his majesty set it on to the modern municipal constitution will currence within its walls, which is of fire. When the wood and the cats were be easy, with its mayor, provost, sheriffs, recent date--no later than 1830—when consumed, the king entered the Hotel de and other officers, who had the care of the present ruler of the French received Ville, where a collation, consisting of the internal police of the city, and of the the crown at the hands of a self-consti- cakes, tarts, and sweetmeats, was preriver, but possessed no judicial authority. tuted government, whose nominal chief pared. The people carried off the ashes As at present constituted, the munici- was Lafayette ; when the so often named and burnt wood in the belief that they pality of Paris consists of twelve mayors programme was submitted to him, by would bring good luck. (one to each of the twelve divisions of the which France was henceforward to be “ Louis XIV. having appeared only city), assisted by two deputy mayors, governed by “ a monarchy surrounded by once, the attendance of the king was. who, including the prefect of the depart- republican institutions."
discontinued, and the ceremony in after ment, form a municipal body of thirty The open space before the building is times lost much of its splendour. Latseven persons. They have various func- called the Place de Grêve. It is here terly, the prevot des marchands, the tions assigned to them: including the that all executions took place, and it was sheriffs, and municipal body, came in general police of the city, cleansing and here that, during the revolution, the guil-procession, set fire to the pile, and then lighting. They have to perform the cele- lotine was almost permanent; its earth immediately retired.”
T. bration of marriage, it being, since the was moistened with the best and most revolution, considered merely as a civil illustrious blood of France. We believe contract. They keep also the registers that executions are now no longer tole- ADDRESS TO THE KING OF SPAIN, of births and deaths, and many other rated within the French capital ; a piece FROM THE INHABITANTS OF CUBA, duties, but have no judicial jurisdiction. of ground without the walls has been FOR SLAVE AMELIORATION. The chief of the municipality being the allotted for this purpose.
When it is remembered that the Spanish prefect, the Hotel de Ville is assigned to In Felibien's History of Paris, there is Colonial laws particularly favour the acquirehim. The wood-cut at the head of our a singular ceremony recorded as being ment of liberty; and that, in Cuba, the numpaper is a representation of this building; observed in former times on the Place de ber of free labourers are to the bondmen as at it was erected from the designs of Dome- Grêve, and, as the work is not common, | least three to five, we shall appreciate this renique Boccadora, an Italian from Cortona. it may amuse our readers. We need not presentation by the municipality, consulado, The style of architecture is not unpleasing, premise that, since the revolution, the and patriotic Society of the Havanna, on the
21st of July, 1811, for the amelioration of and the principal façade is not without custom has ceased.
slavery, with a view to its utter extinction in merit. The foundation was laid in July, “ The magistrates of the city having that Colony, as one of the most valuable con1533, and terminated in 1606. Previous ordered a large heap of faggots to be piled cessions ever made, on the part of practical to the revolution there was over the en- up in the centre of the Place, the king, and experienced men, to the cause of uegro trance an equestrian statue of Henry IV., attended by his court, came in proces- freedom, and as a full and satisfactory answer an alto-relievo in, bronze upon black mar- sion, and set fire to it. The earliest no- to all the misrepresentation of our colonists, ble. It was placed there by the cele- tice we have of this ceremony is of the respecting the practicability, or advantages, brated and patriotic Francois Miron, Pre- year 1471, when Louis XI. performed it,
of free labour in our sugar colonies. vot des Marchands, to whom Paris is probably in imitation of his royal prede
“ in all that relates to changes to be introindebted for many of its useful establish-cessors. His example was followed by our fears are less excited as to the diminution
duced into the condition of the servile class ments. It was destroyed during the re- nearly all his successors. Henry IV. and of agricultural wealth, than for the safety of volution, and is now re-emplaced by a
Louis XIII, seldom failed to observe it. the whites, so easily compromised by imprubasso relievo in plaster. During the re-Louis XIV. performed it but once, in
Louis XIV. performed it but once, in dent measures. Those who elsewhere accuse volution the interior was despoiled of 1648. This ceremony, called the feu the municipality and consulado of an obstinate every ornament and every inscription de lu Suint Jean, was celebrated with resistance, Torget that, from the year 1799, that had any connexion with monarchical much pomp and expence. In 1573, it nese same authorities have in vain proposed government. There remains little else
was performed by Henry III, in the fol that the state of the blacks in the Island of worthy of attention, except it be a bronze lowing manner :-In the centre of the Cuba should be taken into consideration. Still pedestrian statue of Louis the Fourteenth, Place de Grêve was erected a pole sixty which the nations of Europe, that pride them
more, we are far from adopting maxims by Coysevox, which is considered to be feet high, having numerous cross pieces selves most in their civilization, have regarded rather a fine production, notwithstand- of wood, to which were attached five as irrefragable; for instance, that without ing that, being dressed a la Grecque, the hundred bundles of brush-wood, two slaves there can be no colonies. We declare, on artist has given it a full court wig. Within hundred faggots (cotterels), and at the the contrary, that without slaves, and even its walls many of the worst and darkest bottom ten loads of timber, with much all the difference would be in the amount of scenes of the revolution were acted. It straw. There was also a barrel and a was in one of its chambers that Robes- wheel, probably containing combustible produce. But, if such be our firm persuasion,
profits in the more or less rapid increase of pierre, that disgrace to human nature, matter. The sum of forty-four livres was we ought also to remind your Majesty, that a was seized ; he resisted, and his jaw was expended for crowns and garlands of social organization into which slavery has been shattered by a pistol shot. He was then roses; a large quantity of fireworks of once introduced as a constituent, cannot be thrown on a table, where he lay for two all kinds were discharged; and, to keep changed with immediate precipitation. We hours weltering in his blood, a most hide the populace in order, there were present trary to moral principles to drag slaves from
are far from denying that it was an evil conous spectacle, subject to the execrations 120 archers, 100 arbaletriers, and 100
one continent to another; that it was an error and howlings of an infuriated populace. arquebusiers. To the pole was fixed a in politics not to listen to the complaints whieh He was removed from thence only to be basket, containing two dozen cats and a Ovanda, the Governor of Hispaniola, made
against the introduction of so many slaves will be read in such a disposition of mind as ACQUIRED INSTINCTS OF SOME ANIamong a small number of freemen; but since can receive the intellectual improvement de MALS BECOME HEREDITARY. these evils and these abuses are already inve- rivable from them, and, at the same time, as terate, we ought to avoid rendering our situa- little coincide, or be infected with their moral Ir is, undoubtedly, true that many new tion, and that of our slaves, worse, by the em- spirit, as in the present age we venerate their habits and qualities have not only been acployment of violent measures. That which we mythological vanities.
quired in recent times by certain races of ask, Sire, is conformable to the ish expressed the meantime, one cannot believe that dogs, but have been transmitted to their offby one of the nost ardent protectors of the any man, who seriously reflects how absolutely spring. But in these cases it will be observed, rights of humanity, by the most decided enemy the religion of Christ claims a conformity of that the new peculiarities have an intimate of slavery; we wish with him that civil laws his whole nature, will, without regret, feel relation to the habits of the animal in a wild should deliver us at once from the Abuses and himself animated with a class of sentiments, state, and, therefore, do not attest any tendency
IT.”-Humboldt, Statistics of of which the habitual prevalence would be the to departure to an indefinite extent from the Cuba, vol. i. pp. 329–331. total preclusion of Christianity.
original type of the species. A race of dogs, And it seems to show how little this religion employed for hunting deer in the platform of is really understood, or even considered, in any Santa Fé, in Mexico, affords a beautiful illus
of the countries denominated Christian, that tration of a new hereditary instinct. The mode MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE so many who profess to adopt it never once of attack, observes Mr. Roulin, which they OF THE CLASSICS.
thought of guarding their own minds, and employ, consists in seizing the animal by the
those of their children, against the eloquent belly, and overturning it by a sudden effort, No. III.
seductions of so opposite a spirit. Probably taking advantage of the moment when the
they would be more intelligent and vigilant if body of the deer rests only upon the fore legs. EPIC POETS. -HOMER AND VIRGIL.
any other interest than that of their professed the weight of the animal thus thrown over is If, then, such works do really impart their religion were endangered. But a thing which often six times that of its antagonist. The own spirit to the mind of an admiring reader, injures them only in that concern is sure to dog of pure breed inherits a disposition to this and if this spirit be totally hostile to that of meet with all possible indulgence.
kind of chase, and never attacks a deer from Christianity, and if Christianity ought really, With respect to religious parents and pre- before while running. Even should the latter, and in good faith, to be the supreme regent of ceptors, whose children and pupils are to not perceiving him, come directly upon him, all moral feeling, then it is evident that the receive that liberal education which must in the dog steps aside, and makes his assault on Iliad, and all books which combine the same evitably include the study of these great works, the flank, whereas other hunting-dogs, though tendency with great poetical excellence, are it will be for them to accompany the youthful of superior strength and general sagacity, among the most mischievous things on earth. readers throughout, with an effort to show which are brought from Europe, are destituie There is but little satisfaction, certainly, in them, in the most pointed manner, the incon- of this instinct. For want of similar precauillustrating the operation of evils without pro sistency of many of the sentiments, both with tions, they are often killed by the deer on the posing any adequate method of contending moral rectitude in general, and with the spe- spot, the vertebræ of their neck being dislowith them. But, in the present case, I really cial dictates of Christianity. And, in order to cated by the violence of the shock. do not see what a serious observer of the cha- give the requisite force to these dictates, it will A new instinct has also become hereditary racter of mankind can offer. To wish that the be an important duty to illustrate to them the in a mongrel race of dogs, employed, hy the works of Homer, and some other great authors amiable tendency, and to prove the awful inhabitants of the banks of the Alagdalona, of antiquity, should cease to be read, is just as anthority, of this dispensation of religion. almost exclusively in hunting the white-lipped vain as to wish they had never been written. This careful effort will often but partially pecari. The address of these dogs consists in As to the far greater number of readers, it prevent the mischief; but it seems to be all restraining their ardour, and attaching themwere equally in vain to wish that pure Chris- that can be done.
selves to no animal in particular, but keeping tian sentiments might be sufficiently recol Virgil's work is a kind of lunar reflection of the whole herd in check. Now, among these lected, and loved, to accompany the study, the ardent effulgence of Homer, surrounded, dogs some are found which, the very first time and constantly prevent the injurious impres- if I may extend the figure, with a beautiful they are taken to the woods, are acquainted sion, of the works of pagan genius. The few halo of elegance and tenderness. So much with this mode of attack; whereas, a dog of maxims of Christianity to which the student more refined an order of sentiment might have another breed starts forward at once, is surmay have assented without thought, and for rendered the heroic character far more attrac- rounded by the pecari, and, whatever may be which he has but little veneration, will but tive, to a mind that can soften as well as glow, his strength, is destroyed in a moment. feebly oppose the influence; the spirit of Ho- if there had actually been a hero in the poem. Some of our countrymen, engaged of late mer will vanquish as irresistibly as his Achilles But none of the personages intended for heroes in conducting the principal mining associavanquished. It is also most perfectly true, take hold enough of the reader's feelings to tions in Mexico, carried out with them some that as long as pride, ambition, and vindic- assimilate them in moral temper. No fiction, English greyhounds, of the best breed, to hunt tiveness, hold soʻmighty a prevalence in the or history of human characters and actions, the hares which abound in that country. The character and in the nature of our species, will ever powerfully transfuse its spirit, with great platform, which is the scene of sport, is they would still amply display themselves, out some one, or some very few individuals of at an elevation of about nine thousand feet though the stimulus of heroic poetry were signal peculiarity or greatness, to concentrate above the level of the sea, and the mercury in withdrawn, by the annihilation of all those and embody the whole energy of the work. the barometer stands babitually at the height works which have invested the worst passions, There would be no danger, therefore, of any of about nineteen inches. It was found that and the worst actions, with a glare of gran. one's becoming an idolater of the god of war the greyhounds could not support the fatigues deur. With or without the infections of heroic through the inspiration of the Æneid, even if of a long chase in this attenuated atmosphere, poetry, men and natious will continue to com a larger proportion of it had resounded with and before they could come up with their mit offences against one another, and to avenge martial enterprise. Perhaps the chief coun- prey they lay down gasping for breath; but them to assume an arrogant precedence, and teraction to Christian sentiments which I these same animals have produced whelps account it, and laud it, as noble spirit--tu should apprehend, to an opening susceptible which have grown up, and are not in the least celebrate their deeds of destruction, and call mind, would be a depravation of its ideas con- degree incommoded by the want of density in ther glory—to idolize the men who possess, and cerning the other world, from the picturesque the air, but run down the hares with as much can infuse, the greatest share of an infernal scenery which Virgil has opened to his hero ease as the fleetest of their race in this country, fire-to set at nought all principles of virtue in the regions of the dead, and the imposing The fixed and deliberate stand of the pointer and religion in favour of some thoughtless, images with which he has shaded the avenue has, with propriety, been regarded as a mere vicious mortal, who consigns himself in the to them. Perhaps, also, the affecting senti- modification of a habit, which may have been same achievement to fame and perdition—to ments which precede the death of Dido might useful to a wild race accustomed to wind vaunt in triumphal entries, or funeral pomps, tend to lessen, especially in a pensive inind, game, and steal upon it by surprise, first or bombastic odes, or strings of scalps, how the horror of that impiety which would throw pausing for an instant in order to spring with far human skill and valour can surpass the back with violence the possession of life, as if unerring aim. The faculty of the retreiver, powers of famine and pestilence; men and in reproach to its great Author, for baving however, may justly be regarded as more innations will continue thus to aet, till a mightier suffered that there should be unhappiness in a explicable, and less easily referrible to the inintervention from heaven shall establish the world where there is sin.
stinctive passions of the species. M. Majendie, dominion of Christianity. In that better sea
says a French writer in a recently published son, perbaps the great works of ancient genius
memoir, having learnt that there was a race of
dogs in England which stopped and brought fifty, or even one hundred, who have ingeni- | efficacy of the stimulus depends as much upon back game at their own accord, procured a ously contrived to involve their purposes in its frequency as upon its specific force. We pair, and, having obtained a whelp from them, that dexterous ambiguity of language which all remember the ingenious cruelty which terŘept it constantly under his eyes, until he had will leave them at liberty to vote with the minated its victim's life by the incessant fall an opportunity of assuring himself that, with weather-vane without breaking a word of pro- of a single drop of water on the forehead. We out having received any instruction, and on mise. In spite of all the energy of the Agency have no wish to cut short their days; but we the very first day that it was carried to the Committee, it has been found impossible to have no objection thus to excite our represenchase, it brought back game with as much keep out all anti-slavery pretenders of this tatives to a little Anti-slavery madness. steadiness as dogs which had been schooled class. It follows from this that, even in the into the same maneuvre by means of the whip teeth of Ministers, Mr. Buxton would comand collar. mand, if not a majority, at least a minority so
A BEAU OF THE FOURTEENTH Such attainments, as well as the habits and formidable as to shake them in their seats; but,
CENTURY. dispositions which the shepherd's dog, and inasmuch as all the weather-cocks would infalmany others, inherit, seem to be of a nature libly follow the impulse given by such an un, knees by gold of silver chains ; hose of one
He wore long pointed shoes, fastened to his and extent which we can hardly explain by expected display of strength, we are inclined colour on the one leg, and of another colour on supposing them to be modifications of instincts to think that
, even against Government, Mr. the other ; short breeches which did not reach necessary for the preservation of the species in Buxton would achieve a triumph, if the contest to the middle of his thighs, and fitting so as a wild state. When such remarkable habits turned upon the question of compensation ; to disclose the shape ; a coat, the one half appear in races of this species, we may reasonably conjecture that they were given with there is not a Řadical in the house, from white, the other half black or blue; a long
beard; a silk hood buttoned under his chin, no other view than for the use of man and the Hume to Cobbett inclusive, who, in such a
embroidered with grotesque figures of animals, preservation of the dog, which thus obtains division, would not side with us. But, in fact
, dancing men, &c., and sometimes ornamented protection.--C. Lyell. Principles of Geology. we anticipate no conflict of the kind. We with gold and precious stones! This dress
only advert to its possibility, to found upon it
was the top of the mode in the reign of EdPROSPECTS OF THE ABOLITION tangling the simple proposition of “ immediate the expences which the dress of the times
ward III. We may in some measure guess at CAUSE.
abolition” with any qualifying or compensaWe are induced to insert the following tory appendages, they may array against them- must occasion to a man of the world, by the
account which Adam Merimult gives of Sir article from the “ Christian Advocate,
selves, not only the West India body (now, to John Arundell's wardrobe, when setting out, knowing as we do the quarter from which be sure, of very litle consequence in the house, in 1380, on a warlike 'expedition against
or out of it), but all the pledged Abolitionists, France. He had “ two and fiftie new suits of it came, and feeling perfect confidence in and all the pledged or unpledged Radicals; apparell of cloth of gold or tissue.”—Strutt's the general correctness of its statements. but if, on the contrary, they boldly assert the
Customs, &c. Our readers may rely on our assurance principle, without incumbrance of any kind, that, before the Easter recess, Government we venture to predict that, on no question will fix a day for the introduction of their which can come before parliament, will they
THE SCOTTISH THISTLE. Colonial measures; but it is not probable that unite such a vast majority of every colour and This ancient emblem of Scottish pugnacity, the discussion itself will take place before shade of political principle!
with its motto, Nemo me impune lacesset, is reMay. Mr. Buston, it may be expected, will It is with great satisfaction that we arow to presented of various species in royal bearings, withdraw his notice of motion, which now our readers our own confident persuasion that coins, and coats of armour, so that there is stands for the 19th inst. ; but, of course, not Government will proceed in a way strictly con some difficulty in saying which is the genuine without a distinct promise that the ministerial formable to our wishes; that, let the West original thistle. The original of the national bill will be brought forward at some definite India body prove compliant or refractory, it badge itself is thus handed down by tradiperiod, and will be of such a satisfactory char- will make no difference; immediate abolition tion :—When the Danes invaded Scotland, it acter as to justify him in resigning the parlia- will be proposed and carried; in what form, or was deemed unwarlike to attack an enemy in mentary conduct of the cause into the hands by what means, has not hitherto been dis- the pitch darkness of night, instead of a pitched of Government. The West India body have closed, either to the West Indians or to the battle by day; but, on one occasion, the invanot yet arrived at any decision as to the terms Abolitionists; but both are aware that this is ders resolved to avail themselves of this stratawhich are reported to have been proposed to the present determination of the Cabinet; and, gem, and, in order to prevent their tramp from them. The precise nature of these terms is upon that understanding, we are very ready, being heard, they marched barefooted. They unknown. It is not improbable that they have for our part, to leave all plans and provisoes to had thus neared the Scottish force unobserved, reference to some scheme of compensation by their wisdom and responsibility. Such were when a Dane unluckily stepped with his naked loan, as a douceur for their acquiescence in the feelings with which the deputation that foot upon a superbly pricked thistle, and inthe ministerial plan. If such is the case, we waited on Lord Althorp from Aldermanbury stinctively uttered a cry of pain, which discocan tell both parties to the negociation that quitted Downing-street; and such will, we vered the assault to the Scots, who ran to they are “ reckoning without their host.” Not trust, be the general feeling of the country; their arms, and defeated the foe with terrione penny of compensation will the country but it must not in any degree tend to subdue ble slaughter. The thistle was immediately give-no, not the tithe of a penny_till the the public anxiety into a self-complacent in- adopted as the insigvia of Scotland. injury sustained becomes matter of experience, activity. The House of Commons is a second not of speculation; and, even in that case, we Laputa; gentlemen there stand in constant shrewdly suspect that Ministers must take need of ear-flappers. Their constituents, then,
BUONAPARTE'S LAST WISH. Cobbett into pay to carry them through. Com- must keep them awake by incessantly jogging
0! bury me deep in the boundless sea, pensation indeed! No, no. We will neither their memories about the promises of last
Let my heart have a limitless grave; be mortgagees of cart-whips, nor buy the autumn. It will be of infinite service to remind
For my spirit in life was as fierce and free equity of redemption in thumb-screws and iron our representatives, by frequent letters, signed
As the course of the tempest's wave. collars. But it is needless to argue on specu- by as many as possible of their most influential
And as far from the reach of mortal control lative premises. We know not, and we care supporters, that they are expected to be at
Were the depths of my fathomless mind; not, what may be the purport of the West In- their posts, and strenuously to advocate that
And the ebbs and flows of my single soul : dia negociation with Downing-street; but this measure, whatever it may be, which is most
Were tides to the rest of mankind. we do know, that, if it is desired to carry im- unequivocal and decided in favour of the slave.
Then my briny pall shall engirdle the world, mediate abolition by a coup-de inain, Minis-It would greatly promote the interests of the
As in life did the voice of my fame; ters cannot do better than tack to the measure
And each mutinous billow that skyward curld cause, if such electors as act upon this suggesa plan of compensation! The anti-slavery tion would also give themselves the additional
Shall to fancy re-echo my name.
That name shall be storied in record sublime, strength in the lower house consists, as wc bc- trouble of informing the Anti-slarcry Commitlieve, of about two hundred members, who are
In the uttermost corners of earth; tee that they have done so. It should be recol
And renowned, till the wreck of expiring time, pledged up to the hilts to immediate unquali- lected that, even if signed only by one or two
Be the glorified land of my birth! fied emancipation; of one hundred and fifty individuals, such ear-flapping letters shonla more who have trimmed their pledges to suit still be sent, because a great many electors,
0! bury my heart in the boundless sea, their avowed liaisons with the party in power; members of the same constituency, may hap
It would burst from a narrower tomb,
Should less than an ocean my sepulchre be, and to these may possibly be added another pen to write unknown to each other; and the Or if wrapt in less horrible gloom,
MONGHYR, HINDOSTAN. The above engraving represents the | as high as a Welsh poney, with two little both sides, beyond one of which the very beautiful situation of Monghyr, a brown monkeys on its back. In short, Rajmahal hills are visible, and the other celebrated town and fortress of the pro- it was the liveliest scene which I had en is bounded by the nearer range of Curvince of Bahar, in British India, about countered during the voyage.
ruckpoor. The town is larger than I ex300 miles north-west of Calcutta. It is “I arrived early, and was therefore for pected, and in better condition than most situated on the south side of the river some time a prisoner in my boat, exposed native towns. Though all the houses are Ganges, which is in this part very to the teazing of various applicants for small, there are many of them with an wide, and in the rainy season forms an custom. As it grew cool, I walked into upper story, and the roofs, instead of the . immense expanse of fresh water. The the fort, passing by a small but neat fat terrace or thatch, which are the only town, as distinct from the fortress, con- English burying-ground, fenced in with alternations in Bengal, are generally slopsists of sixteen different bazaars or mar a wall, and crammed full of those obelisk ing, with red tiles of the same shape and ket-places, scattered over a space of tombs which seem almost distinctive of appearance as those which we see in about a mile and a half long and a mile European India. The fort occupies a Italian pictures. They have also little wide, and contains a population estimated great deal of ground, but is now disman- earthenware ornaments on their gables, at about 30,000. This place was visited tled. Its gates, battlements, &c., are such as I have not seen on the other side by the late Bishop Heber in an excursion all of Asiatic architecture, and precisely of Rajmahâl. The shops are numerous, up the Ganges, from whose journal we similar to those of Khitairgorod of Mos- and I was surprised at the neatness of the extract the following description :
Within is an ample plain of fine kettles, tea-trays, guns, pistols, toasting“ Monghyr, as one approaches it, pre- turf, dotted with a few trees, and two forks, cutlery, and other things of the sents an imposing appearance, having noble tanks of water, the largest covering sort which may be procured in this tiny one or two extremely good European a space of a couple of acres. Two high Birmingham. I found afterwards that houses, each perched on its own little grassy knolls are enclosed within the this place had been, from very early antieminence. The ghất afforded a scene of rampart, occupying two opposite angles quity, celebrated for its smiths, who debustle and activity which I by no means of the fort, which is an irregular square, rived their art from the Hindoo Vulcan, expected. As we approached the shore, with, I think, twelve semicircular bas- who had been solemnly worshipped, and we were beset by a crowd of beggars and tions, and a very wide and deep wet moat, was supposed to have had a workshop artisans, who brought for sale guns, except on the west side, where it rises here. The only thing which appears to knives, and other hardware, as also many immediately from the rocky banks of the be wanting to make their steel excellent, articles of upholstery and toys. They river. On one of the eminences of which is a better manner of smelting, and a looked extremely neat, but, as I meant I speak is a collection of prison-like more liberal use of charcoal and the to buy none, I would not raise expecta- buildings; on the other, a very large and hammer. As it is, their guns are very tion by examining them. There were handsome house, built originally for the apt to burst, and their knives to break, also barbers in abundance, conspicuous commander-in-chief of the district, at the precisely the faults which, for want of by their red turbans, one of whom was time that Monghyr was an important capital, beset the works of inferior artists soon retained by some of my dandees, station, and the Mahrattas were in the in England. The extent, however, to who sat down one after another on the neighbourhood ; but it was sold some which these people carry on their manugreen bank, to have their hair clipped as years since by the government. The view factures, and the closeness with which close as possible, as became aquatic ani- from the rampart and the eminences is they imitate English patterns, show mals. A juggler, too, made his appear- extremely fine. Monghyr stands on a plainly how popular those patterns are ance, leading a tall brown goat, almost rocky promontory, with the broad river on become amongst the natives.'
slave who was always employed in using this ground by hand, would pay double what he
mill. The groans of the slave were unheeded pays now that it is ground at a mill. He The chief distinction between man in a by those who consumed the produce of his pays 10d. for his quartern loaf now; he would rude, and man in a civilized state of society is, labour ; and such was the necessity for meal, pay 20d. then. that the one wastes his force, whether natural that the women were compelled to turn these But if the system of grinding corn by hand or acquired,- the other economizes, that is, mills when there were not slaves enough taken were a very recent system in society, and the saves it. The man in a rude state has very in war to perform this irksome office. There introduction of so great a benefit as the waterrude instruments ; he therefore wastes his was plenty of labour then to be performed, mill had all at once displaced the hand-grindforce : the man in a civilized state has very even with the machinery of the hand-mill ; ers, as the spinning machinery displaced the perfect ones ; he therefore economizes it. but the slaves and the women did not consider spinning-wheel, what must become, you say, of Would you not laugh at the gardener who that labour was a good in itself, and therefore the one hundred and fifty men who earned the went to hoe his potatoes with a stick, having they bitterly groaned under it. By and by, £15 a-day, of which sum the consumer has a short crook at the end? It would be a tool, the understanding of men found out that water now got £14 10s. in bis pocket? They must you would say, fit only for children to use. and wind would do the same work that the go to other work. And what is to set them to Yet such a tool was doubtless employed by slaves and the women had done ; and that a ihat work. The same £14 10s.; which, being some very ancient nations; for there is an old large quantity of labour was at liberty to be saved in the price of flour, gives the poor man, medal of Syracuse which represents this very employed for other purposes. You perhaps as well as the rich man, more animal food and tool. The common hoe of ihe English gar- think that society was in a worse state in con- fuel; a greater quantity of clothes, and of a dener is a much more perfect tool, because it sequence. We will tell you exactly in what better quality; better furniture, and more of saves labour. Could you have any doubt of respects society gains, and what you gain as it; domestic utensils ; and books. To produce the madness of the man who would propose part of society, by the abolition of hand-mills
, these things there must be more labourers that ah iron hoes should be abolished, to and the use of wind-mills and water-mills for employed than before. The quantity of labour furnish more extensive employ to labourers grinding corn.
is, therefore, not diminished, while its producwho should be provided only with a crooked Labour is worth nothing without results. tiveness is much increased. It is as if every stick cut out of a hedge? The truth is, if you, Its value is only to be measured by what it man among us had become suddenly much the working-men of England, had no better produces
. If in a country where hand-mills stronger and more industrious. The machines tools than crooked stieks, you would be in a could be had, the people were to go on beat- labour for us, and are yet satisfied without state of actual starvation. One of the chiefs ing grain between two stones, you would either food or clothing. They increase all our of the people of New Zealand, who, from their pronounce them fools, because they could comforts, and they consume none themselves. intercourse with Englishmen, had learnt the obtain an equal quantity of meal with a much The hand-mills are not grinding, it is true; value of tools, told Mr. Marsden, a missionary, less expenditure of labour. You have perhaps but the ships are sailing that bring us foreign that his wooden spades were all broken, and lie a general prejudice against that sort of machi- produce; the looms are moving that give us had not an axe to make any more; his canoes nery which does its work with very little buman more clothes; the potter, and glass-maker, were all broken, and he had not a nail or a assistance; it is not quite so certain, therefore, and joiner, are each employed to add to our gimlet to mend them with ; his potatoe grounds that you would agree that a people would be household goods; we are each of us elevated were uncultivated, and he had not a boe to equal fools to use the hand-mills when they in the scale of society; and all these things break them up with; and that, for want of could employ the wind-mill or the water-mill. happen because machinery has diminished the cultivation, he and his people would have no But we believe you would think, that if four cost of production.--Results of Machinery. thing to eat. This shows you the state of a could drop from heaven, or be had like water by people without tools.
whoever chose to seek it, it would be the lieight But you would perhaps make a distinction, of folly to have stones, or hand-mills, or waterwhich we have endeavoured to show you is a mills, or wind-mills, or any machine whatever DESTRUCTION OF THE LIBRARY OF
BUDA. worthless one, between tools and machines. for manufacturing flour. Do you ever think of There are many who object to machinery, manufacturing water? The cost of water is IN 1526 Soliman II. invaded Hungary, and because, having grown up surrounded with the only the cost of the labour which brings it to totally defeated the Christian army at Mohacz, benefits it has conferred upon them, without the place in which it is consumed. Yet this ad- led by Lewis II. He is smothered in a ditch understanding the source of these benefits, mission overturns all your objections against as he flies. The Turks take Buda and Pest; they are something like the child who sees machinery. You admit that it is desirable to and ravage all Hungary, carrying off 150,000 nothing but evil in a rainy day. We have obtain a thing with no labour at all; can you slaves. Fortunately for Christendom, a revolt mentioned the people of New Zealand, who therefore doubt that it is desirable to obiain in the Asiatic provinces, occasioned by a rulive exactly on the other side of the globe, and it with the least possible labour! The only mour of the sultan's death, calls the victor who, therefore, very rarely come to us; but difference between no labour and a little home, and prevents his completing the conwhen they do come, they are acute enough to labour, is the difference of the cost of pro- quest of Hungary. perceive the advantages which machinery has duction. And the only difference between Literature sustained an irreparable loss at conferred upon us, and the great distance in little labour and much labour is precisely the i Buda, by the destruction of the library colpoint of comfort between their state and ours, In procuring any thing that adminis. lected from the reliques of Constantinoplitan principally for the reason that they have no ters to his necessities, man makes an exchange science, by Matthias Corvinus, King of Hunmachinery, while we have a great deal. One of his labour for the thing produced, and the gary, and placed in a magnificent tower, of these poor men burst into tears when he less he gives of his labour, the better of course wherein thirty secretaries were constantly emsaw a rope-walk; because he perceived the im- is his bargain.
ployed in transcribing and collating manumense superiority which the process of spin To return to the hand-mill and the water- scripts. These unhappy volumes, doomed to ning ropes gave us over his own countrymen. mill. An ordinary water-mill for grinding a second bondage to Ottoman barbarism, were Another of these people, and he was a very corn will grind about thirty-six sacks a day. now torn to pieces for their rich bindings and shrewd and intelligent person, carried back to To do the same work with a hand-mill would weighty bosses. Cardinal Bozmanni in vain his country a sniall hand-mill for grinding require 150 men. At two shillings a-day, the tempted the captors to relinquish their prize, cory, which he prized as the greatest of all wages of these men would amount to £15, with the offer of 200,000 pieces of imperial earthly possessions.
which, reckoning six working days, is £90 a coin. The learned Obsopaeus was more forAnd well might he prize it! He had no week, or £4680 a-year. The rent and taxes tunate; he bought of a private soldier a manumachine for converting corn into meal but two of a mill would be about £150 a-year, or ten script, what proved to be “ The Æthiopics of stones, such as were used in the remote parts shillings a working day. The cost of machinery Heliodorus." From this, in 1584, he printed of the highlands of Scotland, some years ago. would be certainly wore for the hand-mills than the first edition of that curious work. And i' beat the grain into meal by these two the water-mill, therefore we will not take the Lamlecius says that, having heen sent by stones (a machine, remember, however imper-cost of machinery into the calculation. To the Emperor Leopold, in 1665, to examine fect) would occupy the labour of one-fourth produce, therefore, thirty-six sacks of flour by what might remain of the library, he was not of his family, to procure subsistence for the hand we should pay £15; by the water-mill permitted to enter the room till after much other three-fourths. The ancient Greeks, we should pay ten shillings: that is, we should delay and difficulty; that he found there three thousand years ago, had improved upon pay thirty times as much hy the one process as about four hundred printed books, of no value, the machinery of the hand-stones, they by the other. The actual saving is something scattered over the floor, and covered with had hand-mills. But Homer, the old Greek about one-half of the price of the flour in the filth and dust.--Andrew's History of Great poet, describes the unhappy condition of the market; that is, the consumer, if the corn were Brilain.