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against the prisoner, and the chief justice sen- | his condition by asserting his right to enfran

tenced him to six months' imprisonment, with chisement. SIR,-Having resided in Jamaica during the out bail or mainprise, and the slave was de The parishes of Jamaica are equal in extent years 1818 and 1819, I beg to offer the follow- clared "free, and discharged from all manner to the average size of the Scotch counties. ing remarks by way of postscript to Mr. C. of servitude." By this mode of stating the Almost the whole of the churches are placed Johnston's “Disjoined Facts,” relative to that case to the public, it would appear that mark on the coast, and consequently the greater island, in your fourth monthly number. There ing the initials of the names of the owner and number of the plantations are at too great a are two classes of slaves in Jamaica-one be- estate on the skin of the negro was the more distance to admit of attendance at church, even longing to the proprietors of plantations, and flagrant portion of the charge against the pri- if the overseers encouraged an observance of the other belonging to whites and free people soner. But let me inform them that marking, the Sabbath; and how (could one or two of colour residing in the towns. The planta- or, to speak more literally, branding the bodies churches accommodate from 16,000 to 20,000 tion slaves receive about seven salt herrings of the poor negroes, was an universal practice people, the average population of each parish?weekly from their masters. The grounds al- when I was in Jamaica. I now hold in my so that the Christian ordinances are altogether lotted them for the cultivation of vegetables hand the supplement to the Cornwall Gazette unknown to the plantation slave. The planters only supply a variety of indigestible roots, and of Jamaica for October 14th, of the year in make a great noise about the money which the plantain fruit, which is usually roasted in which the above trial occurred. In this sup- may be made by the negro by attending market an unripe state, not being a fit article of diet plement one hundred and fifty-four runaway on Sundays; but in crop-season he is not unwhen at maturity. Unless in crop season, slaves are advertised as prisoners in various frequently employed in the boiling-house on that is, during the manufacture of the sugar, workhouses, and almost every one of them has the Sabbath, and, from what I have said, it is when the slaves have an opportunity of pro- been branded or burned with a hot metal evident the market towns are at too great a curing syrup from the boiling-house, they are stamp on various parts of their bodies, &c. distance for the majority of them to attend for very generally afflicted with a cachexy, re- The first individual on the list is described as any purpose, either spiritual or temporal. Nor sulting from a want of sufficient nourishment, Frances, a Creole (i. e., colonial born) female, is the slave recognized by law as the possessor over exertion, oppressive treatment, and other who has been branded on both shoulders and of any property, nor has he any protection debilitating causes. The juices of the stomach both breasts. These, prisoners who have all against the rapacity of his master. become vitiated, its functions impaired, and a fled from their tyrannical task-masters, if not Negroes which belong to whites and people morbid acidity is generated, which induces the claimed within a certain period, are sold to of colour residing in the towns, are usually victim of this malady to eat cbalk, earth, or defray expenses; and upwards of twenty are hired out in gangs to work on the plantations any absorbent substance, which nature may | advertised accordingly in the above mentioned for wages. Their owners only allow them a suggest as a remedy for his sufferings. The list, one of which number declares that a white trifle from these wages for their support, and disease, in the common language of the colony, man has deprived her of her ticket of freedom. retain the remainder for their own use. Many is called “ dirt-eating." Each plantation has the remaining column of the supplement is of these slaves are instructed in the mechanical its hospital or hot-house, and against the wall occupied with a list of strayed horses and arts, that their wages may produce a greater of one of the apartments is erected a bench, at cattle, also branded in like manner. In this surplus, to which, by law, the master is entitled. an elevation of three or four feet from the cold respect, then, the temporal position of the People who thus hire out their negroes are clay floor; and projecting, perhaps, about six slave is nothing better than that of the beasts denominated jobbers ; they are generally feet along the outer edge of this bench, is that perish. Nay, it is even worse ; a mule tradesmen, who, having acquired money suffifixed an iron bar, to which the poor cachectics or horse is not killed for kicking his master; cient to purchase a few slaves, retire from are secured by iron anklets, their bloated bo- but if a slave raise his hand against any white business, and live on the hard-earned savings dies reclining on the bare boards. This the man his punishment by law is death. I have of these poor creatures. planter pretends is done with the humane in- already stated that floggings are limited to The overseers are a class of men drawn from tention of preventing them from gratifying their thirty-nine stripes, but there is no security the lower and uneducated orders of their cravings. Many slaves die annually from this against the too frequent repetition of the chas- native country. Their society cannot afford disease, and many become victims of despond- tisement. The opinion of the medical attend pleasure or comfort to individuals of a higher ency while under its influence, and put a ant of the estate is never consulted on the grade; they are too prone to cultivate depraved period to their miseries by suicide.

subject, nor is any competent judge required and convivial association for the gratification The master's power of inflicting punish- to attend the infliction of punishment. We of their intemperate habits. These inebriates ment on the slave is now limited, by law, to are told by the planters that the use of chains indulge in bacchanal potations of the coarsest thirty-nine stripes; but there is no protection has been abolished throughout the colonies ; description-equal parts of lime juice and against an inconsiderate repetition of the pu- but have they not substituted the stocks ??- rum, &c. &c.—and one and all of them keep nishment either by him or his tyrannical sub- and would not the punishment be less severe a number of their female slaves about their ordinates. The slave who dares to complain if the prisoner could move about to the extent houses in a state of concubinage. Men accusto the attorney, on facts, of the cruelty of the of a chain, than when his legs are secured to tomed to encourage this corruption of their overseer or manager of the estate, does it at an immoveable bar of iron, or beam of timber, natures cannot be expected to cultivate huthe risk of an additional flogging; and how denominated the stocks They also tell us mane feelings towards their unfortunate bondcan the complaint reach the ear of an impar- that the negro is by law allowed twenty-six servants. They are dead to all sense of virtue, tial magistrate through this channel, as they days of the year to cultivate his provision and, under the dominion of Satan and their are all interested in supporting the diaboli- grounds, exclusive of the Sabbath. I have lusts,” running riot in their pride, prejudices, cal system of oppression ? The slave has never already noticed that the negro depends on the and passions. A few exceptions may certainly been acknowledged as a party in any civil suit supplies of his master, as well as his own ex- be made; but through the whole of them there or prosecution. It is only by indictment on ertion, for his sustenance. If the proprietor is is a great family likeness. the part of the crown that he is relieved from too avaricious to be willing, or too poor to be his civil incapacities. I never knew of redress able, to import a sufficient supply of salt her

." Facies non omnibus una

Nec diversa tainen." for cruelty to a slave, unless in one instance, rings to eke out the scanty produce of the which occurred in January, 1818. Joseph slave-garden, what must be the situation of

P. ROLLAND. Boyden was tried under the slave act for cru the hard-working negro, more especially if elly, maliciously, and wantonly maltreating, sickness has disabled him from cultivating his by flogging and marking in different parts of ground? Are the slaves educated, or provided NECESSITY AND INVENTION. the body, a Sambo slave, named Amey, his with the means of attending to religious duproperty, jointly with others. The Jamaica ties? A plantation slave neither receives school A curious catalogue might be made of the Royal Gazette stated that Amey had com- learning nor religious instruction; he is not shifts to which ingenious students in different mitted soine transgression, which induced her taught a sense of good and evil, the necessity departments of art bave resorted, when, like to apply to a neighbour to intercede with her of obedience and gratitude to God, or the hope Davy, they have wanted the proper instrumaster for forgiveness, which he agreed to of eternal life. Some schools have been estab-ments for carrying on their inquiries or expegrant, but she was afterwards marked in five lished by subscription for the education of free riments. His is not the first case in which places with the initials of his name, and that people of colour, but the slave is wilfully kept the stores of an apothecary's shop are recorded of the property he owned. In consequence of in a state of total ignorance. The planters are to have fed the enthusiasm, and materially conduct so contrary to every principle of hu- aware that knowledge would lead him to ap- assisted the labours, of the young cultivator of manity, she left her home, &c. The jury, after preciate liberty, to a due sense of his abject natural science. The German chemist, Scheele, due deliberation, returned a verdict of guilty and debased state, and a desire to ameliorate who has just been mentioned, and whose name



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ranks in his own department with the greatest MARSHAL BASSOMPIERRE AND hind him. I found the King on a stage raised of his time, was, as well as Davy, apprenticed


two steps, the Queen and he in two chairs, in early life to an apothecary. While living

Sunday, the 11th of October, 1626.—The who rose at the first bow I made them on secute the study of his favourite science by to fetch me to Hampton Court, into a room in his master's house he used secretly to pro- Earl of Carlisle came with the King's coaches coming in. The company was magnificent,

and the order exquisite. employing often half the night in reading the where there was a handsome collation. The works that treated of it, or making experi. Duke of Buckingham came to introduce me to

Thursday, the 15th, on which the Earl of ments with instruments fabricated, as Dave's the audience, and told me that the King de Bridgewater came with the King's coaches to were, by himself, and out of equally simple sired to know beforehand what ! purposed showed me into a gallery, where the King was materials. Like the young British philosopher, too, Scheele is recorded to have sometimes not have me speak to him about any business; waiting for me, who gave me a long audience, tions- an incident which always brought down I said to him that the King should know what great passion, and 1; without losing my reupon him the severe anger of his master, and I had to say to him from my own mouth, and spect to him, replied to him in such wise that heavy menaces, intended to deter him from that it was not the custom to limit an Ambas- at last, yielding him something, he conceded ever again applying himself to such dangerous sador in what he had to represent to the So

a great deal to me. I witnessed there an instudies, which, however, he did not long re

stance of great boldness, not to say impuvereign to whom he was sent, and that if he gard. It was at an apothecary's house, as has did not wish to see me I was ready to go back dence, of the Duke of Buckingham, which been noticed in a former page, that yle and

was, that when he saw us the most warmed again. He swore to me that the only reason his Oxford friends first held their scientific which obliged himn (the King) to this, and he ran up suddenly and threw himself between by the opportunity they would

thus have of could not help putting himself into a passion took off my hat, and as long as he stood with meetings, induced, as we are expressly told, which made him insist upon it, was, that he the King and me, saying, “), am come to keep obtaining drugs wherewith to make their ex- in treating the matters about which I had to periments . Newton lodged with an apothe speak to him, which would not be decent in ing all the entreaties of the King and of him

us I would not put it on again, notwithstandcary, while at school, in the town of Grant- the chair of state, in sight of the chief per- self to do so;

but when he went I put it on ham; and as, even at that early age, he is known to have been ardently devoted to sci- that the Queen, his wife, was close to him, done, and that the Duke could speak to me, sons of the kingdom, both men and women

without the King's desiring me. When I had entific contrivances and experiments, and to who, incensed at the dismissal of her servants, he asked me why I would not put on my hat have been in the habit of converting all sorts of articles into auxiliaries in his favourite pur-sight of every body. In short, that he would while he was by, and that I did so, so freely

, suits, it is not probable that the various strange not commit himseit in public, and that he was preparations which filled the shelves and boxes of his landlord's shop would escape his curious sooner resolved to break up this audience, and done it to do him honour, because he was not

covered, and that I should have been, which

I could not suffer, for which he was much examination. Although Newton's glory chiefly grant me one in private, than to treat with me depends upon his discoveries in abstract and He (the Duke) swore vehemently to me that pleased with me, and often mentioned it in mechanical science, some of his speculations, he told me the truth, and that he had not my praise. But I had also another reason for and especially some of his writings on the been enabled to induce the King to see me

doing so, which was, that it was no longer an subjects of light and colour, show that the otherwise, begging of me even to suggest some

audience, but a private conversation, since he internal constitution of matter, and its che- expedient, and that I would oblige him. I

had interrupted us, by coming in, as a third, mical properties, had also much occupied his (who saw that I was going to receive this the King brought me through several galleries


After my last audience was over, thoughts. Thus, too, in other departments

, affront, and that he asked me to assist him genius has found its sufficient materials and with my advice, and to avoid the one, and to

to the Queen's apartments, where he left me, instruments in the humblest and most common

and I her, after a long conversation; and I insinuate myself more and more into his good articles, and the simplest contrivances. Fer

was brought back to London by the same Earl

of Bridgewater. gusson observed the places of the stars by graces by the other) told him that I could not,

in any manner whatsoever, do any thing but means of a thread with a few beads strung on

In the Ambassades we find some details of what was prescribed to me by my master; it, and Tycho Brahe did the same thing with that, since, as my friend, he asked my advice

this stormy interview. “I was treated,” says a pair of compasses. The self-taught American

as to some expedient, l' told him that it de- Bassompierre,“ with great rudeness, and found philosopher, Řittenhouse, being, when a young pended upon the King to give or to take


in the King very little desire to oblige my man, employed as an agricultural labourer, to shorten or to lengthen the audience in what

master.” used to draw geometrical diagrams on his

The King got at last so warm as to exclaim manner he would, and that he might (after plough, and study them as he turned up the furrow. Pascal, when a mere boy, made him having allowed me to make him my bow, and to the Ambassador, “Why do you not execute

your commission at once, and declare war?” tions of geometry, without the assistance of the occasion of my coming) interrupt me, self master of many of the elementary proposi- pliments , when I should come to open to him Bassompierre's answer was firm and

dignified: “ I am not a herald to declare war, but a mar

and any master, by tracing the figures on the floor say, “ Sir, you are come from London, and shall of France, to make it when declared.”of his room with a bit of coal. This, or a

have to return thither; it is late; this Marshall Bassompierre's Embassy to the Court stick burned at the end, has often been the matter requires a longer time than I could of England in 1626. Translated by J. Croker. young painter's first pencil, while the smoothest now give you. I shall send for you one of and whitest wall he could find supplied the these days at an earlier hour, and we will

EARLY REMINISCENCES. place of a canvas. Such, for example, were confer about it at our leisure in a private au Let fond remembrance oft restore the commencing essays of the early Tuscan

dience. In the meanwhile, I shall satisfy Each long-lost friend endear'd of yore, artist, Andrea del Castagno, who employed myself with having seen you, and heard of And picture o'er the scenes where first his leisure in this manner when he was a little the King, my brother-in-law, and the Queen,

My life and loveliest hopes were nurs'd; boy tending cattle, till his performances at last

The heails which once my fathers trod, attracted the notice of one of the Medici fa- my mother-in-law; and I will not delay the impatience which the Queen, my wife, has to

Amidst the wild to worship God; mily, who placed him under a proper master. hear of them also from you." Upon which I

The tales which fired my boyish eye The famous Salvator Rosa first displayed his shall take my leave of him, make

With patriot feelings, proud and high ;

my genius for design in the same manner. To

The sacred Sabbath's mild repose;
bow to the Queen.
these instances may be added that of the late

The social evening's saintly close,
After I had told him this the Duke em-

When ancient Zion's solemn song
English musical composer, Mr. John Davy, braced me, and said, “You know more of Arose the lonely banks among;
who is said, when only six years old, to bave these things than we; I have offered you my The music of the mountain rills,
begun the study and practice of his art by assistance in the affair you are come to nego The moonlight sleeping on the hills,
imitating the chimes of a neighbouring church tiate, but now I recall the promise I gave you, The STARRY SCRIPTURES of the sky,
with eight horse-shoes, which he suspended by for you can do very well without me," and so

By God's own finger graved on high strings from the ceiling of a room in such a left 'me, laughing, to go and tell the King this

On Heaven's expanded scroll-whose speech manner as to form an octave.—The Pursuit of expedient, who accepted it, and punctually

To every tribe doth knowledge teach-
observed it.

When silent night unlocks the seals,
The Duke returned to introduce me to the

And to forgetful man reveals

The wonders of eternal might audience, and the Earl of Carlisle walked be

In living lines of glorious light!

Pringle's Ephemerides.


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of this, some still more animating thought is thrown out, such as, “ We'll take our pay, go home, and buy a fine cloth.” Thus they run on, six only bearing the palankeen at a time. At a signal given from some one whose shoulder is weary of its burden, they stop, and in a moment pass the pole to the other shoulder. When one set becomes weary, they are relieved by the other, who run by their side. Having run one and a half or two hours, they rest a few moments, and spend this time in adjusting their clothes, girding up their loins, eating tobacco, &c.; or, if much fatigued, by lying down. The torch-bearer runs by the side of the palankeen, and, when his torch becomes dim, he pours in oil from the vessel which he carries in the other hand. On arriving at the bungalow or rest house, perhaps fifteen miles from the place of setting out, the bearers lie down and sleep till they are roused at three or four in the morning ; at seven or eight they arrive at the second bungalow. The resthouses on the road which I travelled, are very neat and commodious stone buildings, erected by government for the accommodation of travellers.

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No. I.

[In an age in which the higher branches of liteThe palankeen is the general mode of customed to the business, they travel many in which they have, consequently, much increased

rature are made the subject of popular study, and conveyance in India ; but few English miles without stopping, and without even sup- the sphere of their influence, we think it advisable readers have a very clear idea of its form, porting the burden with the hand; and their to bring before general notice some suggestions as

to their moral tendency; and for this purpose we or of the manner in which it is used. We, daily wages are about 40 cents.*

A few hours after the baggage leaves, ano shall introduce a series of articles upon this subtherefore, give a representation of one of ther set of men, thirteen in number, present ject from the pen of John Foster.] these vehicles, and a lively description of themselves before the door ; these are the

MYTHOLOGY. palankeen travelling, from the pen of Mr. palankeen and torch-bearers. Their dress conWoodward, an American Missionary re- sists of a large white cloth bound round the I fear it is incontrovertible, that what'is siding in Ceylon, who lately visited the head for a turban; and instead of the single denominated polite literature, the grand school peninsula.

cloth round their waists, as is common to all in which taste acquires its laws and refined

low castes, they wear a long white frock, so perceptions, and in which are formed, much A palankeen is quite unlike any thing which that their bodies are completely covered. This more than under any higher austerer discipI ever saw in America. The top or body of a dress gives them a much better appearance line, the moral sentiments, is, for the far greater small neat stage coach is, perhaps, the nearest than many of the higher caste; and was pro- part, hostile to the religion of Christ; partly, in resemblance. Instead of the oval form, it bably adopted that their personal appearance by introducing insensibly a certain order of is a parallelogram, six feet long, and two and might be more acceptable to English gentle- opinions unconsonant, or at least not identia half wide, with the top a little raised in the men and ladies. The torch-bearer has a long cal, with the principles of that religion; and centre, so as to shed the rain. Instead of the roll of old cloths, closely bound together in a still more, by training the feelings to a habit swinging doors of the coach, there are, on cylindrical form, four feet long, and four or alien from its spirit. And in this assertion I either side, two small sliding doors. Like the five inches in diameter : this is a lamp. In do not refer to writers palpably irreligious, coach, it has either venetians or two small his other hand is a leather or brass vessel, con- who have laboured and intended to seduce windows in each end. From the centre of taining two quarts of oil (see Matt. xxv. 4). the passions into vice, or the judgment into each end of the palankeen run out poles three- Having girded up their loins, they place the the rejection of divine truth; but to the geneand-a-half feet long, which are supported by palankeen before the door. When the traveller ral community of those elegant and ingenious iron rods from each corner, meeting on the is seated, the three men at each pole raise their authors who are read and admired by the pole, six or eight inches from the body. Though clasped hands to their faces, in the attitude of Christian world, held essential to a liberal a palankeen be thus large, it is generally made prayer; and then, bowing a little with their education, and to the progressive accomplishof light materials, so that, when empty, it may faces towards the palankeen, they invoke the ment of the mind in subsequent life, and stueasily be raised by four men to the shoulders. protection and blessing of their gods. How died often without an apprehension, or even a

Early after noon, on the day appointed for much instruction and reproof from the example thought, of their injuring the views and temcommencing the journey, half a dozen or more of the heathen!

per of spirits advancing, with the New Testacoolies (baggage-bearers) call for their burdens. While moving on at a slow gait, the first ment for their chief instructor and guide, into Each man has a cloth, answering for a pack, few minutes are occupied in * getting the another world. swinging over his shoulders, in which are his step,” by which they move on with more ease

It is modern literature that I have more parluncheon, knife, tobacco, &c. On his head is to themselves and the person whom they carry; ticularly in view; at the same time, it is oba small parcel of straw, in a circular form, commencing, at the same time, their song, vious that the writings of heathen antiquity adapted to his head, on which he carries his “ Ha Hum, Ha Hum,” by which the step is have continued to operate till now, in the very load. Each man, also, has a staff, for his regulated. The monotony of this song is soine- presence and sight of Christianity, with their support in rugged paths, or when fording ri- times broken by some one more merry than own proper influence, a correctly heathenish vers; to the head of this staff are attached a the rest ; who, with the apparent design of influence, on the minds of many who have number of fat pieces of steel, which, by their driving away melancholy or of pleasing their never thought of denying or doubting the jingling, frighten away serpents, and even employer, raises his voice and sings, “Good truth of that religion. This is just as if an wild beasts, at night. The burden for one gentleman good pay will give.” When tired eloquent pagan priest had been allowed concooly is generally about sixty pounds, and

stantly to accompany our Lord in his ministry, this he carries thirty miles a day. Being ac In English money, one shilling and nine pence. I and had divided with him the attention and

and pride,

my hair

interest of his disciples, counteracting, of on the greatest part of the theological dogmas | But still they were captives ; and when, with course, as far as his efforts were successful, and fancies of even the very philosophers who

delight, the doctrine and spirit of the Teacher from would cite and applaud them. They rather They would gaze on their babes with affection heaven.

direct our contemplation and affection toward a It is, however, no part of my object to re- religion divinely revealed, than obtain any de- That thought would embitter, and wither, and

blight mark on the infuence, in modern times, of gree of favour for those notions of the Divinity

Those pleasures to nature and feeling allied. the fabulous religion that infested the ancient which sprung and indefinitely multiplied from works of genius. That influence is, at the a melancholy combination of ignorance and

And thus when before them my Manitan played, present time, I should think, extremely small, depraved imagination. As to the


And I joined in his gambols all thoughtlessly from the fables being so stale; all readers are analogy between certain particulars in the

gay, sufficiently tired of Jupiter, Apollo, Minerva, pagan religions, and some of the most specific It clouded those moments of pleasure, they said, and the rest. As long, however, as they could articles of Christianity, those notions are pre To think that their children were captives as be of the smallest service, they were piously sented in such fantastic, and varying, and

they. retained by the Christian poets of this and often monstrous, shapes, that they can be of other countries, who are now under the neces no prejudice to the Christian faith, either by But for me, gay and heedless of sorrows to come, sity of seeking out for some other mythology, pre-occupying in our minds the place of the While with Manitan blessed, scarce for freedom the northern or the eastern, to support the Christian doctrines, or by indisposing us to I sighed; languishing spirit of poetry. Even the ugly admit them, or by perverting our conception Together we toiled, and at evening would roam pieces of wood, worshipped in the South Sea of them.

Throu the glens and savannahs with love for Islands, will probably at last receive names As to the ancient metaphysical speculation, our guide. that may more commodiously hitch into verse, whatever may be the tendency of metaphysical and be invoked to adorn and sanctify the study in general, or of the particular systems Love lightened my task 'neath this vertical sun, belles lettres of the next century. The Mexi of modem philosophers, as affecting the cor

Shed a lustre on hours else joyless and dim; can abominations and infernalities have al- dial and simple admission of Christian doc- And the juice of the guana, when labour was done, ready received from us their epic tribute. The trines, the ancient metaphysics may certainly

Was more sweet to my taste when presented poet has no reason to fear that the supply of be pronounced inoperative and harmless.

by him. gods may fail; it is at the same time a pity, one thinks, that a creature so immense should

And our master revered, whose delight and whose

pride have been placed in a world so small as this,

Was to see his slaves moral and happy, had said, where all nature, all history, all morals, all


That before the sweet cane should be gathered, a true religion, and the whole resources of in

bride nocent fiction, are too little to furnish mate-Though my skin may be sable and coarse, and

To the altar by Manitan I should be led. rials enough for the wants and labours of his genius.

Want the grace of those ringlets that wave on The few observations which the subject may

thy brow,

But why on delights that are past should I dwell?

What a dreadful reverse we were destined to require to be made on ancient literature, wiil Yet think not my Manitan deems me less fair,

Or less lovely, bright maiden of Albion, than prove! be directed to the part of it most immediately


That master so kind, whom we loved but too well, descriptive of what may be called human rea

Was suddenly called to his Master above. lity, representing character, sentiment, and These eyes once were bright, though now faded action. For it will be allowed that the purely and dim

His son to his slaves and plantations was heir ; speculative part of that literature has, in a Is their lustre, and shone with affection as true, Oh! had he his virtues inherited too, great measure, ceased to interfere with the When their dark-beaming glances were shed upon The choicest of blessings had now been my share, intellectual discipline of modern times. It him,

Nor the tale of my sorrows been wept o'er by you. obtains too little attention, and too little de As e'er shone in those eyes, though so melting

and blue. ference, to contribute materially to the forma

But selfish, and sordid, and cruel, and proud, tion of the mental habits which are adverse

Devoid of all feeling of honour and truth, to the Christian doctrines and spirit. Divers And though nurtured in bondage, to slavery born, The negro, with age and infirmity bowed, learned and fanatical devotees to antiquity The bursts of affection will not be restrained : Relentless he thrust from the home of his youth; and paganism have, indeed, made some effort The hands and the feet may with fetters be worn, to recall the long departed veneration for the

But the feelings of nature can never be chained. And left him neglected to pine and to die : dreams and subtleties of ancient philosophy.

'Twas thus my dear parents from comfort were But they might, with as good a prospect of In a glen of South Afric our fathers were born,

driven, success, recommend the building of temples

Together they roamed over mountains and Without one kind friend save their Father on or a pantheon, and the revival of the institui-The same fate pursued them, for one fatal morn


high, tions of idolatrous worship. The greater num

Or the hope of a home but in yonder bright

Saw them dragged to the slave.ship and loaded heaven. her of intelligent, and even learned men, would

with chains ! feel but little regret in consigning the largest

For me, I was sold, and my Manitan too, proportion of that philosophy to oblivion; un

The horrors they witnessed, the sufferings they But not to one master. To this distant isle less they may be supposed to like it as hea


I was banished, from parents and lover so true, thenism more than they admire it as wisdom ; Would harrow the soul if the half were but

Ne'er to join in his tears, or be cheered by his or unless their pride would wish to retain a

smile. reminiscence of it for contrast to their own Let it pass ! -- they were borne to this pitiless more rational philosophizing.

shore, The ancient speculations of the religious

And, exposed to the mart, to one master were

Here hopeless I toil 'neath a vertical sun,

And the hours, alas! are now joyless and order include, indeed, some splendid ideas re


dim, lating to a Supreme Being; but these ideas

And the juice of the guana, when labour is done, impart no attraction to that immensity of Their master was good; and if slaves can rejoice Has lost all its sweetness, no more shared with inane and fantastic follies, from the chaos of If kindness can teach them their woes to forget

him. which they stand out, as of nobler essence and

That eye, beaming pity, that kind gentle voice,

Had diffused a bright glow where hope's last ray But weep not, dear lady! there yet is for me origin. For the most part, they probably were

had set. traditionary remains of divine communications

A home in the land where the weary shall rest; to man in the earliest ages. A few of them It was he who first showed them religion, arrayed

There my spirit, by Jesus redeemed, shall be

free were, jossibly, the utmost efforts of human

In the loveliest robes, in the mildest of forms; intellect, at some happy moments excelling

From all thraldom and pain, and eternally To them had the sign of the cross been displayed

blessed. itself. But, in whatever proportions they be As a shade from the heat, a shelter from storms. referred to the one origin or the other, they stand so distinguished from the accumulated And love, which to life is the solace or bane,

But plead for the captive-sweet lady, oh, plead! multifarious vanities of pagan speculation on

When thy footsteps again shall press England's On theirs his soft say most benignly had shed ;

blest shore, the subject of Deity, that they throw contempt And each to the altar, in yon holy fane,

That the slave from captivity soon may be freed on those speculations. They throw contempt A bright-eyed but ebony maiden had led. And Britons may license oppression no more!

told ;

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They did constantly, at least whenever it was is flogged in an early state of pregnancy, that cir. thought necessary

cumstance being possibly unknown either to her“Will you describe the manner in which such self or the manager ? foggings were inflicted ?

"" Yes, I believe that is the fact. A SECOND LETTER FROM LEGION TO THE

“On the estates under my care I never allowed Does not this often injure and destroy the Duke of RICHMOND; containing an Ana-them to be flogged, so that I never saw one there. foetus ? lysis of the Anti-Slavery Evidence produced I never happened to be admitted to see it on any Yes, sometimes ; I have known instances before the Committee of the House of Lords. one. I have seen it in the St. Andrew's work where it has not. London. S. Bagster. pp. 152.

house. I saw four or five women flogged ; they “ Have you not yourself seen an instance of a

were of all ages; one of sixteen, another of twen severe flogging of two women by a driver, in which The readers of Legion's former Letter will ty-two, another of thirty-five, and an old woman you were urged by a military friend, a stranger to be prepared to find in the present publication female punishment I ever witnessed, and I never good as to state the circumstances.

of sixty, a grey-headed woman ; that was the only the colony, to interfere ? and if you have, be so marks of an acute and vigorous mind, together wish to witness it again. They were very dreadful. " I saw two women flogged: I would not call with such habits of analysis and comparison They were made fast by means of a block and it severe flogging, for it was nothing compared to as materially promote the interests of truth. tackle they had in the workhouse, which not only the flogging I have described in the first part of In this expectation they will not be disap- confined them, but stretched them—they were my examination ; but riding in a remote part of pointed. The voluminous and important evi- flogged with a cat-o’-nine-tails. I do not mean the island, I came upon the spot, and saw the dence given by various anti-slavery witnesses to say that the stretching was done to add to the punishment. I did interfere, but it was useless, has been arrayed by Legion with considerable torture, but it was unavoidable. I spoke to two for it was legal. The individual who was employed skill and effect. He has thus successfully ex negroes who were punished in that workhouse, in flogging told me, very firmly but very respecthibited the nature and duration of slave-labour, and they told me it was the severest part of the fully, that he could not help it-he was a slave the coercion and discipline which are main punishments; their expression was, that they were himself-he was obliged to do it, and was acting stretched till their backs cracked.

under his orders, and those orders were perfectly tained, the demoralized state of colonial so

“ Are children liable to be flogged ?

legal. I was myself a mugistrate of the neighbourciety, the hostility to religion, the waste of human life, and numerous other kindred to provides no limitation as to age or sex.

“ All slaves are liable to be fogged—the law ing district, but I could not interfere.

* If one had been his mother, and the other his pics. We cannot speak too highly of the pub “ Have any other such instances come within sister, he would have been equally obliged to flog lication, or recommend it too strongly to our your knowledge, and in which no redress has been them? friends. It is one of the most effective pub- attainable ?

Yes; the law makes no reservation. (Vide lications which have been raised by the friends I have met with many instances of very cruel pp. 577, 578.) of emancipation, and cannot fail to make a treatment, but on examining into them there was “ Is it within your knowledge that slaves are deep impression. The following evidence, no law to meet them, and therefore it was impos- deterred from marri by the repugnance they given by Mr. Taylor, the manager of three sible to do any thing. There was another case of feel to the indecent flogging of their wives and plantations, is of so horrible a nature as to

a girl of nineteen; the only redress her friends daughters, though they are comparatively indif. make the blood run cold. Should any object had was to get her manumitted ; an individual ferent about such treatment of their concubines ?

. I have heard slaves state that. to the quotation of such passages, that it is applied for her manumission ; her owner, a cruel

woman, I suppose did not wish to get into alter “ Is it not the constant custom that the wives' not consistent with delicacy, we take liberty cation with this person, and she consented to sell and daughters of the slaves are thus flogged in the to remark that that delicacy must be morbid her, and she is now free. She was severely flogged presence of their nearest relatives? which would secure impunity to the perpetra- in the St. Andrew's workhouse, worked in the “ Yes; they are flogged in what is called in tors of such cruelties. No, they must be known chain, and flogged after. There was no redress this country the farm yard, at the entrance of the in all their offensiveness, that the deep repro- for it; I could only tell them that the mistress overseer's house ; the punishments take place in bation of the British public should be promptly had a legal right to do so.

the presence of a body of persons. expressed.

“ That number is sufficient to be very severe ? "Where their nearest relatives may be ?

“ It is. I can only state, that I have known “ Yes, or they take place in the field. “Did you ever know an instance of a hole being eighteen lashes cause a degree of suffering that Does it not at the same time happen that dug to enable the driver to place a negro woman was dreadful, and called for notice ; but the law those relatives are employed to flog them? that was pregnant in the hole to flog her ?

having allowed thirty-nine lashes, the parties who “ It may happen ; but never having superin“Yes; I was told that by the head driver of sought redress were completely baffled. The case tended those punishments myself, I cannot speak Papine, a man that I have every reason to believe was one of a young girl of eighteen who received with confidence. A driver is compelled to log any was respectable, a man I had very little to do with. eighteen lashes; it was one on which every man person he is directed to flog-he has no choice." I had been told those stories about flogging preg- felt deeply, and the chief magistrate of the parish -(Vide p. 581.) nant women. My attention being called to the took it up very warmly, the official people of the subject, I was exceedingly anxious to arrive at the parish took it up very warmly, but the overseer truth by asking other people, and I was determined

set them all at defiance by simply pointing to the GOD'S WORKS OUGHT TO BE INto ask the negroes, and overseers, and book

QUIRED INTO, AND THAT SUCH keepers. Among others, I asked this head driver “ Have any other instances come within your INQUIRIES ARE COMMENDABLE. of Papine, a decent man, as I thought him, and own knowledge of harsh treatment and cruelty ? he told me one instance in which he had himself Yes; if I referred to my notes, I could speak

The Creator doubtless did not bestow so inficted the punishment. The woman was preg

There was one came under my notice much curiosity and exquisite workmanship and nant, and he told his story very clearly. This just when I was coming away, the very last that skill upon his creatures, to be looked upon with woman had been punished in that way. What came within my own knowledge. I remember a a careless, incurious eye, especially to have made me believe it was,—this was a woman who poor creature came to me to complain, thinking I them slighted or contemned; but to be admired had carried some complaint to Mr. Wildman ; she could do something for him. He stated himself by the rational part of the world, to magnify complained of her being punished and losing her to have been most barbarously fogged ; and on children in the womb, and after that she brought his being stripped, which I caused him to be, his out all the world, and the ages thereof. And,

his own power, wisdom, and goodness, throughforth her children. His impression was, that the body did present a most dreadful aspect. He was loss of the fætus was in consequence of this. This suffering at the time from disease ; he was weak therefore, we may look upon it as a great driver told me there was an excavation made, and in body, he was perfectly unfit to be punished, error, not to answer those ends of the infinite she was placed in it, and he flogged her with a however fla ious his conduct might have been. Creator, but rather to oppose and affront them. whip, and afterwards, I think, with the ebony 1 told him what the law was ; that he might go On the contrary, my text commends God's switch. After giving them the thirty-nine, they before the magistrate and exhibit his person, which works, not only for being great, but also apswitch them. There was another respectable of itself was abundant evidence, and call for a proves of those curious and ingenious inquirers Degro upon the estate whom I examined sepa- Council of Protection ; but the man said there was that seek them out, or pry into them. And the rately. He had not been present, but he said he no vise in doing that ; that it would end in his

more we pry into them, and discover of them, believed the thing did happen, and that during his getting another lashing, and that he would rather the greater and more glorious we find them to residence on the estate those things had often hap- let it pass unless I would go with him, which I be, the more worthy of, and the more expressly pened ; that pregnant women were often flogged, and could not, for I was about to embark for England. to proclaim, their great Creator. he believed every woman upon the estate had been “ Have you any means of knowing whether this flogged over and over again. This was before Mr.

Commendable, then, are the researches poor creature obtained redress? Wildman went out to Jamaica.”

"I am sure he got none, for he determined to

which many amongst us have, of late years, 11. Are female slaves liable to be flogged equally go home. I should doubt whether he was alive, made into the works of nature, more than have with the males? for he seemed in bad health ; I think he must

been done in some ages before. And, there“ Certainly ; when I was in Jamaica that was have died some months after.-(Vide pp. 570, fore, when we are asked Cui bono ? — To what the case decidedly. 571.)

purpose such inquiries, such pains, such ex“ Do they, in point of fact, receive fogging ? “ Does not it often happen tbat a female slave pence?--the answer is easy : It is to answer


to some.

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