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and to familiarize them with some of the I reflected upon them, or rather upon the considerably aided the parliamentary efdetails of the controversy itself. Mr. authorities on which they were founded, forts of Mr. Wilberforce. He did not Clarkson's attention was first drawn to the the more I gave them credit

. Coming in pursue this course without much opposiAfrican Slave Trade in 1785. Dr. Peck - sight of Wade's Mill, in Hertfordshire, I tion. The same parties who now oppose hard, the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge, sat down disconsolate on the turf, by the the abolition of Slavery were then equally proposed, in that year, to the senior road-side, and held my horse. Here a strenuous in their opposition to the aboliBatchelors of Arts, the following subject thought came into my mind, that, if the tion of the Slave Trade. The most viofor a Latin dissertation :-" Is it right to contents of the Essay were true, it was lent and infamous means were employed make slaves of others against their will ?” time some person should see these cala- to counteract the labours and to blast the Mr. Clarkson having, the previous year, mities to their end. Agitated in this character of Mr. C. Even his life was obtained a prize for the best Latin disser- manner, I reached home. This was in sometimes threatened. This was particutation, felt he should sink in the estima- the summer of 1735.'

larly the case at Liverpool. " The temtion of his college, if he did not succeed After this, Mr. Clarkson translated and per of many of the interested people of this year also.

published his Dissertation, and, at length, Liverpool had now become still more irriUnder the inflítence of this literary determined on sacrificing the fair prospect table, and their hostility more apparent, ambition, he commenced his inquiries of preferment in the church which he than before. I received anonymous letHe soon found himself at a loss for ma- had, in order to devote himself entirely ters, entreating me to leave it, or I should terials on which to form an enlightened to this work of mercy. In 1787 a com- otherwise never leave it alive. The only judgment respecting the African trade, mittee was formed in London, for the effect which this advice had upon me was and repaired to London to obtain them. purpose of procuring and putting into to make me more vigilant when I went Having procured the information which circulation authentic information respect-out at night. I never stirred out at this he needed, he began his work; but ing the Slave Trade. Mr. C. was the time without Mr. Falconbridge ; and he he had not proceeded far before his most active member of this body. He

never accompanied me without being well mind underwent a thorough revolu- called on the leading members of the two armed. Of this, however, I knew notion. It would be injustice to the Houses of Parliament, soliciting their at-thing until we had left the place. There subject to substitute any phraseology in tention to the subject, and furnishing was certainly a time when I had reason the place of his own unaffected and them with whatever information he had to believe that I had a narrow escape. I touching narrative: -“ But no person procured. Amongst other persons he was one day on the pier-head, with many can tell the severe trial which the writing called on Mr. Wilberforce; and it is in others, looking at some little boats below of it proved to me. I had expected teresting to know the reception which at the time of a heavy gale. pleasure from the invention of the argu- was given to this subject by that distin- persons, probably out of curiosity, were ments, from the arrangement of them, guished and philanthropic statesman, hastening thither. I had seen all I infrom the putting of them together, and when it was first proposed to him. “On tended to see, and was departing, when I from the thought, in the interim, that I my first interview with him, he stated noticed eight or nine persons making towas engaged in an innocent contest for frankly, that the subject had often em- wards me. I was then only about eight literary honour. But all my pleasure was ployed his thoughts, and that it was near or nine yards from the precipice of the damped by the frets which were now his heart. He seemed earnest about it, pier, but going from it. I expected that continually before me. It was but one and also very desirous of taking the trou- they would have divided to let me through gloomy subject from morning to night. ble of inquiring further into it. Having them ; instead of which they closed upon In the day-time I was uneasy-in the read my book, which I had delivered to me and bore me back, was borne night I had little rest. I sometimes never him in person, he sent for me. He ex- within a yard of the precipice, when I closed my eyelids for grief. It became pressed a wish that I would make him discovered my danger; and, perceiving now, not so much a trial for academical acquainted with some of my authorities among them the murderer of Peter Green, reputation as for the production of a work for the assertions in it, which I did after- and two others who had insulted me at which might be useful to injured Africa. wards to his satisfaction. He asked me the King's Arms, it instantly struck me And, keeping this idea in my mind ever if I could support it by any other evi- that they had a design to throw me over after the perusal of Benezet, I always dence. I told him I could. I mentioned the pier-head; which they might have slept with a candle in my room, that I Mr. Newton, Mr. Nisbett, and several done at this time, and yet have pleaded might rise out of bed and put down such others to him. He took the trouble of that I had been killed by accident. There thoughts as might occur to me in the sending for all these. He made memo was not a moment to lose. Vigorous on night, if I judged them valuable, con- randums of their conversation, and, send- accommt of the danger, I darted forward. ceiving that no argument should be lost ing for me afterwards, showed them to One of them, against whom I pushed in so great a cause. Having, at length, me. On learning my intention to devote myself, fell down. Their ranks were finished this painful task, I sent my Essay myself to the cause, he paid me many broken, and I escaped, not without blows, to the Vice-Chancellor, and soon after- handsome compliments. He then desired amidst their imprecations and abuse."* wards found myself honoured, as before, me to call upon him often, and to ac We should be glad to pursue our narwith the first prize.

quaint him with my progress from time to rative of Mr. Clarkson's labours, but “As it is usual to read these essays pub- time. He expressed also his willingness our limits forbid. Such of our readers licly in the senate-house soon after the to afford me any assistance in his

power as wish to know more of the details of prize is adjudged, I was called to Cam- in the prosecution of my pursuits.”+ the Abolition controversy, we refer to bridge for this purpose. I went and per From this period Mr. C. was employed his History, from which we have quoted. formed my office. On returning, how- in visiting the difterent sea-ports of the This work, though little read at the preever, to London, the subject of it almost kingdom, in order to obtain, from persons sent day, is one of the most deeply inwholly engrossed my thoughts. I became, engaged in the Slave Trade, authentic teresting publications which our language at times, very seriously affected while upon information of the manner in which it supplies. It is written with all the simthe road. I stopped my horse occasion was conducted. The facts elicited, in the plicity of truth, and will serve to disally, and dismounted and walked. I fre-course of his inquiries, were of the most close the falsehood and hypocrisy of quently tried to persuade myself, in these revolting and atrocious character, and many statements which the colonists nowintervals, that the contents of my Essay could not be true. The more, however,

History of the A bolition, vol. i. † History of the Abolition, vol. i. p. 241. * History of the Abolition, vol. i. p. 409.

p.

208.

put forth.

We need not attempt a

nomy, which became the leading passion of were supported by numerous astronomical obformal delineation of Mr. C.'s charac- bis life. Quitting a profession uncongenial to servations; and, in 1530, Copernicus brought ter. His moral worth was seen in the such pursuits, he went to Bologna to study astro- to a close his immortal work on the Revoluun wearied and disinterested labours which nomy under Dominic Maria ; and, after having tions of the Heavenly Bodies.

enjoyed the friendship and instruction of that But, while we admire the genius which trihe prosecuted for upwards of twenty able philosopher, he established himself at umphed over so many difficulties, we cannot years. Enlightened posterity will enrol Rome in the humble situation of a teacher of fail to commend the extraordinary prudence his name amongst the benefactors of his mathematics. Here he made numerous as- with which he ushered his new system into species; while the consciousness of hav- tronomical observations which served him as the world. Aware of the prejudices, and even ing aided the triumph of humanity must the basis of future researches ; but an event of the hostility, with which such a system console and gladden his own spirit in this

soon occurred which, though it interrupted for would be received, he resolved neither to

a while his important studies, placed him in a startle the one nor provoke the other. He latest stage of his earthly pilgrimage. situation for pursuing them with new zeal

. allowed his opinions to circulate in the slow May he and his distinguished coadjutor, The death of one of the canons enabled his current of personal communication. The Mr. Wilberforce, yet survive to witness uncle, who was Bishop of Ermeland, to ap- points of opposition which they presented to the entire abolition of Colonial Slavery! point him to a canonry in the chapter of Frau- established doctrines were gradually worn

Mr. Clarkson was the author of the enberg, where, in a house situated on the brow down, and they insinuated themselves into refollowing works :-“ Essay on the Slavery of a mountain, he continued, in peaceful seclu- ception among the ecclesiastical circles by the and Commerce of the Éuman Species, sion, to carry on his astronomical observations. very reluctance of their author to bring them particularly the African. 8vo. 1786."-- been so well appreciated that the Bishop of Schonberg, Bishop of Capua, and Gyse,

In the year 1534, Cardinal “ The Impolicy of the African Slave Fossombrona, who presided over the council Bishop of Culm, exerted all their influence Trade. 8vo. 1788."-" The Comparative for reforming the Calendar, solicited the aid to induce Copernicus to lay his system before Efficiency of the Regulation and Aboli- of Copernicus in this desirable undertaking the world; but le resisted their solicitations; tion of the Slave Trade. 8vo. 1789." At first he entered warmly into the views of and it was not till 1539 that an accidental cir“ Letters on the Slave Trade, &c. 4to.

the council, and charged himself with the cumstance contributed to alter his resolution. 1791.”—“Three Letters to the Planting the month, and of the other motions of the Wirtemberg, having heard of the labours of

determination of the length of the year and of George Rheticus, Professor of Mathematics at and Slave. Merchants. 8vo. 1807."

sun and moon that seemed to be required; but Copernicus, resigned his chair, and repaired • The Portraiture of Quakerism. 3 vols. he found the task too irksome, and probably to Frauenberg to make himself master of his 8vo. 1807.”—“History of the Abolition, felt that it would interfere with those inter-discoveries. This zealous disciple prevailed &c. 2 vols. 8vo. 1808.". -“ Memoirs of esting discoveries which had already began to upon his master to permit the publication of William Penn. 2 vols. 8vo. 1813.”dawn upon his mind.

his system; and they seem to have arranged a “ Thoughts on the Necessity of Improv

Copernicus is said to have commenced his plan for giving it to the world without alarming the Condition of Slaves, &c. 8vo. opinions of ancient authors on the system of the prejudices of individuals. Under the dis

inquiries by a historical examination of the ing the vigilance of the church, or startling 1823."

the universe; but it is more likely that he guise of a student of mathematics, Rheticus sought for the authority of their great names published, in 1540, an account of the manuscript

to countenance his peculiar views, and that he volume of Copernicus. This pamphlet was ANCIENT ASTRONOMERS.

was more desirous to present his own theory as received without any disapprobation, and its one that he had received, rather than as author was encouraged to reprint it at Basle, one which he had invented. His mind had in 1541, with his own name. The success of

been long imbued with the idea, that sim- these publications, and the lattering manner COPERNICUS.

plicity and harmony should characterize the in which the new astronomy was received by In the century which preceded the birth of arrangement of the planetary system; and, in several able writers, induced Copernicus to Newton, the science of astronomy advanced the complication and disorder which reigned place his MSS. in the hands of Rheticus. It with the most rapid steps.. Emerging from in the hypothesis of Ptolemy, he saw insuper was accordingly printed at the expence of the darkness of the middle ages, the human able objections to its being regarded as a re Cardinal Schenberg, and appeared at Nurem. mind seemed to rejoice in its new-born presentation of nature. In the opinions of the berg in 1543. Its illustrious author, however, strength, and to apply itself with elastiç vigour Egyptian saçes, in tliose of Pythagoras, Philo- did not live to peruse it. A complete copy to unfold the mechanism of the heavens. The laus, Aristarchus, and Nicetas, he recognized was handed to him in his last moments, and labours of Hipparchus and Ptolemy had in his own earliest conviction that the earth was he saw and touched it a few hours before his deed furnished many important epochs and sup- not the centre of the universe; but he appears death. This great work was dedicated to the plied many valuable data ; but the cambrous to have considered it as still possible that our Holy Pontiff, in order, as Copernicus himself appendages of cycles and epicycles with which globe night perform some function in the says, that the authority of the head of the they explained the station and retrogradations system more important than that of the other church might silence the calumnies of indiviof the planets, and the vulgar prejudices which planets; and his attention was much occupied duals who had attacked his views by argua false interpretation of Scripture had excited with the speculation of Martianus Capella, ments drawn from religion. Thus introduced, against a belief in the motion of the earth, who placed the sun between Mars and the the Copernican system met with no ecclesiasrendered it difficult even for great minds to moon, and made Mercury and Venus revolve tical opposition, and gradually made its way escape from the trammels of authority, and round him as a centre; and with the system of in spite of the ignorance and prejudices of the appeal to the simplicity of nature.

Apollonius Pergæus, who made all the planets age.-Breuster's Life of Sir Isaac Newton. The sovereign of Castile, the generous and revolve round the sun, while the sun and moon noble-minded Alphonso, had long before pro were carried found the earth in the centre of seribed the rude expedients of his predeces the universe. The examination, however, of

LIFE. sors; and when he declared that, if the heavens these hypotheses gradually dispelled the diffi Swift down the pathway of declining years, were thus constituted, he could have given the culties with which the subject was beset, and, As on we journey through this vale of tears; Deity good advice, he must not only have felt after the labours of more than thirty years, he Youth wastes away, and withers like a flower, the absurdity of the prevailing system, but was permitted to see the true system of the The lovely phantoms of a Meeting hour. must have obtained some foresight of a more sim- heavens. The sum he consideretl as iniinovable

'Mid the light sallies of the mantling soul, ple arrangement. But neither he nor the as- in the centre of the system, while the earth The smiles of beauty and the social bowl,

Inaudible the foot of chilly age tronomers whom he so liberally protected seem revolved between thre" orbits of Venus and to have established a better system, and it was Mars, and produced by its rotation about its

Steals on our joys, and drives us from the stage. left to Copernicus to enjoy the dignity of being axis all the diurnal phenomena of the celestial

Hodgson's Translaton from Juvenil. the restorer of astronomy.

sphere. The precession of the equinoxes was This great man, a native of Thorn, in Prus- thus referred to a slight motion of the earth's

SELF-LOVE. sia, following his father's profession, began his axis, and the stations and retrogradations of career as a doctor of medicine ; but an acci- the planets were the necessary consequence of

Mes own each little fault and failing, dental attendance on the mathematical lec- their own motions combined with that of the

But of their heavier sins--not one; tures of Brudzevius excited a love for astro-earth about the sun. These remarkable views

A thousand 'gainst their memories railing,
But 'gainst their understanding none!

LEANDER.

NO. I.

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THE ORIGIN OF THE BUILDING OF | ing of corresponding magnificence; to prose I've wandered o'er yon field of light,

cute the undertaking money was wanted, Where daisies wildly spring, ST. PETER'S, ROME.

and indulgencies were sold to supply the de And traced the spot where fays of night TOY

Flew round on elfin wing: The views of Julius II. were as distinguished ficiency of the treasury; and a monk of Saxony

And I've watched the sudden darting beana for the encourage-nent of talents as his ambi- duced this singular event, that whilst the most opposing the authority of the church pro

Make gold the field of grain, tion was impetuous and unbounded in the

Until clouds obscured the passing

og gleam, exercise of sovereign power. It was a favourite splendid edifice which the world has ever seen

And all frowned dark again. was building for the Catholic faith, the reliobservation of his, that LEARNING elevated the

Then awake, awake each warbling bird lowest orders of society-stamped the highest gion to which it was consecrated was shaken

Now hails the dawning sun; di value on nobility-and, to princes, was the

to its foundation.--Duppa's Life of Michael Labour's enlivening song is heard,-', Angelo.

For the young day has begun.
most splendid gem in the diadem of sove-
Teignty. He was no sooner seated on the
throne, than surrounded by men of genius.

Is there to Contemplation given
JEAN BE MORNING.

An hour like this sweet one,
Michael Angelo was among the first invited to Awake! awake! the flowers unfold, D.IT

And tremble bright in the sun, bere By the uprising sun ?

When twilight's starless mantle's riven his court, and he accompanied his invitation with an order for a hundred ducats to pay

And the river shines a lake of gold, When feathered warblers fleet awake,

For the young day has begun. his expences to Rome. After his arrival some

His breaking beams to see, The air is blithe, and the sky is blue, time elapsed before any subject could be de

And the lark, on lightsome wings,

And hill and grove, and bush and brake, termined upon for the exercise of his abilities;

Are filled with melody?
From bushes that sparkle rich with dew,

Then awake, awake!--all seem to chide at length the Pope gave him an unlimited To heaven her matin sings. commission to make a mausoleum, in which Then awake, awake, while music's note

Thy sleep, as round they run ;

The glories of heaven lie far and wide, their mutual interest should be combined; but Now bids thee sleep to shun;

For the young day has begun. the sculptor may be said to make the monu- Light zephyrs of fragrance round thee float,

Time's Telescope. ment for himself, when it only serves to record For the young day has begun. an illustrious name that will live in the page of history: he alone makes it for another, where a tablet is necessary to retard the hour of oblivion.

Having received full powers, Michael Angelo commenced a design worthy of himself and his patron. The plan was a parallelogram, and the superstructure was to consist of forty statues, many of which to be colossal, and interspersed with ornamental figures and bronze basso-relievos, besides the necessary architec- ! 0 ture, with appropriate decorations, to unite the composition into one stupendous whole.

When this magnificent design was completed, it met with the Pope's entire approbation, and Michael Angelo was desired to go

101 into St. Peter's to see where it could be conveniently placed. At the west end of the des church, Nicholas V., half a century before, began to erect a new tribune, but the plan had not been continued by his successors: this situation Michael Angelo thought the most appropriate, and recommended it to the considera--tion of his Holiness. He inquired what

CHICHESTER CROSS, SUSSEX. expence would be necessary to complete it ; to which Michael Angelo answered, "a hundred The crosses, of which the above is a these few years, the population of the thousand crowns." “ It may be twice that specimen, were erected by our forefathers city having greatly increased, a more sum,” replied the Pope; and immediately in many ancient cities and towns, as mo- convenient Market-place was required, gave orders to Giuliano da Sangallo to con- numents of Christianity; and, in the and, in supplying this want, it was pro

Sangallo, impressed with the importance genuine spirit of popery, they constructed posed to demolish the cross. From this and grandeur of Michael Angelo's design, many of them with much care, and ex- fate, however, it was saved, by the intersuggested to the Pope that such a monument pended considerable sums in their embel- vention of certain members of the corpoought to have a chapel built on purpose for it

, lishments

. Their situations and specific ration, to whom the antiquary owes a where local circumstances might be so at-objects were various : frequently at the considerable debt of gratitude. tended to as to display every part of it to ad- entrance of churches, to impress a feeling From some deeds still extant, it appears vantage; at the same time remarking, that of devotional reverence for the edifice, that this cross was completed about the St. Peter's was an old church, not at all and its sacred uses; frequently, on high year 1500; but the name of the architect, alteration would only serve to destroy the cha- roads, as at present in many countries of and the total expence at which it was racter of the building. The Pope listened to Europe, to remind the traveller of the built, are unknown. It is considered one these observations, and, to avail himself of respect due to religion. They are also of the finest structures in the florid Gothic them to their fullest extent, ordered several found in Market-places, where they were style which England contains. Its form architects to make drawings; but in consider, designed, by the associations connected is octangular, with pier buttresses at each ing and reconsidering the subject, he passed with them, to enforce integrity and fair angle, surmounted with pinnacles: on from one improvement to another, till at length dealing, sometimes, on the site of bat- the summit are vanes, bearing the arms and this is the origin of that edifice which tles, to commemorate victory or peace, of the see. In each of its eight sides is took a hundred and lifty years to complete, and sometimes they were erected to mark an entrance under an arch; on four of and is now the grandest display of architec- civil or ecelesiastical boundaries. these sides are niches, formerly occupied tural splendour that ornaments the Christian The Cross at Chichester was designed by figures, and, on the other four, are world. By those who are curious in tracing the reas one of the Market Crosses, to which dials, facing the principal streets. It is

we have alluded, and of which one was also ornamented with a bust of Charles mote causes of great events, Michael Angelo formerly to be found in almost every the Second, in whose reign it was first thus to have laid the first stone of the Re? town which had a religious foundation. repaired. formation. His monument demanded a build-' To this use it was applied until, within

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HAMPTON COURT PALACE. We owe this stately building to the his reign, it became one of his principal | made his escape on the 11th of Novemambition and luxury of Cardinal Wolsey. residences. Queen Elizabeth also fre ber of that year. He became the lessee of the manor of quently resided here.

King William III. was particularly Hampton in the early part of the reign of In January, 1604, Hampton Court partial to this residence, and employed Henry VIII., and expended large sums palace was the scene of the celebrated the skill and taste of Sir Christopher of money in converting the manor house conference on the subject of conformity, Wren in effecting considerable alterations into a palace, so gorgeous that, to avoid held before King James, as moderator, in it. In its present state it consists of the envy it occasioned, he gave it to the between the Presbyterians and the mem- three principal quadrangles, the eastern, king in 1526. After this time, however, bers of the established Church; the most middle, and western ; of which the first he occasionally inhabited it (probably as important result of which was the order contains the state apartments, which are keeper), and made it the scene of bound of the new translation of the Bible, exceedingly superb, and decorated with less magnificence and pomp, more espe- which is now generally received.

some valuable pictures by the old mascially when, as the king's representative, In 1625, Charles I. retired to this pa-ters. Among the works of art which he entertained the French ambassadors lace, to avoid the ravages of the plague; embellish this palace the Cartoons of Rathere in 1527. Subsequently to this, and in August, 1647, he was brought phael hold by far the most distinguished Henry added considerably to the extent hither as a captive, and remained in a place. of the palace, and, in the latter part of state of splendid imprisonment until he

THE CAPTIVE OF CAMALU.

O CAMALU~-green Camalu!

'Twas there I fed my father's flock, Beside the mount where cedars threw,

At dawn, their shadows from the rock ; There tended I my father's flock

Along the grassy margined rills, Or chased the bounding bontébok, *

With hound and spear, among the hills. Green Camalu ! methinks I view

The lilies in thy meadows growing; I see thy waters bright and blue

Beneath the pale-leaved willows flowing ; I hear, along thy valleys lowing,

The heifers wending to the fold, And jocund herd-boys loudly blowing

The horn-to mimic hunters bold. Methinks I see the geelhout-tree, t

That shades the village-chieftain's cot; The evening smoke curls lovingly

Above that calm and pleasant spot. I see my sire-I had forgot

The old man rests in slumber deep. My mother dear!-ske answers not

Her heart is hushed in dreamless sleep.

My brothers too! Green Camalu,

Repose they by thy quiet tide ?
Ay! There they sleep where white men slew

And left them--lying side by side :
No pity had those men of pride,

They fired the huts above the dying !
White bones bestrew that valley wide-

I wish that mine were with them lying !
I envy you, by Camalu,

Ye wild harts on the woody hills;
Though tigers there their prey pursue,

And vultures slake in blood iheir bills:
The heart may strive with nature's ills,

To Nature's common doom resigned ;
Death only once the body killsa-

But thraldom brutifies the mind.
Oh, wretched fate !-heart-desolate,

A captive in the spoiler's band,
To serve the tyrant whom I hate

To crouch beneath his proud command-
Upon my flesh to bear his brand-

His blows, his bitter scorn to bide!
Would God, I in my native land

Had with my slaughtered kinsmen died !
Ye mountains blue of Camalu,

Where once I fed my father's flock,
Though desolation dwells with you,

And Amakosa's heart is broke,-
Yet, spite of chains these limbs that mock,

My homeless heart to you doth fly,
As fies the wild dove to the rock

To hide its wounded breastmand die.

Yet, ere my spirit wings its flight

Unto death's silent shadowy clime,
UTIKA !* Lord of life and light,

Who, high above the clouds of Time,
Calm sittest where yon hosts sublime

Of stars wheel round thy bright abode, --
Oh, let my cry unto Thee climb,

Of every race the Father-God!
I ask not judgments from thy hand

Destroying hail, nor parching drought,
Nor locust swarms to waste the land,

Nor pestilence by famine brought :
I say the prayer Jankannat taught,

Who wept for Amakosa's wrongs
"Thy Kingdom comem-thy Will be wrought

For unto Thee all power belongs.":
Thy kingdom come! Let light and grace

throughout all lands in triumph go; Till pride and strife to love give place,

And blood and tears shall cease to flow ;--
Till Europe mourn for Afric's woe,

And o'er the deep her arms extend
To lift her where she lieth low,

And prove indeed her CHRISTIAN FRIEND!

Bontebok, Antilope Scripta.

+ The yellow-wood tree, podocarpus elongato, io appearance resembling tbe cedar,

Ulika, a word of Hottentot origin, signifying The Beautiful, now used by most of the Sonth African tribes as the name of the Supreme Being--the Christian God.

The Callér name for Dr. Vanderkemp.
In the Amakosa tongue as follows:

-Amanula ukusa kuaku makulu; yenza gokaakn-Akandaunios, amanhla, asinkosiné napakete,"

"*

A FEW DISJOINTED FACTS grilled rat; nay, even cats are by them es with a whip and switches of bamboo, is their

teemed delicacies. I can't speak as to cats; stern conductress. CONNECTED WITH

but many a time and oft, while “ grieving” Frequently have I pitied the poor things, to SLAVERY IN JAMAICA, (Scottice) the gang, during operations in the see their little bodies in one universal tremor BY CHARLES JOHNSTON,

mountains, have I seen a spitful of rats roast- of fear, casting their glances askance to assure

ing on the same fire that my own dinner was themselves that the schoolmistress” was at a Late Book-keeper, Llandovery Estate, St. Ann's, cooking upon. I recollect one of these poor respeetful distance. The happy hours of childJamaicą.

creatures (who, were he to appear before a hood in free countries, alas ! are never enjoyed The writer of the following paper; I would strike compassion into all hearts, saving grieved: night may bring temporary relief, but

British public with the detail of his woes, by them. Their little hearts are saddened and though not a full

year ample opportunities, from the situation that of a slave-Holder), coming to me one day, they are awakened in the morning, by the

with a very piteous expression of countenance : thundering of the driver's whip, to the stern which he occupied, of observing the -"Ah, massa !” says he, “ me caught tree realities of their bitter lot. In tears and disevery-day details of slavery. He has rats, and cat nyam (eat) all but one head." tress they resume their labours. Some, not so returned to this country with a deep Thus, this poor fellow might perhaps be starv- fortunate as their fellows, may have indulged abhorrence of the system, and is pre- ing for days to come after this incident; per- in a longer sleep; but woe to them when they pared to depose on oath to the truth of haps had been so days previous. The heart of arrive at the scene of operations !—their treaithe following statements, and to many

a rat is but a poor mouthful, I should think, went is cruel. The old dame begins the drama other facts of a similar character, which to a hungry man. They never taste butelier's by abusing them roundly with her screeching

meat, unless in circumstances such as I now tongue, that, shrilly as the peacock's, forebodes have come under his own observation.

proceed to narrate. I having had the super- the storm. She orders the trembling little culWe hear a great deal stated in this country intendence of some hundred cattle, one of prit to be seized by its companions, and inabout the comforts enjoyed by the slave popu- them, by accident, had its leg broke, and, upon stantly belabours it with blows till its flesh lation in the colonies-comforts which are informing the overseer, I was desired to see it quivers with pain. No wonder, then, that the roundly asserted by some far to surpass those killed, but to take care that no negro should negroes should sometimes be cruel (although of our labouring population. I deuy, without have a single morsel of its flesh. Such were this is very rare), when their best feelings are any hesitation, this libel upon truth. Are the my orders

, and of course I was obliged to act seared from their infancy; and, therefore, what peasantry of our beloved country driven to the up to the letter, or turn“ walking-buckra,” | goodness of heart and feeling they do possess, field as so many cattle, and treated as such ? which would have broken my heart, I dare in spite of obstacles, they have not to thank Are their dearest ties and sympathies torn say, and been productive of no good to the their task-masters for it. But it is well known asunder and broken? Are their sportive chil- slaves. Well; the animal was skinned and cut that it is the interest of the whites thus to dedren struck and flogged, in presence of their in quarters, and buried three or four feet deep grade their minds. Let but the schoolmaster be parents, with impunity? Are their wives and in a dunghill

. The overseer and book-keeper abroail in Jamaica, and slavery is no morena kindred sold to different individuals, and se

vever dreamt of its being disturbed. Judge thing of other days. But I have not done with parated by hundreds of miles? Are their what must have been the surprise of the for- punishments

. One little girl there was on daughters forced to yield to the base devices of mer, whey, the next morning, as he was taking our estate who was flogged and abused in a depraved men? Do their fathers encourage it his ride, on passing a watchman's lut, he ob- cruel manner, almost daily. Her life was, infor gain? Do they toil night and day, and yet served a large piece of the animal hung up as deed, a routine of wretchedness and misery. rest not? But I shall not stretch the glaring a prize, a great prize—by its occupant. The She was actually quite lame from the effects of dissimilitude of their condition further. They poor fellow was, of course, severely flogged, the lash, and frequently have I seen her rolling are not so comfortably situated as our labour- and the piece again buried, he being left to on the road, feigning sickness, to escape the ers, and never can be so as long as they continue the solitary “enjoyment" of his woes,

daily punishment in store for her, well knowing slaves. And I trust that the details I now

that I would pass that way. But what could I

Situation of the aged Slaves. proceed to enter upon may go far to prove the

do? Little, indeed; however-willing and lem

The grass-cutters are a set of miserable old nient I endeavoured at all times to be. Those truth of this proposition. I must be generally understood as speaking of what came under wonen, with a male driver at their head, who who know any thing of the life of a bookmy own immediate notice : where this is not hook, to serve as fodder for the cattle and decamp from the estate.

are engaged in cutting grass with a reaping, keeper know full well that he must obey, or the case, I have uniformly said so. The estate

horses. on which I was placed was possessed of nearly 1 down with age and infirmities, and their feet may have redress from the attorney, at his pe

Numbers of them are quite bent The slaves are given to understand that they four hundred slaves and three hundred working cattle, and made, yearly, five hupared the effects of some disease. Nevertheless, prove they have been ill-used. But how is the

are frequently swelled to an enormous size, by riodical visits to the estate, provided they can hogsheads of sugar, and filly puncheons of

they are flogged as often as the othors: and boon (if such it may be called) rendered mugaSo now for facts. The watchen's huts are in general miserahere it may be as well stated that, from the

A mulatto slave, who had received

some unkind treatment from the overseer, on ble abudes of wretchedness. They are built child of five years of age to the old man or of bamboos, and thatched with the branches of whip keeps them all in terrorem, and its effects laid down by that “

woman of seventy, there is no distinction-the threatening to complain to the attorney, was the cocoa-nut and under-wood. Within is ge- descend with the crippled and broken-hearted to the earth, and received the usual panacea

dignitary," with her face nerally a bench of boards, covered with matting, where reposes the aged African, to seek, negro to the only place where his sorrows are

of thirty-nine stripes. Here is one instance of at an end to the grave. Yes; 'to a feeling the many abuses of the system-a systein in slumber, some alleviation of liis woes. There is no chimney whyttever in the hut; a fire of heart a negro's funeral calls to mind all that which, from beginning to end, is one lie? buming embers is collected on the floor, around been degrated in the scale of existence, and the infant of five years fogged, the slender

I have seen the old man of seventy fogged, which may be seen lying his terrier dogs, his ranked with the brutes that perish. But, as youth, and he in pride of manhood, the young assistants in destroying the rats which infest suredly as there is a God in heaven, these wonian, just budding into life, and she who the cane-pieces; suspended from the roof, or arranged on the shelf of his humble abode, are wrongs shall be avenged!

had reared a large family--nay, I have seen the calebashes, which serve him for culinary

Punishments.

her who was with child Hogged, CRUELLY utensils; a piece of a herring, far gone in decay, I shall begin with the children, who consti- believe that she was in that state, which, of all

fogged, because the overseer, forsooth, did not in one corner; a little sugar, or decayed, mugoty tute the first step of the ladder of West India others, demands the kindest treatment. rice, in another. Happy, indeed! Can bap- slavery.

In piness he connected with such assured wretch

short, The children are made to work at the carly compared to the foul deeds daily, witnessed in

“there is nothing under heaven to be elness ? NO! Their food is utterly insuffi- age of five years, they are either sent to ga- the islands of the west": cient to support their toil-worn frames. The ther sour oranges for the hogs, or hoes are put herrings they receive are actually putrified, of into their hands, and they assist in clearing

Those islands fair, the consistence of soap, and these, along with and weeding the canes, or in putting the over

That lie like jewels on the Indian deep." cocoes, a very indigestible esculent root-these seer's garden in order. An old dame, armed Surely such a fair portion of this lower world are their richest favem-so rich, that a beggar in

wus and is destined to be the theatre of higher Scotland would consider himself insulted by * The office of an overseer during harvest in deeds than those of the paltry and cowardly the proffer of them. They vary this sort of Scotland, singularly expressive as applied to Ja- tyranny of white oppressors, and persecutedi peal, occasionally, by the dainty morsel of a maica.

black slaves. Yes, the flag of liberty will vet

rum.

tory!

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