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The negroes

It is in vain to reason with those who refuse employment of capital in prospective plans ul agri- Mackenzie prove that Hayti possesses a regular

disgrace. Happily for the interests of huma- | all, whether it punish or protect. The rights of 1 THE TOURIST. nity, the formidable armament of France only property are inviolable, and every individual has

served to proclaim to Europe, the estimation the free and uncontrolled power of disposing a " MONDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1833. in which the negro held his freedom, and the be pleases of whatever belongs to him. The sys

sagacity and courage with which he could de tem is becoming general of dividing the laod into fend it. But the effects of this struggle were

small allotments, where the Haytian farmers culTHE SAFETY OF IMMEDIATE EMANlong felt. In the latter part of it, extermina

tivate provisions and other articles, and rear cattle, CIPATION. tion rather than conquest was the object of piss, poultry, &c., for their own use, or for sale

Labourers are hired by the day or week, weekly the French. Neither sex nor age was spared labourers being paid on Saturday. No. III.

On large -cultivation was driven from the plains, and estates contracts are entered into between the

every means employed to spread famine and proprietors and labourers, for a certain term, of ST. DOMINGO. disease through the island.

one, three, or five years, renewable with mutual "Is it to be wondered at, that, under these cir- consent ; one fourth, and latterly, as will be seen

cumstances, Hayti should have ceased to export hereafter, one half of the produce being secured Continued from p. 181. tropical produce? And how perfectly absurd; and who have Saturday and Sunday entirely to

to the labourers, who are also fed from the estate, This state of things continued till the peace therefore, are all the reasonings which by a com. of Amiens in 1802, when Buonaparte fitted parison of exports from that island in 1789 with themselves, with garden grounds to cultivate 03

those of 1805, would endeavour to establish the those days if they think proper; while the proout a powerful armament for the purpose of inaptitude of a black population for productive in prietor or renter pays all outgoings except labour, reducing the negroes of St. Domingo to their dustry? To secure the means of subsistence, in

and provides for medical attendance and medicines, former state of slavery. We have seen, that case of another invasion, and to defeat that inva- and for the care of children. The legal punishup to this period no evil consequences had fol- sion, if attempted, become now the grand objects ments for offenders are fine and imprisonment. lowed Emancipation.

were of Haytian solicitude. It was made a fundamen- Corporal punishments are by law wholly abolished. peaceable and the colony was flourishing it tal law of the state, that the moment an enemy

Men and women labour together without distiocwas yet subject to France, under whose autho- should begin to debark on the shores of the island, tion; but the men in larger proportion than the rity Toussaint held command. This state of that moment every town on the coast and every

women, who are generally charged with the duties things is a practical refutation of the state building on the plain should disappear, and the of the kitchen. T'he labourers are punishable, by

fine and imprisonment, for not fulfilling their conments of our opponents, respecting the ruinous whole of the population betake themselves, the

tracts; or for absenting themselves without leave effects which will be realized in our colonies And this state of uncertainty and peril, necessarily except on Saturdays and Sundays from the if slavery be immediately abolished. It shows fatal to all schemes and efforts of prospective in

on that the negro mind is competent to act with dustry, continued to operate, in a greater or less

or for changing their place of abode without a discretion, amid the new circumstances to degree, until the year 18:26, when France first re

passport; and they are prohibited from keeping which freedom would give rise,--that the or bounced her right to atiempi again the subjugation shops or exercising trades without a licence, as, dinary laws of human conduct are as applica of her ancient colony.

indeed, all persons are, such licences being, in ble to the African as to the inhabitants of Now, in all this long interval, what induce-Hayti, one main source of revenue. Europe. If the immense population of St. ment was there to expend capital in re-erecting

• Such is the general condition of the agriculDomingo could pass, with safety to themselves sugar.works, and in renewing, on the plains of tural labourers of Hayti in point of law, even and to the white inhabitants, from slavery to

this island, those large agricultural establishments according to the evidence to be found in the which had been so completely destroyed? As for

official report of Mr. Mackenzie. freedom, without the slightest preparatory

He nowhere measures having been instituted, how pre

capital, inderd, it had no existence. The ventures to tell us that they are over-worked or

very posterous are the fears which the colonists af

mians and instruments required for the culture, under-fed. Indeed, the very contrary may be fect, of the consequences to themselves and preparation, manufacture, and safe keeping of ex

inferred from the whole of his writings. We hear portable produce were annihilated, and had now

not one syllable from him of their want or disthe negroes, from the emancipation of the latter! If in the midst of a civil war, when

as it were to be recreated; and was not this the tress, or of the severity of exaction or the cruelty very state of all others in which we might have

of treatment to which they are subject. But if, they had been encouraged in pillage and mur- expected to see realized those prophetic wailings turning our eyes from the agricultural class, we der by their masters, they could profit by the of returning barbarism which we are told must in

take a view of the general state of society in this bestowment of freedom, with how much more fallibly accompany negro freedom? But what is community of emancipated slaves, we shall find certainty may we calculate on the happy ef the bistorical fact? li is, that in spite of all the that they have made such advances in the im-. fects which would issue from a similar boon ruin which had thus overspread the island ; in provement of their social and political institutions

as infallibly indicate great progress in the arts of in our comparatively thinly populated islands! spite of the innumerable discouragements which

combined to obstruct industrious effort, and the civilized life. The documents produced by Mr. to admit the soundness of such an inference. But to return to our narrative. General cultural improvement; in spite of all the disor

constitution laws . Vincent, a military officer and proprietor of St.

ganising and demoralising circumstances in which dently founded on good sense and justice; an the people of Hayti have since been placed ; they

adequate admioistrative system of jurisprudence; Domingo, arrived in France with a communi have continued to struggle with their difficulties,

a fiscal establishment which appears to be well cation from Toussaint, just at the moment of and have risen superior to them; they have con.

regulated and effective; a well-disciplined military the peace of Amiens. He instantly repaired tinued to improve their social and civil condition,

force; and a police which seems to give security, to Buonaparte, then first consul, and endea- and, instead of declining in civilization, as we

to person and property. The whole of its laws, voured to dissuade him from the prosecution were assured would infallibly be the case, they

too, are clearly and intelligibly expressed, so as of his design, assuring him that he could not have been progressively advancing in its per comedy and, being printed and universally circulated, are

to be level to the capacity of the most ignorant, succeed, and that the peaceable and prosperous state of the colony rendered it unneces

but previously to that period ; and a decisive accessible to all; so that every Kaytian may proof of such advance is to be found in the single

easily make himself acyuainted with all his social, sary. But his efforts were ineffectual, and banishment to the Isle of Elba rewarded his fact, that, in the interval between 1804 and 1824, civil, and political rights, relations, and duries, manly and faithful conduct. The armament Hayti more than doubled its population.”

while every thing connected with them is open also

to i he examination and criticism of strangers." sailed, and the happy and flourishing island

It is probably known to most of our readers

Mr. Buxton, in his examination before the became a scene of outrage, cruelty, and blood. that the West India party have represented The French army was commanded by Le agricultural labour in ayti to be as coercive Lords' Committee, was asked, Clerc, who, having perfidiously seized Touisas in our slave islands, and the condition of

“ Have you made inquiries into the moral coo. sant, was opposed by Dessalines, afterwards the labourer to be worse than that of the dition of the inhabitants of Hayti, or the free emperor of the island. The atrocities wbich

Let such statements be reconciled

people of colour in our own colonies ; and what is were practised by the planters have never been with the following facts before they are again the result of those inquiries, if you have made

thein ?-1 have made inquiries as to Hayti, and exceeded amongst the most savage tribes. proposed for our belief:Having induced the French Consul to under The Haytian laws have utterly abolished the result of those inquiries is, that the people are take the expedition, they endeavoured, by every slavery. They proscribe and wholly abolish the .. a very prosperous state iudeed, and that there

is by no means any great proportion of crimes means which craft and worse than Spanish use of the whip, both as a stimulus to labour and cruelty could dictate, to insure its success. as ap instrument of punishment. They give to

amungst them; that is the result of the inquiries

I have been able to make. But all their efforts failed. The proud mili- rights. Every man is admissible to all offices, the whole body of the people the same equal

"* Does that prosperity consist of the mere come tary of France won no honour on the plains whatever be his colour. The law is the same for forts of their own, or are they exporting ?-1 be of Hayti, and the miserable remnant of their force was ultimately compelled to retire in

Report of the Lords, p. 850, 21

Ibid. p. 864

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lieve it is confined very much to their own com our colonies, but the government do not encourage through any apprehension of evit. . Facts forts, and I should not have doubted it at all if I it.

establish the principles of the abolitionists. had not met by accident with a parliamen'ary “ If the investment of capital in the cultivation The providence of God unites with the dictates American paper, not very long ago, in which the of sugar by free labour in Hayti would be profita- of his holy word; and woe will be unto those Americans say, that the export trade to Hayti, ble to individuals, and as it would also be profita- who, at such a time and in such circumin domestic products, amounted to 1,251,910 dol- ble to the state that capital should be so invested, lars, equal to the whole of our exports to Russia , how do you account for capital not being so in- stances, refuse to exert themselves on behalf

of the oppressed !

T.
Prussia. Sweden and Norway, Denmark, Spain, vested ?-The insecurity of the country; they
and Portugal.'

have been hardly out of a state of revolution yet ;
Admiral Fleming was examined before the
it was during the period I visited St. Domingo the

A COMMON CHARACTER. last time that the Spaniards made a claim upon Nor altogether wicked, but so weak, Commons' Committee on the same points:

them for the Spanish half of the island, and they That greater villains made of him their tool ; “ Can you give the committee any information were obliged to raise a large army to defend the Not void of talent, yet so much a fool as to the industry of the inhabitants of Hayti ?- country, which prevented their atiending to culti- As honour by dishonest means to seek ; During the year 1827 I understood there was con vation.'

Proud to the humble, to the haughty meek ; siderable difficulty in getting labourers, but after

The extent of our quotations prevents us

In flattery servile, insolent in rule; wards I heard of none; both white and black people assured me, that there was no difficulty in from dwelling on the conclusion to which the Keen for his own, for others' interest cool ; facts of this case so irresistibly lead. The past This man, with abject meanness join'd to pride,

Hate in his heart, and smiles upon his cheek : getting people to labour, and they appeared to me to be iudustrious. progress and present condition of the black

Was yet a pleasant fellow in bis day; “ Did they work for wages ?-Yes.

population of Hayti assure us of the safety For all unseemly traits he well could hide, “Did they work by compulsion ?-No, I never with which slavery might be abolished through. Whene'er he mingled with the great and gay; saw any people working by compulsion; I have out our colonies, and will leave us without But he is buried now-and, when he died, been told that deserted soldiers, and people who excuse if we defer this work of righteousness! No one seem'd sorry that he was away! were vagabonds, worked by compulsion ; people who were about the country, without any fixed residence, or any fixed employment; what would be called vagabonds or vagrants in this country.

“Were they kept to work under the lash ?-No, I never heard of that.

". Are you aware that there is a prohibition against all corporal punishment in that country? -Yes, I know there is.

"Did they appear to you to be living comfortably ?-Yes; the most happy, the richest, the best fed, and the most comfortable negroes that I saw in the West Indies were in Hayti, even better than in the Carraccas.

“ Were they decidedly better than the slaves in Jamaica !-No comparison.

“What were their victuals, compared with the food of the slaves in Jamaica; were they superior or much the same ?—They were fed on meat principally ; cattle is very cheap in Hayti.

" Is meat much cheaper in Hayti than in Ja-
maica ?-Yes; much cheaper : it is 2d a pound,

EDINBURGH CASTLE.
whilst the contract price in Jamaica is 12d. ; in
both places these are the highest prices.

The castle of Edinburgh stands on as the square tower, is the apartment called "Were you able to perceive any difference at high rock, accessible only on the east the crown room, wherein are deposited the Cape in the latter period of 1829, compared side. On all others it is very steep, and the Scottish regalia, consisting of the with the former period of 1828 ; had any progress in some places perpendicular. It is about crown, sceptre, and sword of state, which had been tranquil at that time, and it appeared to 300 feet high from its base, and 383 were placed here on the 26th of March, me that there was more trade the last time than at above the level of the sea. The entrance 1707. It was long doubted whether these the former, and there were several more schools to this fortress is defended by an outer ensigns of royalty had not been removed ; established.

"On the whole, would you say that civilisation barrier of palisadoes ; within this is a dry but, in 1818, when commissioners were was progressing ?--Yes, certainly, rapidly." ditch, draw-bridge, and gate, defended appointed by his late Majesty, then Prince

The same witness fully accounts for the by two batteries which flank it; and the Regent, to search for them, a large oaken Haytians not exporting sugar ; of which fact whole is commanded by a half-moon chest in the crown room was forced open, the pro-slavery writers are accustomed to make mounted with cannon. Beyond these and the relics of the Scottish monarchy so disingenuous a use:

are two gate-ways, the first of which is were discovered. They were found in a Do they import any sugar in Hayti?-Not very strong, and has two portcullises. state of the most perfect preservation, that I know of; I believe they may import. The Immediately beyond the second gate- and have since been open to the inspecthey had no means of making it into sugar, nor way, on the right hand, is a battery tion of the public. The crown room was any capital to set up works.

mounted with cannon, carrying balls of neatly fitted up for the exhibition of " What were the causes stated to you ?-The 12 and 18 lbs. weight. On the north them; and two persons, in the dress of destruction of the works, and the want of capital side are a mortar and some gun batte- the wardens of the tower, attended to tending to other more 'urgent concerns, feeding ries. The upper part of the castle con- show them to visitors. The governor of themselves and making clothes : besides, the go: tains a half-moon battery, a chapel, a the castle is generally a Scottish noblevernment do not encourage making sugar, to avoid parade for exercise, and a number of man; and there is a deputy governor, giving offence to the sugar colonies. Did you never hear the unwillingness of the free laid out in barracks for the officers. There major, a store-keeper, master gunner, and

houses in the form of a square, which are who resides in the garrison ; also a fortblack population to work at the cultivation of sugar assigned as a reason ?-Never ; on the contrary, 1 are also other barracks sufficient to con- chaplain. In its present improved state was told that they were very ready to work if they tain 1200 men ; a powder magazine, this castle can accommodate 2000 men; were paid. "Did you ever hear the necessary rate of

bomb-proof; a grand arsenal, capable but its natural strength of situation was

wages of free labour, as compared with the lower cost of of containing 8000 stand of arms; and not sufficient to render it impregnable, production in the maintenance of slaves, assigned other apartments which can contain full even before the invention of artillery, as a reason why sugas could not be profitably cul- 22,000 more. On the east side of the much less would it be capable of securing Europeans settled in St. Domingo have told me that square were formerly royal apartment it against the attacks of a modern army they thought they could make sugar cheaper in

in one of which King James VI...was provided with cannon, Haydi wiùs free labour than with slave labour in born. In this quarter, immediately under

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pp. 196.

ро

REVIEW.

work, Lord Seaford was, in vulgar phrase, sold “ Was that given in consequence of the proup, and compelled to fly to Jamaica, to look after hibition of the Sunday market after eleven

the wreck of that property which the whole ques- o'clock !" A LETTER FROM LEGION TO THE Duke of vion involved. Was such a man, with feeliogs I do not eractly recollect whether it was at

RICHMOND, Chairman of the Slavery Com rankling under a sense of recent injury, a fit the time.” mittee of the House of Lords: containing judge to be named upon this Committee ?

“ Can your Grace, by reference to the Act, An Exposure of the Character of the Evi ". But Spiritual Peers were added to give to state how the law stood upon that point previously dence on the Colonial Side, produced before it weight with the public; and was your Grace, to this passing ?” the Committee. London, S. Bagster. 8vo.

or your Grace's coadjutors, so uninformed

upon

“ I cannot, unless I had the Negro code of that the Colonial question, as not to know that the day to refer to. I have had nothing to do with

conduct of all the Spiritual Peers, on this deli- these things for so long, and never expecting to The appointment in 1832 of a Parliamen- cate subject, has been such as to lower them in have any thing more to say upon the subject, I do tary Committee to inquire into the State of the public estimation? It is known by all who have not bear these things in mind.”—(Vide p. 383.) Slave Population, surprised and disappointed taken any part in the controversy that the Bishops Is your Grace aware what is the penalty for the country. The friends of humanity had are, er officio, slave proprietors; and their man- exceeding a legal punishment ?" supposed that the design of such a proposition agement of the Codrington estates has sufficiently " I do not recollect what it is. There is one, I. from the Colonial party was too well under- proved, how readily they chime in with Colonial know.” stood in the present day to allow of its suc- feelings, and how promptly they echo the Colo “ Has your Grace ever heard an instance of cess; and in this opinion they were confirmed nial cuckoo-note of amelioration, as a substitute such a penalty being enforced ?"

I do not recollect. I have heard instances of by the dispatch of Viscount Ġoderich, of No- for freedom! These holy men have an account

to reckon with their God upon this topic; and cruelty to Negroes, and punishment for it; what vember 5, 1831. It has been an old maneuvre

to that awful reckoning I leave them. But there it amounted to I do not recollect.-(Vide p. 389.) of the party, and ought to be scouted by every is a vast body of the public who feel with myhonest man. It is in vain to tell the British self that the Spiritual Peers, dreading, as they Jamaica, seems determined throughout his

Mr. Baillie, a twenty-seven-year resident in public they have not sufficient knowledge on do, and as a large majority of them have acwhich to act

. They know to the contrary, and knowledged in reference to this very question that evidence to do good service to his friends, and will not be deluded by any Colonial artifice.- they do, that all reform trenches upon invasion yet, poor man, there is scarcely one of all the Our opponents, like the magicians and astro- of ecclesiastical property, were the least unob witnesses examined, who has rendered more logers of Babylon, want to gain time. In their jectionable of all judges upon the Colonial con- important aid to the Abolitionists. His addesperation, they madly hope that some oceur

troversy. Yet, Sir, I am a churchman; I have missions, it is true, were undesigned; but they rences may betál the nation, which shall avext all my relatives ; and I love and respect the following be taken as a sample.

been educated as a churchman, in common with are not less valuable on this account. Let the its attention from the degradation and misery church to which I belong, but not ils slaveof the slave. They dread the emancipation of

Does not much licentious intercourse take possessing fathers !» their bondsmen-and, while hopeless of ulti

place between the white classes and the slave mate success, are yet determined to protract

The object of our author is to show, from pulation, whether black or coloured ?" the struggle to the latest possible moment.

an examination of the Colonial evidence, the “ I do not consider that there is any licentious If, however, it was determined by Parlia- self-interest, or the implied or confessed ig- connection between them, if I may be permitted to ment again to institute inquiry, the country norance, or the incousisteney, of every wit-1 put this construction upon it: white p-ople are in

the habit of having a woman living with them, had a right to expect that the composition of ness; and, in some instances, we have no

and I believe in most instances in the same way the committee should have been such as af- hesitation in asserting, he has proved them forded a pledge for the honest and impartial guilty on each count. We regret that our

as man and wife do in this country,-kept mis. discharge of its duties. No slave-holding peer limits will not permit us to extract largely

tresses as they are rulleil; but as to any violation should have been permitted to rank amongst from this pamphlet

; but we hope our readers of decency I have not seen it.

“ Does that take place to a greater extent than its members. Such a pecuniary interest in the will examine it carefully for theinselves.

in this country?" existing state of things should have been The following quotation from the exami Not halt so much." deemed a total disqualification for such a

nation of the Duke of Manchester, an Ex “ In point of fact, do you not know that alpost.

Governor of Jamaica, displays an ignorance most every overseer, book keeper, and person in “ It will not be disputed, (says Legion) that at once astounding and disgraceful. Mere authoriiy, keeps a coloured mistress ?"

“ Not altogether coloured mistresses ; the members of the tribunal by which such a ques- forgetfulness can scarcely be supposed to ac

keep blacks; and I believe the brown population was to be decided should be men of intelli-count for his replies.

tion have originated entirely from that connexion. gence; of information ; patient, indefatigable, “ Will your Grace have the goodness to exand, above all, disinterested and impartial; or, if plain to the Committee how the law upon that people of that description, when they get chil

An overseer, carpenter, mason, or other white a bias were permissible, that bias, according to the subject stood prior to that Act?"

dren, have been the means of having them emanspirit of British taw, should have been in favour of I am not certain whether there was any law cipated. Such constitute the bulk of our brown the weaker party.

regarding the separation of families before that." “ I appeal not to the party feelings of your Does your Grace know whether, in practice,

population."

in Can you mention the names of any among Grace--not to the personal attachments of your care was taken not to separate families in sales ?" Grace--not to the prepossessions of your Grace-

I do not know that ihere was.”

your own acquaintance who do not keep a coloured

mistress, or who, if they do, practise such secresy but lo that high sense of knigbily honour by " Your Grace has had two clauses submitted to

that it is wholly unknown to you ?" which you seek to be distinguished, whether such your consideration ; do you consider those clauses

“ I should consider myself a very mean chawas the composition of the Lords' Slavery Com- tending to improve the condition of the slaves ?"

racter if I waz to investigate the conduct of any mittee. I too declare myself a party man, not in " I do consider so certainly, so far as they a political sense, but in reference to this ques. look to marriage, which, perhaps, they may think

of my acquaintance, either here or abroad, as

to their connexions with women." tion. I am an anti-slavery man to the back more of now than they did formerly ; but when I

“ So far from meaning to ask you to crimibone. But, even in an analysis of anti-slavery first knew the island they thought nothing of it.and pro-slavery evidence, party-feeling shall not “ In the latter part of the fifth clause it pro- friend from such criminality, by giving the name

nate any friend, you are asked to absolve any govern me; and, with a consciousness of this, I hibits the separation of families by sale, only when of any one who does not ?" feel myself entitled to ask your Grace whether in levied together; is there or was there any and what " I do not myself.” the nomination of the Peers' Committee party law, to prevent their separation by separate levies

The winess is direrted to withd:aw. feeling or party interests were forgotten?

or by voluntary sales ?'' “ Look' at the members of this Committee ; " I do not recollect; what there may be now I

The witness is agiin called in. my Lord Seaford, my Lord Harewood, Lord Sligo, can say nothing ut all about.

Can you name any overseer, driver, or other Lord Holland, Lord Combermere, and several " Was there at that time ?"

person in authority, who does not keep a mistress ?" others. Were not many of them personally and I do not recollect. The slave law is sufficient " I CANNOT."-(Vide p. 109.) deeply interested in the result? Was it not in

to answer that question. The slave laws of the The following quotation from the examifaci a question, whether these men were or were day are all in print, and will state that."

pation of Admiral Sir L. W. Halsted, may be not the unconscious murderers of their fellow Does your Grace recollect whether any other left to speak for itself. creatures ? Were they not called upon to decide day was given to the slaves, on the prohibition of duce another extract, in order to show the op

We shall merely adwhether they had, by their agents and repre- Sunday markets after eleven o'clock ?" sentatives, sanctioned, for their own interests, a “ No, I do not recollect any other day being portunities for observation, which the gallant And, accord-given, while I was there, than the Saturday and

Admiral had enjoyed. system of oppression and death?

It is thus that many ing to all the principles of equity and common Sunday; the markets were prohibited only after a

officers of the army and navy unintentionally sense, were these the men to give a verdict upon certain hour in the day.'

mislead the public, this solemn issue ? Let your Grace's military “ The Saturday was given while your Grace u On the last occasion you were resident four honour arswer that question to your conscience. was there, as well as the Sunday?"

years in Jamaica ?Why, before the Commitee had half done its Yes."

"Three years and four months I was there per

some

is No."

masters.

at work.

“ At that time you considered the slaves happy conceive that that can add happiness to any people No, I do not. and contented, not wanting for any thing, not in the world ; but I speak of their condition as " Or the difference of the number of hours in over-worked, and upon the whole so well off, they appeared to me; they appeared to me in the and out of crop ?" that you thought they were better off than the lower class of society as happy and comfortable as No; there is a difference, I know, in crop peasantry of England ?”.

any persons I have seen in that line of life, not time; it is much about the same in that country “ Completely so. excepting the people of this country.”

as it is in this during harvest time; they work Would you think it advantageous to this country to extend the system you saw to the

And now for the means he had enjoyed of sooner and later, but I do not know what the difshores of Great Britain ?"

ascertaining this very comfortable condition of ference is.”
the slaves.

Do you

know whether there is any night" In the first place they must have a different sort of clothing here ; they can go half-naked ; servation has extended, had no reasonable ground attend the boilers, and those things, I should sup.

“ You think that the slaves, so far as your ob

work required of the slave ?"

“ In crop time there must be night-work,--to but the same system would not do here." “ Except in point of clothing, you would think

of complaint?" it advantageous to the peasantry here to be placed seeing.” (!!!)

“ As to the treatment I had no opportunity of

puse."

" You do not know the amount of that work ?" in the same circumstances?” " Their food is different; but with respect to Did you reside for any length of time upon they relieve each other in gangs; but I believe it

No, but I know they do work at night-that other circumstances, they would benefit." any sugar plantation ?

is absolutely necessary that they should work at * It would be an inconvenience to them to be clothed as the peasantry of this country are,

“ Have you ever resided at all on a sugar plan

night in boiling the sugar." would it not ?" tation ?"

" Is it within your knowledge that à certain " I have been on a visit for two or three or four Jamaica ??

time of respite from labour is allowed by law in “ Certainly." “ The question does not suppose they are to

days. I was over on the north side in St. Ann's. be clothed in the same way or receiving the same I think I slept three or four nights at a Mr.

I do not know eractly how that is, but they kind of food; but supposing the English peaParke's. I never saw him before or afterwards."

are allowed a certain proportion of time for their santry had the same degree of comfort, and the

" Does the general opinion you have delivered but I speak to the fact, that they are allowed time

meals; I do not know what the provision of law is, same degree of food in point of quantity, you of the condition of the slave population relate to

for their meals.”' would think it advantageous that Englishmen the common field negroes, or to th other class mentioned ?"

“ In crop time as well as other times ?" should be placed upon the same system?"

“ To all those that I have had an opportunity eat, or they would not do‘much good for their

I believe so, for the people must have time to " I believe there are many Englishmen who would be erreedingly happy to be put into the

of observing." situation of the negroes in the West Indies.

Including the common field negroes?"

“ You stated that you had seen gangs go out " To become slaves ?"

“ Yes; I never was in the field when they were

to work; at what time in the morning have you No, not to become slaves."

I have seen them go in gangs, but I was

seen them ?“Will you state the reasons you have for think

never in the field attending them.
“ You have never seen the gangs at work for recollect evacily."

" Perhaps at six or seven o'clock. I cannot ing it would not be desirable to have the system of slavery prevailing in the West Indies introduced any length of time?" here ?"

« I do not remember that I erer did; but I

“ Was it aiter your gun-fire ?"

“ Yes; certainly after that.” I have never thought the system of slavery have seen the gangs going to their work and re

Do you recollect the hour at which you saw would be a good thing for Old England." turning from it."

them returning from work ?" “You think that the slaves are better off than early to see the negroes go to their work in the afternoon, as nearly as I can recollect. Unless I "Did it ever happen to you to be sufficiently

I should suppose about six o'clock in the the people of this country?" I believe they are better off in many instances

morning?"
;
Yes ; I have seen them pass by; I have not

saw any thing very particular to notice, it did not that there is a greater attention paid to their wants.

muke un impression on my mind; but I used to As you must have a tender regard for the been in the field; but I have seen the gangs

see them returning after we had got up from dincountry of which you are a native, how happens it going

to work, and I have seen them returning.

and walked round about the grounds-six that you do not desire see the population of

Are you aware that they are allowed a cer

o'clock perhaps." tain time for their dinner?” England in as happy a condition as the slaves in the West Indies ?"**

I always understood so." ** I should like to see the labouring population « Did you ever see them at dinner?

INTRODUCTION OF GARDENING. of this country in the same state of comfort ; I

" No; I do not recollect that I have.

A KNOWLEDGE of gardening was first introspeak from what I have heard of the state of the

Do you know what means they have of cook- duced into England from the Netherlands, labourer here, whose pecuniary wages are ing their food ?"

and, until 1509, our vegetables were imported tremely low, and which can hardly afford them

No; I cannot speak to that." any thing to eat, or drink, or to clothe themselves." in grass-picking or throwing, as it is called?"

" Do you know whether they are ever employed

from thence. Currants (or Corinthian grapes)

were brought from the Isle of Zante, then be The witness is directed to withdraw. The witness is again called in. « Grass-mowing they are employed in."

longing to Venice, and planted in England in * Would you object to the introduction of the

Are they employed in that during the dinner 1535 ; about thirty years afterwards the Flehour?"

mings planted a number of flowers, unknown System before alluded to, including slavery as a

" Not that I recollect; I always understood in England, at Norwich and its vicinity, inpart of that system ?” "Of course, as an Englishman, I cannot possibly that they had regular times for their meals, like cluding gilly flowers, carnations, the Provence other labourers."

rose, &c. in 1552, grapes were brought to advocate any thing like slavery in England ; but

" At night when they leave work, do you know England, and planted in Bloxhall, in Suffolk ; what I mean to say is this, that there are, I under

whether they do or not mow grass, or collect fod- and in 1587, tulip-roots were brought from stand many people in England whose wages are so

der for cattle ?" exceedingly low that they are not so well off, or

I cannot speak to that, vot having been pre- 1720, but five years elapsed before they were

Vienna. Hops were sent over from Artois in so comfortable, as the negroes I have seen in the

sent when they were cutting grass.” West Indies.' Objecting to slavery, as you would naturally do,

“ Do you happen to know how the fodder for in general use for malt liquors. What is there that you know, or have observed of the cattle is collected in Jamaica ?" No, not particularly. I have seen it on don

WOMAN. slavery in the West Indies, to create so great an

keys' backs, and brought in carts ; but I do not Gone from her cheek is the summer bloom, abhorrence of it?"

know particularly how it is collecteil." “ With respect to the placing the people of this

" It must have been previously collected by And the gloss has dropped from her golden haix,

And her lip has lost all its faint perfume ; country in the same situation, there must be a dif

manual labour ?" ference as to clothing, and that sort of thing; a " Yes; but I do not know at what time; they And the spirit that sate on her soft blue eye

And her cheek is pale, but no longer fair. man who is happy and comfortable in that country, according to the climate and provisions, is a

cut grass with their reap hooks, I believe, as
we do our wheat and barley. They are em-

Is struck with cold mortality;
great deal better off than he would be in this
ployed occasionally in picking grass."

And the smile that played round her lip has ded, country.” " You consider slavery to be an evil ?"

On the time of labour he is equally unin

And every charm has now left the dead. " There is no doubt about that." formed, as the following extract will show.

Like slaves they obeyed her in height of power,

But left her all in her wintry hour; " What have you observed of this system of Do you not think that the care of the slaves

And the crowds that swore for her love to die, slavery in the West Indies that creates in your and their families before and alter the work, as

Shrunk from the tone of her last faint sigta, mind so great an abhorrence of it ?" well as during the period of their servitude, fully

---And this is man's fidelity! “I can only say that my feelings against compensate for the work they do for their owners?” slavery are, that no man as an Englishman can ad

'I am not sufficiently a judie of th they 'Tis woman aloue, with a purer heart, vocate any thing like slavery; but with respect to do to answer that question satisfactorily."

Can see all these idols of love depart, their comforts, they appeared to me as happy and

" Do you know how many hours the slave is And love the more, and smile and bless comfortable as any people could possibly be, | compelled to labour in crop time and out of crop Man in his ultermost wretchedness. doing away, of course, with the slavery; I cannot time?"

BARRY CORNWALL.

uer,

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PAIN AT THE CHEST TWO YEARS,

as at once the substitute for the cow, the

SLAVERY horse, the sheep, and the goat; indeed, Just published, in one 8vo. vcla ne, closely printed, price Bs., without them the country would be unin- THETREZORTHERBOUSE OF COMMONS, ON habitable.

THE EXTINCTION OF SLIVERY THROUGHOUT In winter the Laplanders yoke these

THE BRITISH DOMINIONS; with a Copious INDRI.

Witnesses examined : -W. Taylor, Esq., Rev. Joba creatures to sledges, in which they travel Barry, Rev. Peter Duncan, Rev. Thomas Cooper, Rev. with prodigious velocity. Their sledges C. H. Willians, w. Alers Hankey, Esq., J. D. P. Ordea, are made of birch-wood, and are drawn Esq., R. Scoti, Esq., J. Simpson, Esq., W. Shand, Este along the ground. The back part is up- Burge, Esq., M.P., J. B. Wildman, Esq., and others. right, or nearly so, the lower part only

Published at the Office of the Tourist, 27, Ivy-lane,

Paternoster Row; sold also by Sherwood, Gi lbert, and being sloped a little inwards. The body Piper, and all other Booksellers. of the machine is like the hulk of a boat with a blunt keel, and consists of five BRITISH COLLEGE OF HEALTH, KING'S

CROSS, NEW ROAD, LONDON. longitudinal boards, lying one over the

edge of another, that which forms the MORISON'S UNIVERSAL VEGETABLE A LAPLAND JOURNEY.

MEDICINE. keel being about an inch thick. The The above engraving represents a Lap- whole carriage is six feet in length; and,

Mr. Hall, Southsea, lander travelling in his sledge, drawn by from the back part to within two feet of Sir,- If you think that my case will afford additional

testimony to the importance of Morison's Medicines, and the front, its breadth is every where about at the same time be considered as a grateful acknowlers a rein-deer. Of the habits, &c., of this four feet.

ment, on my part, for so much benefit received, I most useful animal, and of the contrivance by

cheerfully offer it to you, to add to the nunerous cases efwhich his services are rendered so avail. To this carriage they usually harness rected by them in this neighbourhood. You already know able, we present our readers with a short two rein-deer, driving them by cords that, for two years previous to my application to yon, 1

fastened to their horns; and it is said times, was of so violent a nature that, in the hopes of account, principally supplied by Dr.

getting ease, I was frequently compelled to lie down on Thomson, in his “Íravels in Sweden.” they will tread 150 versts in one day, a

the floor; these attacks were succeeded by sickness, and,

after taking half a glass of some spirit, I obtained tempo. The riches of the Laplanders consist in distance equal to 112 English miles.

rary relief. From the recommendation of one friend and

another, I was induced to try many things, but to no good their rein-deer, and in the extent of ground

effect. My breath at times was so greatly affected that I on which they feed. The poorer people

APHORISMS.

could scarcely move or walk. A medical gentleman told

me that he could do no more for me than he had done; have from fifty to two hundred of these

therefore the sincerity of my acknowledgment cannot be animals, the middle class from three hun

questioned.

Your's very gratefully, It is an evident and remarkable fact that there

MARTHA MURREL. dred to seven hundred, and

the rich pos- is a certain degree of correspondence to religion No. 25, New Town, Landport, July 2. sess a thousand, or more. The lands are throughout the economy of the world. Things

CORE OF ASTHMA.

Mr. Morison, from three to five Swedish miles in ex bearing an apparent analogy to its truths some

Sir,-I feel it incumbent on me to let my fellow-crea? times more prominently, sometimes more abstrusetent. It

very often happens that those whose herds are large lose some of their :. present themselves on all sides to a thoughtful the Universal Medicines. It have been in micrecome reaking

years with an asthma, and strong billions affection, often rein-deer, which they generally find again to have willed that there should be a great system ise, and reduced to the lowest ebt of existence. Having

attended with great vomitings of blood, scarcely an appedrive them back to their old companions. principles in which we are to apprehend him, and length fell within the channel of your faine, and procured

So that relj- a supply of the Universals" of your agent, Mr. Pearson, This animal feeds almost entirely on the gion, standing up in grand parallel to an infinity welve pilis a day, the extent of which was performed for rein-deer moss, which grows in prodigious of things, receives their testimony and homage, less than ten shillings. For the good of mankind you are

at liberty to give this what publicity you please, and am, quantities in Lapland, whitening whole and speaks with a voice which is echoed by the creation.-Foster.

most gratefully, dear Sir, yours, &c., districts of great extent; sometimes in It is in the relaxation of security, it is in the Hanley, Staffordshire, 16th July, 1832.

Thomas TAYLOR. autumn, when there is no snow lying, a expansion of prosperity, it is in the hour of dila

The “ Vegetable Universal Medicines" are to be bad at sudden frost freezes up this plant. When tation of the heart, and of its softening into sesti. the College, New Roari, King's Cress, London; at the this fails, the animal has no resource, for vity and mirth, that the real character of men is Surrey Branclı, 96, Great Surrey-street; Mr. Field's, 16, Airdiscerned.--BURKE.

street, Quadrant; Mr. Chappeli's, Royal Exchange; Mr. he will not eat hay. His keepers fell the

Walker's, Lamb's-conduit-passage, Red-lion-square; Mr.

The study of divinity is, indeed, difficult, and J. Loft's, Mile-end-road; Mr. Bennett's, Covent-gardentrees in order to supply him with the

we are to labour hard and dig deep for it; but market; Mr. Haydon's, Fleur-de-lis-court, Norton-fatgate; filamentous lichens which clothe their then we dig in a golden mine, which equally in

Mr. Haslet's, 147, Ratcliffe-highway; Messrs. Norbury's,

Brentford; Mrs. Stepping, Clare-market; Messrs. Salmon, branches; but this kind of food but ill vites and rewards our labour.-Dr. South. Little Bell-alley; Miss Varai's, 24, Lucas-street, Commer

There are moments of despondency when Shak cial-road; Mrs. Beech's, 7, Sloane-square, Chelsea; Mrs. supplies the place of what is natural to him. It is astonishing with what readi- speare home prehiegsevits poet, Roublieel the painter Wingrote place, Clerkenwell;"MislAtkinkoppers, Aes

--when the greatest wits liave doubted the excel-Trinitygrounds, Deptford ; Mr. Taylor, Hanwell; Mr. ness he gets at his proper food, through lence of their happiest efforts.--Colton.

Kirtlam, 4, Bolingbroke-row, Walworth ; Mr. Payne, 64, the deep snow that covers it, and by Hypocrisy is part of the homage which vice pays Jermyn-street; Mr. Howard,

at Mr. Wood's, hair-dresser,

Richmond; Mr. Meyar, 3, May's-buildings, Blackheath which it is protected from the severe

Mr. Griffiths, Wood wharf, Greenwich ; Mr. Pitt, 1, Corn

wall-road, Lambeth; Mr. J. Dobson, 35, Craven-street, frosts.

Strand; Mr. Oliver, Bridge-street, Vauxhall; Nr. J. The rein-deer feeds also on frogs, CHANGE IN THE VALUE OF MONEY. Monek, Bexley Heath ; Mr. T. Stokes, 12, St.'Rona's,

Deptford; Mr. Cowell, 22, Terrace, Pimlico; Mr. Parfitt, snakes, and even on the mountain rat, The following scale of prices for seats at 96, Edgware-road; Mr. Hart, Portsmouth-place, Kenning

ton-lane; Mr. Charlesworth, grocer, 124, Shoreditch ; Mr. often pursuing the latter to so great a coronations is amusing, as showing the relative

R. G. Bower, grocer, 22, Brick-lane, St. Luke's; Mr. S. distance as not to find its way back value of money, if not of public curiosity and J. Avila, pawnbroker, opposite the church, Hackney; Mr.

J. S. Briggs, 1, Brunswick.place, Stoke Newington; Mr. again. The herds are driven home, night love of exhibition :-Edward ist, half á farand morning, to be milked. A maid-thing; Edward and, a farthing; Edward 3d, falgateMr. S. Williamson, 13, Seabright-place, Hackenheng servant and a dog are sufficient to drive ditto; Henry 5th, twopence; Henry 6th, ditto; gate-street: Mr. T. Watter, cheesemonger, 67, Hoxton dia

halfpenny; Richard 2nd, a penny; Henry 4th, road; Mr. J. Osborn, Wells-street, Hackney road, and a whole herd. If the rein-deer prove Edward 4th, ditto; Richard 3d, ditto ; Henry Town; and at one agent's in every principal town in Great refractory, the dog easily makes them 7th, ditto ; Henry 8th, fourpence; Edward 6th, Britain, the Islands of Guernsey and Malta; and througti.

out the whole of the United States of America. obey the word of command, especially ditto ; Mary, ditto; Elizabeth, sixpence; James N. B. The College will not be answerable for the conwhen seconded by the hissing of the wo 1st, one shilling; Charles 1st, ditto; Charles sequences of any medicines sold by any chymist or droggist,

as none such are allowed to sell the “Universal Mediman, at which they are extremely terri- 2nd, half-a-crown; James 2nd, ditto ; William

cines.” fied. In general, however, they are ex

and Anne, ditto ; George Ist, five shillings; ceedingly tractable, and are so essential George 2nd, half-a-guinea; George 3rd, in Printed by J. Haddox and Co.; and Published to the Laplanders as, in fact, to consti- guineas; George 4th, in street, from one to

by J. CRISP, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternoster

Row, where all Advertisements and Communitute their only resource, being considered twenty guineas.

cations for the Editor are to be addressed.

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to yirtue.

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