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the ends for which God bestowed so much art, DISTANCES OF THE PLANETS. BRITISH COLLEGE OF HEALTH, KING'S wisdom, and power about them, as well as The method of investigation used to deter- CROSS, NEW ROAD, LONDON. given us senses to view and survey them; an mine the distance of a planet, is the same as understanding and curiosity to search into that applied to find out the distance of any
MORISON'S UNIVERSAL VEGETABLE them: it is to follow and trace them when and object, within our view, upon the earth. Thus,
MEDICINE. whither he leads us, that we may see and ad- if a ship, coasting along the shore, passes any
Mr. Earl, mire his handy-work ourselves, and set it forth object, such as a lighthouse, if the object lies
Sir,-My wife was suddenly seized with cramps in the to others, that they may see, admire, and praise near her line, of course, she very quickly leaves body, legs, and hands, and exhibited all the symptoms it also. I shall
therefore conclude this infer- it behind her ; but, if the object be many miles usually attending what the doctors can Cholera Morbus. ence with what Elihu recommends (Job xxxvi. from her line, of course, she appears to be found only in the “Universal Medicines," I immediately 24, 25): “ Remember that thou magnify his nearly abreast of it, perhaps, the whole of the had recourse to them; gave her ten pills of No. 2; in two work, which men behold. Every man'may day, although sailing at a rapid rate
. This leveria seor more power powerful exacuation reduced the see it; men may behold it afar off.”—Ders would enable us to judge of the distance, if severity of the sainsms and rerampe, and a third dose of the ham's Phisico-Theology. the diminution of the object, in point of size,
With gratitude to Mr. Morison, and all of the College of did not also convince us. Now, upon
I remain, dear Sir, yours truly, fact or principle, united with a discovery of
Whittlesea, Cambridgeshire, Oct. 3, 1832.
P.S.-Mr. Anthony, Agent at Wisbeach, informs me of observations taken during the transit of Venus “two females that were attacked with the cholera; one of over the disc of the sun in 1769 and 1781, do them took the Universals,' in strong doses, and was well philosophers determine the distances and mea
after a few doses ; the other took five pills, and would not
take any more, but would have a medical attendant : the sure the diameters of the planets. This dis- consequence was, she
was bad for three weeks, and at the covery of Kepler's was, that the squares of the present time is not able to walk about.” periodical times of the planets are as the cubes It is quite amusing to hear, at the different places where of their mean distances from the sun. That is I have been, how the doctors try to bias the public mind
by the trumpery tales of “poison," "bread crumbs," somne to say, if you multiply the numbers expressing of one thing, some another, and some of all manner of the times of going round, each by itself, the things! but the mystery is, they cannot say the right products will be to one another in the propor- it. Say, however, all they can, invent and do all they tion of the average distances multiplied each can, the world is awake, and the public will have " Mori by itself, and that product again by the dis- son’s Pills.”
I am, Gentlemen, yours, &c. tance. Thus, if one body takes two hours, and
Cambridge, Oct. 4th, 1832.
THOMAS EARL. A LION'S CUBS NURSED BY A is five yards distant, the other, being ten yards
CAUTION TO THE PUBLIC.
distant, will take something less than five
MORISON'S UNIVERSAL MEDICINES GENERAL WATSON, while out one the distance of one planet, it is easy to find dicines which the wholesale venders have foisted upou morning on horseback, with a double out the distance of all the rest, because the the credulity of the scarchers after health, for so many barreled rifle, was suddenly surprised by squares of the periodical times of the planets a fair fame on the invention of any plausible means or a large male lion, which bounded out are as the cubes of their mean distances from conpetition, have plunged into the mean expedient of puff
ing up a “Dr. Morrison" (observe the subterfuge of the upon him from a thick jungle. : He fired, the sun.—The Christian Philosopher.
double r), a being who never existed, as prescribing a and it fell dead almost close to his feet.
“Vegetable Universal Pill, No. 1 and 2,” for the express
Just Published, A female then darted out upon him. He
MEDICINES" of the “ BRITISH COLLEGE OF wounded her, and she fled into the thicket. A BESIEF. EXPPSLTION of the ORIGIN: hoe vi deteriorating the estimation of the CN UNIVERSAL SABBATH, and Remarks on the Christian Sabbath ;
HEALTH.” Suspecting that her den was close at hand, abridged from the writings of Dr. Heylin, John Calvin KNOW ALL MEN, then, that this attempted delusion he followed, soon tracked her to it, and Archdeacon Paley, Dr. Whately, William Penn, and must fall under the fact, that (however specious the preothers. Price 1s. 3d.
tence), none can be held genuine by the College but those completed her destruction. “In the den London: Whittaker and Co. Liverpool: T. Hodgson.
which bave “Morison's Universal Medicines" impressed
upon the Government Stamp attached to each box and were found a beautiful pair of cubs, male
For Convulsion Fits, Epileptic Fits. packet, to counterfeit which is felony by the laws of the
land. and female, supposed to be then not more
R. HADLEY'S POWDERS, a safe and than three days old. These the General certain Cure for Inward Weakness, Convulsion Fits,
The “ Vegetable Universal Medicines” are to be had at Epileptic Fits, Hysterics, and Nervous Complaints.
the College, New Road, King's Cross, London; at the brought away with him, and succeeded,
These Powders possess extraordinary properties, and, by Surrey Branch, 96, Great Surrey-street; Mr. Field's, 10, Airby the assistance of a goat, who was pre
due perseverance in their application, effect a safe and street, Quadrant; Mr. Chappell's, Royal Exchange; Mr. certain cure in all cases of Relaxation, Debility, and
Walker's, Lamb's-conduit-passage, Red-lion-square: Mr. vailed upon to act in the capacity of fos- Weakness in Children and Adults ; give immciliate relief J. Loft's, Mile-end-road; Mr. Bennett's, Covent-gardento the suffering Infant, or Grown Persons afflicted with
market; Mr. Haydon's, Fleur-de-lis-court, Norton-falgate; ter-mother to the royal pair, in rearing | Convulsion Fits : also in cases of Epilepsy, or Falling Fits.
Mr. Haslet's, 147, Ratcliffe-highway; Messrs. Norbury's, them until they attained sufficient age In Lassitude and Nervous Debility, Hysterics, and Spas
Brentford ; Mrs. Stepping, Clare-market; Messrs. Salmon, módic Complaints, these Powders present a grand resto
Little Bell-alley; Miss Varai's, 24, Lucas-street, Commerand strength to enable them to bear the rative ; also extirpate Fits which Females are subject to
cial-road; Mrs. Beech's, 7, Sloane-square, Chelsea ; Mrs. voyage to England. On their arrival in during Pregnancy. They strengthen the stomach, increase Chapple's
, Royal Library, Pall-malt: Mrs. Pippen's, 18,
Trinity-grounds, Deptford ; Mr. Taylor, Hanwell; Mr. this country, in September, 1823, he pre-whole frame, without confinement, change of diet, or
Kirtlam, 4, Bolingbroke-row, Walworth; Mr. Payne, 04, sented them to his Majesty, who com
From Lord Viscount Amiens.
Jermyn-street; Mr. Howard, at Mr. Wood's, liair-dresser,
Richmond ; Mr. Meyar, 3, May's-buildings, Blackheath ; manded them to be placed in the Tower To Mr. Rowland.
Sir, I feel I should be doing you the greatest injustice, wall-road, Lambeth; Mr J. Dobson, 35, Craven-street,
Mr. Griffiths, Wood-wharf, Greenwich; Mr. Pitt, 1, Cornof London.”
and also to the public generally, were 1 to withhold from
Strand; Mr. Oliver, Bridge-street, Vauxhall; Mr. J.
Deptford ; Mr. Cowell, 22, Terrace, Pimlico; Mr. Parfitt, been the means of restoring my infant child under eir
96, Edgware-road; Mr. Hart, Portsmonth-place, KenningSONNET. cumstances the most unparalleled, having the first medical
ton-lane; Mr. Charlesworth, grocer, 124, Shoreditch; Mr. advice, and no more effect than momentary relief. The
R. G. Bower, grocer, 22, Brick-lane, St. Luke's; Mr. S. infant daily declining, insomuch that the bones were nearly J. Avila, pawnbroker, opposite the churclı, Hackney; M through the skin, in this wretched situation 'I administeredt
J. S. Briggs, 1, Brunswick-place, Stoke Newington; Mr. Wuen by God's inward light, a happy child,
daily your powders, and no other medicine ; and, to the
T. Gardner, 95, Wood-street, Cheapside, and 9, Norton. I walk din joy, as in the open air,
piest result in restoring my infant to perfect health. I road; Mr. J. Osborn, Wells-street, Hackney road, ażd It seem'd to my young thought the Sabbath smiled shall be most happy to satisfy any respectable inquirer (by Homerton; Mr. H. Cos, grocer, 16, 'Union-street, BishopsWith glory and with love. So still, so fair, previous appointment) in person.
gate-street; Mr. T. Walter, checsemonger, 67, Hoxton Old
I am, Sir, The heav'ns looked ever on that hallowed morn,
Your much obliged and most obedient servant,
Town; and at one agent's in every principal town in Great
Britain, the Islands of Guernsey and Malta; and through. That, without aid of memory, something there Temple House, January 7, 1824.
out the whole of the United States of America. Had surely told me of its glad return.
These Powders are faithfolly prepared and sold by the
N. B. The College will not be answerable for the conHow did my little heart at evening burn,
Garden. 'Packages at 2s. Id. and 4s. 6d. per packet, or in as none such are allowed to sell the “Universal MediWhen, fondly seated on my father's knee,
bottles containing three 4s. 6d. at 11s. eachi, and in larger cines.” Taught by the lip of love, I breath'd the prayer, bottles 22s. each, duty included, Warm from the fount of infant piety!
Sold, by appointment, by Mr. Sanger, Medicine Ware
house, 150, Oxford-street: Messrs. Barclay and Sons, 95, Much is my spirit changed; for years have brought Fleet Market ; Edwards, 66, St. Paul's Church-yard; c? Printed by J. Hadoon and Co.; and Published Intenser feeling and expanded thought;Butler, 4, Cheapside ; W. Sutton and Co., Bow Church
by J. Crisp, at No. 27, lvy Lane, Paternoster Yet, must I envy every child I see!
yard ; Prout, 229, Strand; Johnston, Cornbill, and Greek-
Row, where all Advertisements and Communi.
cations for the Editor are to be addressed.
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced conjectured, to awaken the interest of the i luded to. The probability, however, of With an immaculate charm which cannot be antiquarian and the traveller, but respect- this structure being the sepulchre of cefaced.”
ing which sufficient doubts have been, ne- the immortal poet has occasioned the
vertheless, suggested, to temper and curb visits of innumerable classical pilgrims, This is one of those antiquities about that enthusiasm which is the natural ele- and made the disputed spot the theme of which sufficient is known, and probably ment of the former of the characters al much poetical ardour.
The principal English travellers who have favoured us With respect to two epigrams of a / after the death of Virgil, that in his tim, with their opinions on this point, and Roman poet, adduced by an author who although his works had ever since his with descriptions of the place, are Ad- maintains the sceptical opinion, he says death been the admiration of all the dison and Eustace; and from their re- they only seem to insinuate that Silius Romans, and even formed a part of the searches, and from the accounts of others, Italicus was proprietor both of the tomb rudiments of their early education, tha: we will endeavour to collect such facts of Virgil and of Cicero's villa, a circum- his tomb was already neglected, and that as appear most interesting, both of a de- stance very immaterial to the present Silius Italicus alone restored its honour scriptive and historical kind.
question, but rather' favourable than Nor is this neglect without its parallel in Addison, in the account which he gives otherwise to the common opinion ; for all ages, not even excepting our ow)!. of this place, expresses his scepticism as it is known that Cicero's villa lay on the Sixty years after the death of Pope, to the fact which gives to it all its in- same side of Naples as Posilippo, and, whose works might be found in all terest. He says—“At about eight miles as Virgil's tomb belonged to the same hands, and almost in all languages, his from Naples lies a very noble scene of master as the villa, it may be supposed house was levelled with the ground, his antiquities. What they call Virgil's tomb | that they were not far distant from each grotto defaced, and the trees, planted by is the first that one meets with on the other. În fine, says he, in opposition to his own hand, rooted
up: way thither. It is certain that the poet these arguments, or rather conjectures, The edifice to which the above remarks was buried in Naples; but I think it al- founded upon
vague expressions of a refer is situated on the hill of Posilippo, most as certain that his tomb stood on single poet (a poet often censured for his which derives its name (and not inapthe opposite side of the town, which looks obscurity), we have the constant and un- propriately, as appears from the descriptoward Vesuvio. By the tomb is the en- interrupted tradition of the country, sup- tions furnished by travellers) from two trance to the grotto of Posilippo. The ported by the authority of a numerous | Greek words, which signify to banish common people believe it to have been host of learned and ingenious antiqua- sorrow.
It is a small and ruined square wrought by magic, and that Virgil was ries; and upon such grounds we may building, of reticulated masonry, flat the magician, who is in greater repute still continue to cherish the conviction roofed, placed on a sort of platform on among the Neapolitans for having made that we have visited the tomb of Virgil, the brow of a precipice on one side, and the grotto than the Æneid.”
and iled his sacred shade at the spot on the er sheltered by a superincumIn intimating his opinion as to the where his ashes long reposed.
bent rock. An aged ilex, spreading from place of Virgil's burial, Addison does not But the arguments already stated are the sides of the rock, and bending over go into the arguments which support it. not the only ones which attest the inter- the edifice, covers the roof with its everThey are drawn from some verses of an esting fact for which we are collecting verdant foliage. A number of shrubs ancient Roman poet, in which he de- evidence. There is an inscription which, spring around, and interwoven with ivy, scribes himself as having arrived at the though not genuine, is still very ancient, clothe the walls, and hang over the pretomb, “ secutus littus,” (literally, “ fol- engraven upon a marble slab opposite cipice. The laurel, however, which was lowing the beach,”) and that, therefore, the entrance of the tomb, distinctly once said to have sprung up at its base, it cannot be on the hills; and in which claiming for this ruined structure the and covered it with its luxuriant branches, he also describes it as situated “where honour of containing the remains of the now flourishes only in the descriptions of Vesuvius vents his rage;" whence it is poet. It was inscribed by order of the poets and ancient travellers. Close to the argued that it must be near the foot of Duke of Pescolangiano, then proprietor tomb, a little lower on the hill, is the that mountain. Against these conclu- of the place. In addition to this, an entrance to the celebrated Grotto of Posions, however, Mr. Eustace contends, Italian author, Pietro de Steffano, assures silippo. This is an excavation through we think with justice, that, with respect us that he himself had seen, about the the rock, nearly three quarters of a mile to the first argument, the mode of inter- year 1526, the urn supposed to contain in length, and twenty-four feet in breadth, pretation adopted is barely admissible, the ashes of Virgil, standing in the mid-constituting the high road between Naples even in logical or metaphysical discus- dle of the sepulchre, supported by nine on the one side, and Puteoli, Baiæ, &c., sions; that it is not conformable to the little marble pillars, with an inscription on the other. " Its height,” says
Euslatitude allowed in ordinary description, upon it, which is well known to have tace, “is unequal, as the entrance at whether in conversation or writing, and been intended by the poet for himself, each end is extremely lofty, to admit the still less to the boldness of poetical com- and written some few moments before he light, while the vault lowers towards the position. The expressions alluded to expired. He adds that Robert of Anjou, middle, where it is about twenty-five feet seem evidently to describe the general apprehensive lest such a precious relic from the ground. It is paved with large features of the country, and not the par- should be carried off or destroyed during Aags of lava, and in many places lined, ticular spot where stood the tomb of the wars then raging in the kingdom, and, I believe, vaulted with stone-work. Virgil. Besides, the word littus does took the urn and pillars from the tomb, During the day two circular apertures, not mean the beach only, but extends to and deposited them in the Castel Nuovo. bored through the mountain, admit a diin the immediate neighbourhood of the sea. This extreme precaution had an effect glimmering of light from above; and at Now the road to Virgil's tomb runs ac- very different from that intended, and night a lamp, burning before an image of tually along the beach ; and though it occasioned the loss it was meant to pre- the blessed Virgin, placed in a recess in turns froin it in ascending the hills, yet vent; for, notwithstanding the most la- the middle, casts a feeble gleam over the it is always within sight of it, and, in borious search, and frequent inquiries, gloomiest part of the passage. Such, fact, never deviates half a quarter of a made by the orders of Alphonso of however, is the obscurity towards evenmile from it, even when it terminates in Arragon, they were never more disco-ing, that nobody ventures to go through the sepulchre itself. Surely, says Eus- vered.
it without a torch; and even with a tace, a sepulchre, standing upon an emi- It may, perhaps, excite a feeling of torch one feels a sort of joy on escaping nence a quarter of a mile from the sea, surprise that it should be necessary to from these subterraneous horrors. The and looking down upon it, may be said adduce evidences so latent and far-grotto is, on the whole, a very singular to be upon the coast. With respect to fetched as these which we have men- and striking object; and the approach to the second passage, the same author tioned, with reference to a fact which it on both sides, between two vast walls shows that the word translated where ought to be so notorious. We need, of solid rock, and its lofty entrances, like does not necessarily mark contiguity, but however, the less to wonder, when we the gates into the regions of the dead, frequently only a general vicinity, as in read, from the pen of the poet Martial, and the shrubs and tuits of wild flowers the same country or district.
who was born about forty-eight years that wave in loose festoons from the top
of the precipice, as if to soften the terrors | Arqua, nine miles from Padua, the Florentines that you grew pale over the midnight lamp, of the chasm beneath, form altogether a dispatched to him the celebrated Boccace, and gave the sprightly years to study and most picturesque and extraordinary com
with letters requesting him to return thither, reflection? You, then, have mistaken your bination."
and restoring to him the property of his father, path, and ill employed your industry. “What which had been confiscated. In the midst of reward have I, then, for all my labour ?" these and similar marks of respect and admir- What reward ! a large comprehensive soul,
ation, on the eve of the seventieth anniver- purged from vulgar fears and prejudices, able THE LIFE OF PETRARCH.
sary of his birth, he was found dead in his to interpret the works of man and God-a per(Concluded from page 242.)
library at A rqua, with bis head resting on a petual spring of fresh ideas, and the conscious
book. After his death a memorandum was dignity of superior intelligence. Good HeaAfter the death of his parents, Petrarch de- found in a favourite copy of Virgil, which be-vens! what other reward can you ask ? « But voted himself more than ever to literature, longed to him, recording the death of Laura, 'is it not a reproach upon the economy of prounder the auspices of John of Florence, an
of which event he elsewhere pretends to have vidence that such a one, who is a mean, dirty elderly ecclesiastic with whom he became ac
received repeated intiinations in visions.-- fellow, should have amassed wealth enough to quainted; and in such pursuits it is probable
“Laura, illustrious by her own virtues, and buy half a nation ?” Not the least. He made that he would bave spent an uninterrupted long celebrated in my verses, appeared to my himself a mean, dirty fellow for that
end. life, but for the circumstance which formed eyes for the first time, the sixth of April, at He has paid his health, his conscience, and the main era of his history, and determined the Avignon, in the church of St. Claire, at the his liberty for it. Do you envy him his bartenor of his character. This was his meeting first hour of the day. I was then in my youth. gain ? Will you hang your head in his prewith Laura, whose name has ever been insepa in the same city, on the same day, at the same sence because he outshines you in equipage rably connected with his own, and whuse hour, in the year 1348, this luminary disap- and show ? Lift up your brow with a noble charms he has immortalized in his verses. He peared from our world. I was then at Verona, confidence, and say to yourself, “ I have not first saw her going to the church of St. Claire, ignorant of my wretched situation. That these things, it is true; but it is because I have in Avignon, and immediately becaine
chaste and beautiful body was buried the same pas
not desired them nor sought them; it is besionately enamoured of her. She, however, day, after vespers, in the church of the Cor
cause I possess something better. I have was a married lady, and consequently treated deliers. Her soul returned to its native man- chosen my lot; I am content and satisfied.” his advances with becoming disregard. Hission in heaven. To retrace the melancholy The most characteristic mark of a great mind passion, however, lasted as long as her life- remembrance of this great loss, I have written is to choose some one object, which it considers nay, as long as his own, and, connected with it, with a pleasure mixed with bitterness, in a important, and pursue that object through life. the circumstances already mentioned, gave
hook I often refer to. The loss convinces me If we expect the purchase, we must pay the birth to all those tender effusions of feeling there is no longer any thing worth living for. price. which have ever since been ranked among the Since the strongest cord of my life is broken, chief ornaments of Italian literature. About with the grace of God I shall easily renounce this time he became acquainted with and
a world where my cares have been deceitful, Herodotos remarks (lib. ii. p. 150), “ For joined the bousehold of the Colonna family, and my hopes vain and perishing.”
my part, I believe the Colchi to be a colony of and shortly afterwards left Avignon to improve
Egyptians, hecause, like them, they have black bis knowledge and relieve his mind by travel
skins and frizzled hair.” Upon this passage ling. This expedient, however, proved utterly PHILOSOPHY AND CONSISTENCY.
Volney, in his “ Travels through Egypt and ineffectual to banish the recollection of Laura.
Syria,” has the following remark :-"This hisHe returned, afresh devoted himself to study, Among all the excellent things which Mrs. torical fact affords to philosophy an interesting re-opened his half-healed wounds by some Barbauld has written, she never penned any subject of reflection. How are we astonished casual encounter with the object of his regard, thing better than her essay on the inconsisten when we behold the present barbarism and composed myriads of sonnets to her, and at cy of human expectations; it is full of sound ignorance of the Copts, descended from the length fed precipitately from Avignon to the philosophy. Every thing, says she, is marked profound genius of the Egyptians and the brilsolitudes of Vaucluse, where he had at first at a settled price. Our time, our labour, our
liant imagination of the Greeks; when we fallen in love with Nature, and was followed ingenuity, is so much ready money, which we
reflect that to a race of negroes, at present our thither by all the demons which his own are to lay out to the best advantage. Examine, slaves, and the objects of our extreme conmorbid sensibility had conjured.
compare, choose, reject; but stand to your tempt, we owe our arts and sciences, and even Here he wrote much of his poetry, devoted own judgment, and do not, like children, when the very use of speech; and when we recollect himself asriduously to study, and entered upon you lave purchased one thing, repine that you that, in the midst of those nations who call the composition of some historical works. Here, do not possess another, which you would not themselves the friends of liberty and humanity, however, he was not forgotten by the world. purchase. Would you be rich ? Do you think the most barbarous of slaveries is justified, and In August, 1340, when he was in the thirty- that the single point worth sacrificing every that it is even a problem whether the underseventh year of his age, a letter came to his thing else to ?" You may, then, be rich. standing of negroes be of the same species with hands from the Roman senate, inviting him to Thousands have become so from the lowest that of white men !"—Volney's Travels, 3rd repair to Rome to receive the poet's crown of beginnings by toil
, and diligence, and atten- English edition, p. 78. laurel-a custom which had been obsolete at tion to the minutest articles of expense and Rome for more than a thousand years. By a profit. But you must give up the pleasures of most singular coincidence, another letter ar. leisure, of an unembarrassed mind, and of a
A LOVER'S GIFT. rived the same day from the Chancellor of the free unsuspicious temper. You must learn to University of Paris, offering him the same ho- do hard if not unjust things; and as for the
In the reign of Elizabeth, it was “ the cusnour, and urging their claims against those of embarrassment of a delicate and ingenuous tome for maydes and gentelwomen to give Rome. spirit, it is necessary for you to get rid of it as
their favourites, as tokens of their love, little Petrarch was long in an enviable dilemma fast as possible. You must not stop to enlarge handkerchiefs of about three or four inches as to which offer he should take. On the one your mind, polish your taste, or "refine your square, wrought round about, and with a buthand no poet had ever been crowned at Paris, sentiments; but must keep on in one unbeaten ton or a tassel at each corner, and a little one and be coveted the proud distinction of being track, without turning aside to the right or to in the middle with silke and thread; the best the first. On the other hand he thirsted for the left. But,” you say, “I cannot submit edged with a small gold lace, or twist, which, the honour of being ranked among the bards to drudgery like this; I feel a spirit above it.” being folded up in foure crosse foldes, so as the from whose works he hai derived so much of 'Tis well; he above it, then; only do not re- middle might be seene, gentlemen and others bis poetical genius and eminence, and whose pine because you are not rich.
did usually wear them in their hats, as favours names stand inseparably connected with the Is knowledge the pearl of price in your esti- of their loves and mistresses; some cost sixEternal City. At length he decided for Rome, mation? That too may be purchased by steady pence a-piece, some, twelvepence, and the whither he repaired in the spring, and, after application, and long solitary hours of study richest, sixteenpence." And of the gentleman's submitting himself to an examination from his and reflection. “But," says the man of let present, a lady in Cupid's Revenge, of Beaupatron, King Robert, of Naples, he arrived at ters, “ what a hariship is it that many an
mont and Fletcher, says :Rome, and was formally erowned with laurel illiterate fellow, who cannot construe the inotto “ Given ear-rings we will wear, in the capitol. Shortly after this he was made on his coach, shall raise a fortune, and make Bracelets of our lovers' hair, Archdeacon of Parma, and, subsequently, a figure, while I possess not the common ne- Which they on our arms shall twist, Canon of Padua. Whilst he was living at cessaries of life!" Was it for fortune, then, (With their oames carved) on our wrists.
“ From your rank in the Spanish navy, and THE GROWTH OF CORAL ISLANDS. THE TOURIST. fro not facilities of intercourse on friendly terms with
Or all the genera of lithophytes, the madrepersons possessing large property and great influ- pore is the most abundant. It occurs most MONDAY, MARCH 25, 1833.
ence on plantations at the Caraccas ?-- Yes, after frequently in tropical countries, and decreases
I became acquainted with them, I was as much at in number and variety as we approach the THE SAFETY OF IMMEDIATE EMAN- home as I could have been in any country in the poles. It encircles in prodigious rocks and
world. I knew every body of any condition ; 1 vast reefs many of the basaltic and other rocky CIPATION.
was four months here, and went 200, or 300, or islands in the South Sea and Indian Ocean, No. V).
400 miles in the interior ; I went to Valentia, and and, by its daily growth, adds to their magni-
The coasts of the islands in the West In-
all through the Vallor de Veragua, which is the dies, also those of the islands on the east
coast of Africa, and the shores and shoals on The evidence given by Vice-Admiral Fle- attention particularly directed to the subject, and the Red Sea, are encircled and incrusted with
Several different tribes of ming before the Committee of the House of seeing the condition of those newly-emancipated rocks of coral. Commons is entitled to very serious attention, negroes, will you state the result of your reflection madrepore contribute to form these coral reef and cannot fail to make an impression emi- and observation upon the subject :~My opinion, but by far the most abundant are those of u nently favourable to our cause. Amongst other from what I saw, is, that the black population in genera carophylla, astrea, and meandrin matters, he was examined on the condition of civilization. There are many schools established, magnitude of land already existing, but, ar
king rapid progress towards These lithophytic animals not only add to the the free negroes in the Caraccas; and the in, which the people are anxious to avail themselves cording to some naturalists, they form whole formation which he communicated is adapted of. Many of them are learning trades, and, gene- islands. to dispel many of those delusions which colo- rally, the desire of knowledge was very great nial artifice has imposed on the British public. amongst them. They maintain themselves per- Flinders, gives the following interesting account
That excellent navigator, the late Captain He not only bore testimony to the good order fectly well, without any assistance, either from and prosperity of the emancipated negroes, but their former masters, or from Government.
of coral islands, particularly of Half-way represented them as freely engaging in the “ Was the manumission in the Caraccas sud. Island, on the north coast of Terra Australis
“ This little island, or rather the surrounding cultivation of the sugar-cane, and that on terms denly effected ?-Yes, it was done by an order of more profitable to their employers than those Bolivar, who had authority from the Congress for reef, which is three or four miles long, afford's on which slave-labour could be commanded. doing it in 1821. He had previously freed his shelter from the south-east winds; and, beins Admiral Fleming has thus supplied another
own negroes. Many of the principal people had at a moderate day's run from Murray's Isles, done the same.
it forms a convenient anchorage for the night. practical refutation of colonial theory. The advocates of slavery boldly affirm that the free
Did you see any traces of cultivation receding, to a ship passing through Torres Strait : I
or was the agriculture and the cultivation of the named it Half-way Island. It is scarcely more negro cannot be induced to engage in this country progressing ? --- It was progressing very than a mile in circumference, but appears to onerous species of labour, and hence they assert rapidly, but it had been the seat of war before, and be increasing both in eleration and extent. At the necessity of coercion. Were their premises consequently there had been ruin. The second correct , their inference would fail to command time I went to the Caraccas there were large fields those banks produced by the washing up of
no very distant period of time, it was one of our assent; but facts prove their unsoundness, of wheat, which had never been sown before, and, and justify the claims of humanity. It is since that time, I know that America cannot imo sand and broken coral, of which most reefs
afford instances, and those of Torres Strait a deeply mortifying to our national pride to find port whea there.
Have the Spaniard an advocate of freedom, and the
you reason to know whether the culti-| great many. These banks are in different Englishman a defender of slavery. But we vation of sugar has increased or decreased through. stages of progress : some, like this, are become must allow the Admiral to speak for himself:
out the Caraccas ?--It has increased, I was told. islands, but not yet habitable; some are above
“You visited the Caraccas at two periods, first high-water mark, but destitute of vegetation; “ Have you visited the Caraccas ?-I have. in 1828, and again afterwards ; were you able whilst others are overflowed with every return
“ Did you find the black population free at that yourself to form an estimate of the progress that ing tide. time?—They were all free to a certain age ; but had been made in the interval ?--Yes, they were
It seems to me that, when the animalcules the old negroes were not free, they were continued rapidly improving ; the second time I visited the which form the corals at the bottom of the as slaves. When Bolivar first issued the order Caraccas there had been a year and a half of for emancipating the slaves, he confined it to those peace, and the party-spirit had evaporated, and each other, by virtue either of the glutinous
ocean cease to live, their structures adhere to of a certain age, I think twelve the women, and confidence in the Government had been estabfourteen the men, and he gave greater facilities to lished; they were rapidly, improving in every water ; and the interstices being gradually
remains within, or of some property in salt those who remained slaves for obtaining their respect, in agriculture and in all the arts. freedom.
"Were they driven to labour on sugar planta- filled up with sand and broken pieces of coral “Was sugar cultivated in the Caraccas ?-Yes, tions as the sole means of obtaining a subsistence, washed by the sea, which also adhere, a mass and exported to a considerable extent. In all or did they take it as labour which they had no of rock is at length formed. Future races of parts of the Caraccas there is an immense quantity strong objection to, as furnishing them good these animalcules erect their habitations upon used, and a great deal exported, notwithstanding wages, and the means of livelihood to maintain the rising bank, and die, in their turn, to inthere is a heavy export duty.
themselves in comfort ?-They took it as a means crease, but principally to elevate, this inonu“Were free blacks so employed ?-Free blacks, of maintaining themselves; they were not driven ment of their wonderful labours. The care a pon their own account.
to it by absolute necessity; they might have got taken to work perpendicularly in the e Are you able to state what the rate of wages other modes of living if they had chosen ; in the is of the free blacks ?- In the Caraccas it is lower interior of the country they might have got lands stages would mark a surprising instinct
these diminutive creatures. Their wall than in Cuba ; they can get a black man to work very easily to cultivate. for 9d. a day.
* And therefore they continue the labour on
coral, for the most part, in situations wb " Have you ever heard the point discussed in sugar plantations freely and voluntarily 2-Yes, the winds are constant, being arrived at the Caraccas as well as in Cuba, among planters, freely and voluntarily:
surface, affords a shelter, to lecward of wh, of the comparative cost of free labour and slave- “ Was not one of the generals in the Caraccas a their infant colonies may be safely sent for: labour?—No, I never heard itamong the Spaniards; black man ?-Yes, General Peyanga was a per- and to this, their instinctive foresight, it see. I have heard some English planters and American fectly black man, a complete negro; he was a to be owing, that the windward side of a rees, planters that were there discuss it.
very well-informed man, a very well-educated per-exposed to the open sea, is generally, if ri “What was the prevalent opinion among person, and well read in Spanish literature; he was always, the highest part, and rises almost persons whose judgment you thought best entitled to a very extraordinary man. consideration ?-There was no difference of opi- "Vid you happen to know whether English and perhaps many more, fathoms. To be con
pendicular, sometimes from the depth of 200, nion ; the Spaniards and Columbians thought that officers served under him ?- Many were serving stantly covered with water seems necessary to Free labour would do perfectly well; the Americans under him; I knew many other black officers, of the existence of the animalcules, for they do and the English were for the establishment of very considerable acquirements, in the Caraccas slavery, but the old Spaniards and Columbians and in Cuba also. I have known a black priest, not work, except in holes upon the reef, beyond were for freeing them.
a perfect negro, born in the Cape de Verde Islands, low-water mark; but the coral, sand,' and : "Upon general principles, or upon the score of a very well-informed person.
other broken remnants thrown up by the sea, profit ?-Upon the score of profit; the Marquis
adhere to the rock, and forin a solid mass with del Toro, a cousin of Bolivar, who has immense
it, as high as the common tides reach. That estates there, and had a great number of slaves,
elevation surpassed, the future remnants, being worked them all by free labour.
rarely covered, lose their adhesive property;