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though it supplies a proof, which no sophistry , incurs in supplying us with the sugar we con them the cultivation of indigo ; and it is now can elude, of misery and suffering, forms but a sume. We are thus made direct participators grown solely by free labour. In this case, the small part of the murderous results with which in his crime.
extinction of slavery in the British colonies, British COLONIAL Slavery is chargeable. Another million of pounds, at the least, is even if it should not operate powerfully in the Had its victims been placed in circumstances annually paid by this country for maintaining way of example, as we might fairly expect it equally favourable with the free blacks around those establishments, civil, naval, and military, to do, on the United States
, and on France, them, or even with their fellow slaves in the by which the slaves in the West Indies, the Brazil, Spain, and other nations, would, at United States, instead of decreasing in eleven Cape of Good Hope, and the Mauritius, are least, establish in the West a growing populayears by 52,624, they ought to have increased kept in subjection to the cart-whip, and by tion of free labourers, to aid the efforts of the by upwards of 220,000. The following is the which the masters are protected in inflicting free labourers of the East in rendering slavery ground on which this appalling fact (involving upon them misery and death.
as unprofitable, in the culture of sugar and a waste, in the slave colonies of Great Britain, Besides this, the interests of British com other articles, as it now is in the culture of of more than 270,000 lives in eleven years) is merce are sacrificed, for the profit of the indigo, and thus making it the common inconfidently averred:
growers of sugar by slave labour, in the West terest, no less than the duty, of all nations to The African slave-trade was abolished by Indies and the Mauritius, and in order to pro- abandon the crimes both of slavery and the Great Britain, and by the United States, in tect them against the competition of free la- slave-trade. the very same year—that is to say, in 1808. bour in our own Asiatic dominions. This is
The enormous evils of British slavery, and Any impediments to the progress of population done by imposing on the sugar of India a duty its tendency to obstruct, by the sacrifices rearising from the disproportion of the sexes, or of six shilling a cwt. more than is paid on that quired to support it, the extension of our comfrom other cireumstances incident to that traf- of our slave colonies.
mercial intercourse with the world at large, fic, must have been nearly alike in the two The mischievous effects of such a policy are and the advance of happiness and civilization,
In 1808 the slaves of the United obvious. Sugar is one of the most generally not only in this but in all lands, have now been States may be computed to have amounted ---nay, universally, desired articles of foreign laid before you. Can a single word be necesto 1,130,000, and those of the British West import; and its consumption in this country sary to excite the Electors of Great Britain and Indies to 800,000: In 1830 the slaves of the might be increased three or four fold. And Ireland to exert every nerve to rid themselves United States amounted to 2,010,436, and yet, so attached are we to slavery that we pre- of the withering intluence, on our highest inthose of the British West Indies to 678,527. vent, by this additional impost, the hundred terests, both moral and commercial, of this If, however, the British slaves had increased millions of our fellow-subjects in the East scourge of humanity—this foul stain on our at the same rate with the American slaves, from supplying us with this article at a cheaper national character? It is now in your power, their number, in 1830, instead of being only rate, in payment of our manufactures, which for the first time, to destroy this gigantic evil, 678,527, would have been 1,423,317, or manufactures they would gladly buy of us if and to save yourselves from its guilt and its cost744,793 more than their actual amount. we would take their sugar in return. And liness; and while, by doing so, you will largely There has, therefore, heen, in the twenty-two low desirable is it to encourage such a benefit your own country, you will be conferyears, from 1808 to 1830, a waste of slave life vent for our industry! At the rate of even a ring blessings, in otlier countries, on millions in the British West Indies, as compared with shilling a head, our Indian population would yet unborn, and may even hope to be instruits increase in the United States, of nearly consume five millions' worth of our manufac- mental in terminating both slavery and the 745,000 human beings.*
tures; and, by giving employment to our slave-trade throughout the world. If this statement be even a distant approxi workmen to that extent, and thus raising their
Be persuaded, therefore, Electors, to rise to mation to the truth (and there appears no wages, far more good would be done than if the full appreciation of the high and sacred ground on which to impeach its general cor- the same money were given away among obligations which attach to you in the exercise rectness), can it be denied that British colonial them. In short, the benefits to be derived of your newly-acquired franchises obligations slavery is one of the severest calamities which from removing restrictions from trade in every which you cannot overlook without guilt. By now afflict liumanity? And even this heavy direction are incalculable; but in no direction means of the representatives of your choice, accusation, supported as it is by such irre are such restrictions more injurious to our own
you may put an immediate extinguisher on fragable proof of the murderous tendency of interests, and more destructive of human hap-ihis expensive national crime. Assert, then, that wretched system, would be aggravated by piness at home and abroad, than when em
your right to deliver yourselves from its maliga view of its demoralizing effects on hoth the ployed to holster up the cruel and impolitic nant influence, and to extend the bloodless slave and liis master, and of its admitted in system of slavery:
and unfettered range of your commercial incompatibility with the progress of Christianity
It has been shown that the destruction of tercourse into every corner of the habitable in the slave colonies. But on this point, also, human life in our slave colonies, during the globe. If you thus act, you will see the waut the public mind is now abundantly satisfied. twenty-two years from 1808 to 1830, has of employment, and the distress consequent The demolition of the houses of God in Ja- amounted to about 745,000 of our fellow-upon it
, of which so many now complain, vamaica, and the persecution of the Christian creatures. If these, instead of being thus nish by degrees from your sight; while your missionaries and their negro converts, which wasted by the rigours of slavery, had, by a growing prosperity, founded on the basis of still rages there, render it unnecessary to dwell more lenient treatment, been added to the humanity and justice, will shed the blessings on that subject.
existing population, we should now, probably, of light, liberty, and improvement, not only on These circumstances of crime and cruelty be receiving from their labour 400,000 or
the population of the British empire, but on will greatly aggravate your guilt, if having, as 450,000 tons of sugar, instead of our present the whole family of man. electors, the power of putting an end to this supply of 200,000. Sugar would thus be so
That such may be one of the first-fruits of a enormity, you suffer its existence to be pro- much reduced in price, and the duties upon it Reform in the Commons' House of Parlialonged. But yet these evils are wholly dis- might also be so much lowered, as to bring itment, is the earnest prayer of tinct from those PECUNIARY and COMMERCIAL within the reach of our whole population.
A BROTHER ELECTOR. SACRIFICES to which this address is intended Such an effect, in regard to cotton, has folespecially to point your attention.-To glance lowed the increase of population in the United at some of them :
States. The import, thence, of that article The people of this country are now paying, into Great Britain has increased about fourto the growers of sugar by slaves, a bounty on fold in the last fifteen or sixteen years, while its export of upwards of five shillings a cwt., its price has fallen to a third of its former rate
MARTIAL'S EPIGRAM ON LIBERTY. by which bounty the price of the article is —that is, from 1s. 6d. to 6d. a pound--thus it raised to the same extent in the home market. has greatly lowered the cost, while it has en Would you be free! 'Tis your chief wish, you The tax thus levied on the British consumer larged the manufacture and consumption, of say: amounts to more than a million pounds ster- that now indispensable necessary of life.
Come on; I'll show thee, friend, the certain way. ling a year, and it is paid in direct support of It might further be shown, that not only if to no feasts abroad thou lov'st to go, that system of slavery which, as has been would trade and shipping be benefited, in an
Whilst bounteous God does bread at home bestow;
If thou the goodness of thy clothes dost prize shown, produces such disastrous effects. It almost incalculable measure, by the abolition operates, in fact, as an indemnity to the slave- of slavery, and of all those commercial restric- By thine own use, and not by other's eyes; holder for the enormous waste of negro lite he tions by which slavery is upheld, but that still in a small house, but a convenient shell ;
If (only safe from weathers) thou can'st dwell more important results might be expected to If thou, without a sigh, or golden wish,
follow. The competition of free labour in our Canst look upon thy beechen bowl and dish ; See, for farther details on this subject, the Indian clominions has gradually compelled the If in thy mind such power and greatness be, “ Anti-Slavery Reporter," Nos. 97 and 100. slave-holders, all over the world, to abandon to 'The Persian king's a slave compared with thee.
On each side of this egg she places another, glass, I found them floating as before upon THE TOURIST.
all which adhere firmiy together by means of their bottoms, and not a drop of water within
their glue, and form a triangular figure thus, their cavity.” We have repeatedly pushed MONDAY, DECEMBER 10, 1832.
which is the stern of the raft. She pro- they always came up immediately to the sur
them to the bottom of a glass of water ; but ceeds in the same inanner to add egg after egg face, apparently unwetted.- Lardner's Cabinet We beg to direct the special attention in a vertical (not a horizontal) position, care
Cyclopaedia. of our readers to the address “ To the fully regulating the shape by her crossed legs; Electors of Great Britain and Ireland," and, as her raft increases in magnitude, she contained in our present number.
It pushes the whole gradually to a greater discontains as important and perspicuous she uncrosses her legs and places them paraltance, and, when she has about half finished,
ART AND NATURE. statements, and as cogent arguments, lel, the angle being no longer necessary for O how much sweeter is it to me to recal to with relation to the abolition of slavery, shaping the boat. Each raft consists of from my mind the walks and the sports of my happy as we remember ever to have seen. It is, 250 to 350 eggs, which, when all laid, float on childhood, than the pomp and the splendour moreover, particularly appropriate to the the water, secure from sinking, and are finally of the palaces I have since inhabited! All present time, when the constituency of abandoned by the mother. They are liatched these courts
, once so brilliant, are now faded! the kingdom are expecting shortly to exercise (and many of them for the first end; but the boat, now composed of the empty much confidence are become chimeras! The
shells, continues to float till it is destroyed by impenetrable future has cheated alike the setime) the most important and responsible the weather.
curity of princes and the ambition of courtiers ! function that can devolve upon
Kirby justly describes this little vessel as re Versailles is dropping into ruin; the delicious in their political capacity. The public sembling a London wherry, being sharp and gardens of Chantilly, of Villers-Coterets, of mind has been too long misled by the higher, as sailors say, fore and aft, convex be- Sceaux, of the Isle-Adam, are destroyed? I false statements and the equally dishonest low and concave above, and always floating on should now look in vain for the vestiges of
its keel. “The most violent agitation of the that fragile grandeur which I once admired omissions of the party interested in the perpetuation of slavery. It is now high water," he adds, ;" cannot sink it; and, what there : but I should find the banks of the Loire
as smiling as ever, the meadows of St. Aubin time that the delusion should be exposed desideratum in our life-boats, though hollow, as full of violets and lilies of the valley, and and discarded, and that Englishmen it never becomes filled with water, even though its woods loftier and fairer! There are no vishould (though late) yield their honest exposed. To put this to the test, I placed cissitudes for the eternal beauties of nature ; attention to a subject which addresses half a dozen of these boats upon the surface and while, amidst blood-stained revolutions, them in every relation they can sustain- of a tumbler half full of water: I then poured palaces, marble columns, statues of bronze, as husbands, as fathers, as friends; which upon them a stream of that element from the and even cities themselves, disappear, the simappeals, in short, with equal force, to mouth of a quart bottle held a foot above ple flowers of the field, regardless of the
Yet, after this treatment, which was so storm, grow into beauty, and multiply for their principle, their benevolence, and rough as actually to project one out of the ever-adame de Genlis. their selfishness.
We take this opportunity of stating that a series of articles will shortly appear in the Tourist, upon THE SAFETY OF IMMEDIATE EMANCIPATION.
DISPOSAL OF EGGS BY THE COMMON
GNAT. The most singular disposal of eggs with which we are acquainted in the economy of insects is exemplified in the common gnat. (Culex pipiens, Linn.). It is admirably described by Réaumur, though it seems first to have been discovered by Langallo, who mentions it in a letter addressed to Redi, printed at Florence in 1769; and hy Alloa, who actually saw the eggs laid, and afterwards sketched a figure of them. Those who wish to witness this singular operation must repair before five or six o'clock in the morning to a pond or a bucket
of stagnant water frequented by gnats; when Réaumur went later in the day he was always disappointed.
LAUNCESTON CASTLE, CORNWALL, The problem of the gnat is to construct a boat-shaped raft, which will float, of eggs
The above represents the ruins of one parliamentary war. It was at first in the heavy enough to sink in water, if dropped into of the most ancient castles in the coun- hands of the parliament, and under the it one by one. The eggs are nearly of the try. It is situated on the summit of a governorship of Sir Richard Buller, who, pyramidal form of a pocket gunpowder flask, hill
, on a high, conical, rocky, mount, on the approach of Sir Ralph Hopton rather pointed at the upper, and broad at the partly natural and partly artificial. It is with the king's forces, quitted the town under end, with
a projection like the month of of such antiquity as to defy the efforts of and fled. In 1643 Sir Ralph was ata bottle. The first operation of the mother gnat the curious to ascertain who were its tacked by Major-General Chudleigh, is to fix herself by the fore-legs to the side of bucket or upon a floating leaf, with her bodyflevel founders, or what was the precise date of without success. In August, 1644, the with and resting upon the surface of the water, its foundation. One of the earliest no place was surrendered to the Earl of Esexcepting the last ring of the tail, which is a tices of it which we find is in the reign of sex, but fell into the hands of the royallittle raised ; she then crosses her two hind-legs King John, who constituted Hubert de ists again after the capitulation of the in form of an X, the inner opening of which Burgh governor of it, a person of consi- earl's army. In the time of the Commonis intended to form the scaffolding of her struc-derable possessions in Cornwall.
wealth, the castle and park, being put up ture. She accordingly brings the inner angle of her crossed legs close to the raised part of
From its strong position, and its situa- to sale by the government, were purchased her body, and places in it an egg, covered, as tion at the entrance of the county, this by Robert Bennet, Esq., but on the Reis usual among insects, with a glutinous fluid. castle was an important post during the storation they reverted to the crown.
causes. No difference whatever could be dis-, respect paid to her remains, must have been a Those of our readers who are acquainted
covered between them and the animals of the cat of consequence at “Thebes, three thousand with the history of the Royal Society, or have same race at the present time. Dr. Scouller | years ago," differs in no respect from humbler grad the interesting papers recorded in its Phi- opened up and examined one of the mummies, cats of modem days, who never raise emotions losophical Transactions, will recollect the
and, under his direction, the skeleton has been of awe in loftier breasts than those of mice and
very curious and valuable experiments made by very successfully set up. Puss, who, from the sparrows.-Edinburgh Chronicle. Mr. Walsh, in the year 1772, on the Torpedo, or cramp fish (Raia Torpedo), by which he ascertained, not only that the effects produced by its touch were electric in their origin and character, but also that the will of the
animal commands the electric powers of its body. Those also who have read, are not likely ever to forget, the learned, instructive, and elegant discourse addressed to the Royal Society in 1774, by Sir J. Pringle, then its president, on delivering to Mr. Walsh the Copleyan gold medal for his ingenious paper. Although it is our object, in this paragraph, to present to our readers an account of a most singular fact which has recently taken place, we would observe, in passing, that the discourse we have referred to was printed, with five others, in 1783, under the title of “ Six Discourses, delivered by Sir John Pringle, Bart., when President of the Royal Society; on occasion of six annual assignments of Sir Godfrey Copley's medal ;” and that, if they happen to meet with the volume, the purchase and perusal of it will highly gratify their taste for scientific research and elegant composition. Never since we first read these admirable discourses, nearly thirty years ago, have we forgotten the
GREENWICH HOSPITAL. relish which they then produced, or failed to renew it on every fresh perusal.
This very interesting and valuable in- Queen Mary's. King Charles's and Other kinds of fish have been found to pos- stitution was founded by King William Queen Anne's are those next the river : sess similar properties, in some respects, to the torpedo ; but none of them in so remarkable a
and Queen Mary, at the suggestion, it is between them is the grand square, 270 degree as the Gymnotus Electricus, or Elec- said, of the latter. The building was com- feet wide; in the centre of which is a trical Eel. A specimen of this fish has lately menced at an earlier period by Charles fine statue of George the Second, carved been examined by the Parisian sarans. The the Second, and intended for a palace, out of a single block of white marble, greatest number were satisfied with a single in place of the old one, on the site of by Rysbrack; and, in front of them, touch, and consequent shock; but one doctor, which it stood. One wing of it, only, by the river side, is a terrrace, 865 feet either urged by a greater zeal for science, or governed by a more insatiable curiosity, re
was completed, in which the king occa- in length. To the south-west of the solved to try the utmost extent of the animal's sionally resided, and no further progress square stands King William's building, powers, and seized it with both his hands ; but was made in it until after the Revolu- which contains the celebrated hall, had quickly reason to repent his temerity; for tion, when a project was formed for pro- painted by Sir James Thornhill. This he immediately felt a rapidly-repeated series of viding an asylum for seamen, disabled artist commenced his undertaking in the most violent and successively-increasing by age, or maimed in the service of their 1708, and completed it in 1727 ; thus shocks, which forced him to leap about in a
country. most extraordinary manner, and to utter the mended as the site of this building; but of his taste and skill. Various places were recom- leaving an almost unrivalled monument
On the ceiling most piercing screams, from the
that he felt. He then fell into convulsions, in conse
the advice of Sir Christopher Wren was are portraits of the royal founders, quence of which his muscles became violently adopted, who proposed that the unfinished William and Mary, surrounded by the contracted, as, from some strange property in the palace at Greenwich should be appro- cardinal virtues, the four seasons of the fish, it became impossible to detach the animal priated to this use, and enlarged suffici- year, the English rivers, the four elefrom his grasp. In this situation he remained ently. Accordingly, in 1694, the King ments, the arts and sciences relating to a considerable time, and, in all probability, and Queen granted this palace, with navigation, and other emblematical fiwould have expired under the agony of his other buildings and land adjoining, for gures; among which are introduced porsuggested the plunging of the hands in water, that purpose, and the sum of £2000, traits of Flamstead, the Astronomer when the eel immediately dropped off. The yearly, for carrying this noble work into Royal, and others. doctor has since been dangerously ill. effect.
We have not room to enter more parSir Christopher Wren was appointed ticularly into a description of Greenwich
the architect, and for several years con- Hospital; but it is one of the most interANDERSONIAN MUSEUM. tributed his time, labour, and skill to the esting and useful institutions which our AMONGST the Egyptian antiquities preseryed work, without any remuneration. The country can boast; and whether we in the Andersonian Museum were two mum- foundation of the first new building was regard the benevolence of its design, mies of the cat, which animal was held sacred laid on the 3rd of June, 1696, from the magnificence of its structure, the by the ancient Egyptians, along with the ox which time it has been gradually en- extent of its resources, or the excellence and ibis. From the extreme antiquity of the larged and improved, until it has at- of its economy, it is every way worthy specimens of these animals, it became a ques- tained its present degree of splendour and of a great, a generous, and a Christian tion of some interest to ascertain their identity magnificence.
people, and admirably calculated, by exwith recent and existing species. This inves
Greenwich Hospital now consists of hibiting the gratitude and respect of the tigation was undertaken by Cuvier, with a view to refute the hypothesis of La Mare, of the four distinct piles of building, distin- nation to its gallant naval defenders, to transmutation of animals in the process of guished by the names of King Charles's, stimulate succeeding generations to rival time, and from the influence of external Queen Anne's, King William's, and their exploits and participate their glory.
ANECDOTE OF NAPOLEON, convinced that it was so).
The viands were
A GRECIAN LEGEND. excellent, the wines exquisite, the table co- There lay a ship of Egypt homeward borne, NAPOLEON, sitting one day surrounded by vered with an abundance of massy silver plate; Where Achelous, from embowering woods, his friends, related the following anecdote, in short, the young traveller was obliged men- Pours forth in splendour, and the Ionian wave which, he said, will do wonders as a lesson, if tally to admit that he had never partaken of Plays dimpling round the green Echinades. it is but listened to, and remembered. “ There more delicate fare, or seen a greater display of Calm slept the silent gusts, and heavily lived once, at Marseilles, a rich merchant, magnificence; and he was more than ever con
Her sails hung cloud-like from the unbending mast; who received one morning, through the hands founded upon ascertaining, from one of the And motionless, above the level waste, of a young man, a letter, strongly recommend persons near him, that the banker gave a
Rose, twined with dragon wreaths, her brazen prow. ing the bearer to his notice ; the young man similar entertainment once or twice a week. The low sweet sound of wakened birds was beard
Night, with its stars, had faded, and from far was of good fortune, and wanted only an in- While coffee was serving he ruminated on all From fragrant forests, where the unfolding rose troduction into society; he brought also a let- that he had witnessed; but his young ideas Blushed through the sylvan twilight; yet no streak ter of credit to a large amount.
had to arrange themselves into that mutual or rosy glimmerings from her halls of light chant, after having read the letter of recom- dependance of cause and effect which would Gave note of morn's uprising-sullen, dim, mendation, instead of either throwing it aside easily have brought the whole to the level of And scarcely marked beneath the lifted clouds, as waste paper, or shutting it up in a drawer, his understanding. “Young man,' said his Piled dense above, that hour of gentle prime, examined it, and, finding that it formed only host, tapping him on the shoulder, you are Gleamed mist-involved along the shadowy sea. one of the four sides of the sheet, tore it in absent, and almost pensive; have you made a Day came, but mantled in its gloomiest stole, two, placed the written half in a leaf of his bad dinner?' But the expression of his eyes, With fitful lustre struggling into birth, portfolio, and then, folding the other half, so and the inflexion of his voice, in pronouncing And, slowly mounting on his upward path, that it would serve for writing a note, put it into these words, seemed to mean, 'Has not your Glared pale at intervals the spectral sun. another portfolio, which already contained a fear of a bad dinner yet vanished ?' The young Hushed as before, the winds of heaven were still, number of similar papers. Having completed' man blushed, as if he had really heard the lat- But o'er the quiet deep began to steal his little measure of economy, he turned ter sentence, but the good-lumoured financier At first a darkening ripple, and anon towards the young man, and invited him to understood his blush, and, laughing, said, “No The heave and swell of fast-succeeding waves, dinner for that very day. The youth, ac offence; you are too young to understand how As though beneath, the wildly rolling flood customed to a life of elegance and luxury, felt masses are formed, the true and only power; And ever from the distant vales arose
Were moved in terror from its caverned bed ; but little inclination for dining with a man whether composed of money, water, or men, it A moaning, feeble as the gust which sighs who could thus appropriate the privileges of is all alike. A mass is an immense centre of Round pool and thicket dank, when winter's sun the chiffonier, by depriving him of his waste motion, but it must be begun—it must be Sinks prematurely veiled, that sound, dismayed, paper ; he accepted the invitation, however, kept up. Young man, the little bits of paper The sea-bird heard, and covered with folded wing; and promised to return at four o'clock. But which excited your derision this morning are And round the mariner, with wistful eyes, as he descended the narrow staircase, from the one among the means I employ for attaining it.?” Gazed on the clouds and solemn forests, spread counting-house of his banker, his mind rapidly “ A fine story this, that you have been Dim by the lea ; but tranquil yet as death reverted to the observations he had made upon telling us, Buonaparte,” said Josephine, smi- Seemed earth around, and shrouded heaven on high. that small gloomy room, with the two long ling; to me the most marvellous part is, So noon went past ; but when, in mid descent, offices that led to it, encumbered with ledgers that you have been speaking for a quarter of Stooped westering to his goal the Lord of Day, that were half smothered with dust and smoke, an hour together, and that to women only."
Along the shore, and from the wooded heights, and where ten or a dozen young persons were “ I did not forget that, I assure you,
Stole sounds of rising music, softened notes working in silence, whose faces appeared to plied he, winking to the other ladies; “ do And cymbal tinklings, and the tone subdued
Drawn from the strings of dulcimer and lutt, his jaundiced eyes like perfect skeletons. He you think I should have preached in the same Of one lone trumpet, blown as if to pour thought of the windows, plastered with a thick way to men ? They never require it.” I was Its brazen wail above the heroic dead. coat of mud, through which no ray of the much struck by this idea of masses as the Before the prow of that fast-anchored bark beautiful sun of Provence could ever pene- foundation of power.- Memoirs of the Duchess Passed the wild melody, then died remote, trate; the little bowl of hox-wood, filled with | D’Abrantes.
Calming the billow, and succeeding fast; saw-dust, to serve for powder, the broken wri
Up sprang a voice among the answering rocks, ting-Ilesk, the dressing-gown of the banker;
PERSECUTION AND SLAVERY.
Shrilî as the night-bird's cry-—" Lameni! lament! and all these recollections, rushing at once FRIENDS AND FELLOW COUNTRYMEN,
Fair valleys, and thou, flower-apparelled earth! upon his mind, produced the reflection, 'I Think of the present state of things in the Ye ivy mantled caves, and horrent pines, have done a foolish thing in accepting the West Indies. Realize the miseries, the wrongs, And fountains gleaming from your beds of moss ! invitation; but no matter, a day is soon which are there endured. Look especially at
Unfathomed ocean, with incessant roar, passed. The duties of the toilet were dis- the violated rights of British subjects, and the Lifting thy waters limitless and free ! charged rather for his own satisfaction than in persecution of Christian Missionaries, and of And ye unchanged and ever-living fires,
Who sow with light the azure fields of space, compliment to the host who expected him; all other Christians. Will you support such a and, that done, he proceeded to the street of state of things as this? Or are you resolved Lament ! lament! dead is the mighty Pan!” Rome, where his banker's house was situated. that it shall cease? Remember that all the That voice with morn the Seric coast had heard, As the latter had told him his wife did not money you pay for sugar raised by slave labour Bathed with its tepid wave; and from the woods, live in that part of the mansion occupied by goes to support slavery, and the evils that system Sounding with hidden streams, where Ind sends forth the counting-house, he begged, on arriving, perpeluates. Renounce slare-grown sugar, and Her clouds of incense from a thousand isles, to be conducted to the lady. A number of slavery must fall. Give, then, this practical one universal altar, slunk appalled valets in rich liveries led him across a small proof to the government and the slave-holders The lurking tiger from his cany lair. garden, filled with rare and exotic plants; that you are in earnest. Let every one who is By broad Euphrates, and those flowery meads, and, after conducting him through several the friend of civil and religious liberty, of the Starred with the wild gourd's blossoms, sternly apartments sumptuously furnished, introduced slave and the missionary (and these will be The Assyrian horseman; and his bow upraised him to a handsoine drawing-room, where he found to be the best friends to the planter like- Dropped nerveless, smitten with a dread unknown. found his banker
, who presented him to his wise, who will soon be ruined by the continu- Memnonian Thebes made answer to the plaint wife and mother; the former was young and ance of the present system), come forward and with murmurs from a thousand stony lips; pretty, the latter not yet old, and both were give a pledge to use no more sugar raised by And o'er Cyrene's olive-shaded luills, dressed in rich stuffs, and adorned with fine slave labour, since it is stained with his bro- And Hellas, with her founts and vales of song, pearls and sparkling diamonds, which attested ther's blood. If this resolution were general And green Ausonia, where the trophied Rome the nealth of the honest and laborious head through the country (and by means of active Sat arbitress, supreme of earth and sea, of the family; he himself was no longer the associations it might speedily be rendered so), Fear fell as night-the guest his jewelled cup,
Untasted left, and from the threshold turned personage his guest had seen in the morning; it would strengthen and quicken all the meahe seemed to have left behind, amongst the sures now in operation, and slavery would The saffron-vested bride, amidst the blaze
Of congregated torches, while the wail dusty ledgers and portfolios, the man of the receive its death-blou. There is other slave Of sorrow.sank beside the bier of death. black velvet cap and woollen dressing-gown, produce, but nothing that can be compared so passed the sound o'er wild Iberia's space
, while the manners and conversation of fifteen with sugar, either in the quantity consumed, By Tarshish, tower-crowned queen, and far away, or twenty visitors, who were assembled in the or its effects on the comfort and life of the Aš sought the sun those yet untraversed coasts drawing-room, led to the inference that this slave; while FREE LABOUR SUcar can now be Renowned in legends old, with shining groves, house was one of the best, if not the very best, obtained both cheap and good, and a little en As Fancy deemed, by serpent-watch surveyed, in the city Dinner was served, and he was couragement will render it cheaper and better. ' Died on the wide Atlantic.
# THE IMPOLICY OF SLAVE LABOUR. out, must, along with other charges, be covered
What MORE COULD NATURE OR LEGISby the market price of the produce of the land. LATION DO FOR IT? Let us look at the picture of A SERIES of valuable papers on the subject Hence, the proprietor who cultivates his estates their condition drawn by able observers, and by of Colonial Slavery is now in the course of ap-by slaves, CANNOT, in similar circumstances, com the inhabitants themselves. Mark this detail of pearing in the Cambridge Independent Press, pete, in the same market, with him who employs forty years! They are furnished hy the Rer. G. W. Crau- free men; he must be protected by a monopoly ; In 1792, says Bryan Edwards, "the great furd, a Fellow of King's College, and cannot or, in plain English, we must suBSCRIBE, in order mass of the planters are men of oppressed forfail to do important service to the cause of to enable him to continue working his estate by tunes, consigned by debt to unremitting drudgery humanity: We hope they will be extensively such expensive machines as slaves. It is plain, in the colonies, with a hope, which eternally read; and that their talented author will, ere
then, that slavery introduces into the system of mocks their grasp, of happier days, and a release long, have to rejoice over the annihilation of tecting-duties, that is, a direct tax or sum of labour an ADDITIONAL CHARGE ; and, without pro- from their embarrassments.
In the same year a Committee of the assembly so impolitic and inhuman a system. The
money, levied on the people of the parent state for appointed to examine into the state of the sugar following paper forms the second of the series.
this service, every slave-colony, must, sooner or trade, report that-"In the course of twenty In introducing it to our readers, we may be later, sink into the abyss of bankruptcy and pau- years, 177 estates in Jamaica have been sold for permitted to remark, that Mr. Craufurd has perism. This may be proved, first, as a matter of the payment of debts ; 55 estates have been fallen into a slight inaccuracy in stating the theory; and then, as a matter of experience, from thrown up; and 92 are still in the hands of amount of the protecting duty on sugar and historical evidence.
creditors total 324 ! And, it appears, from a coffee: it is now £8 on the foriner, and £24 Let us suppose the case, that a certain colony return made by the provost marshal, that 80,121 on the latter; instead of £10, and £28, as
possesses 40,000 slave labourers ; the first cost of executions, amounting to £22,563,786 have been stated by Mr. Cranfurd.
which is £1,600,000, naming, as the average lodged in his office, in the course of twenty
price of slaves, £10 a head. This labour is put years !". can persuade men, from motives of in motion, and sustained, at an annual expence of In 1804, a Report of the Assembly in JaPURE HUMANITY OR RELIGION, to undertake a good £20 a piece, or £800,000 as the total.” (Some maica, printed by order of the Ilouse of Comcause, of course it is very delightful : but we planters will tell us, that the average expence of mons, states that="Every British merchant hold. know, from experience, that the greater part of slaves is even £24 or £26 per annum, but I have ing securities on real estates, is filing bills in mankind are very little moved, except by motives taken a low estimate.) This sum of £20 a piece is Chancery to foreelose, although, when he has obof SELF-INTEREST ; and even religious persons are supposed to include only food, clothing, lodging, tained his decree, he hesitates to enforce it, beNOT SORRY when they find that their exertions in superintendence, medical advice, and the suste cause he must become the proprietor of the planthe cause of mercy tend to advance their worldly nance of the young, infirm, aged, and females, tation, of which, from fatal experience, he knows profit. I feel, therefore, pretty certain of gaining when, through pregnancy, they are unfit for la- the consequence. No one will advance money, the attention of many, while I address you npou bour, for the race of slaves must be kept up. But, to relieve those whose debts approach half the the subject of "the enormous expensiveness of to these natural wages of labour, we have to add value of their property, nor even lend a moderate slavery," and show what a heavy burden it lays the annual interest on the first cost of the la sum without a judgment in ejectment, and release upon us--the people of Great Britain ; and what bourers, namely at six per cent, the rate of colo- of errors, that, at a moment's notice, he may take' ruin it brings upon the slave-owners and planters nial interest, £96,000. To this we must add in out a writ of possession, and enter on the plantain the colonies. When I get to the subject of surance on the capital vested in this perishabletion of his unfortunate debtor. Sheriff's officers, mere mercy, or religion, the attention of many commodity; say at the low rate of three per cent. and collectors of taxes, are every where offering readers will, I fear, begin to flag.
This gives an additional expenditure of £48,000. for sale the property of individuals who have seen First, let me show the ruin which it necessarily Further, it is well known that slave labour is better days, and now must view their effects purbrings upon the planters and slave-owners. Land much inferior in productiveness to free labour, by chased for half their real value, and at less than is every where cultivated at the simple expence of at least five per cent. This deduction from the half their original cost. Far from having the the support, that is, the maintenance in food, master's profits is the same as outlay. We have reversion expected, the creditor is not often satisclothing, and lodging, of the race of labourers. here, therefore, another expence equal to £80,000 fied. All kind of credit is at an end. A faithful These are the NATURAL WAGES of labour. Acci- per annum. Further, all the incidental disabili- detail would have the appearance of a frightful dental circumstances, indeed, may cause fluctua- ties PECULIAR TO SLAVE labour, such as sulks, caricature." tions in them, and changes for a short time; but running away, imprisonment for slave OFFENCES, In 1807, the Assembly reports that "within this is the centre, or natural level, determined by inability to work after being flogged, &c., &c. : the last five or six years, 65 estates have been the constitution of things. The market price of all these are equal to one per cent, or £16,000 abandoned ; 32 sold under decrees of chancery; produce inust cover this expence, together with Adding all these expences together, we and 115 depending in chancery. In five years, the wear and TEAR of all MACHINes or implements find that they amount to £1,040,000 per annum. total 212! *The sugar estates lately brought to used; besides a certain profit on the capital em Now, suppose a colony stocked with 40,000 FREE sale, and now in the Court of Chancery, in this ployed. Now, the race of slave-labourers (so labourers. The whole expense of their support, island and in England, amount to about one fourth iheir masters assure us ) receive the same mainte. and for the perpetuation of the race of labourers, is of the whole number in the colony!” In fine, they nance as the free. In addition to which, while about £20 a piece, or $800,000 per annum. observe-"Under a continuance of the present infants, before they are able to work, when they To this sum the masters of free labourers have no circumstances, your committee anticipate, very are sick, and in the decrepitude of old age, they thing to add. The labourer takes care of himself shortly, the bankruptcy of a much larger part of draw their subsistence from the funds of their and his family, and, under all circumstances of the community, and, in the course of a few years, owner, without making ANY
And sickness, or other adversity, pays his own way. of the whole class of sugar planters, excepting, planters assure us, that, at such seasons, they are We may perceive, therefore, that the masters in perhaps, a very few in peculiar circumstances. very handsomely provided for. Again, the planter the slave colony pay for their labour £240,000 In 1812, the Assembly addressed themselves is said to furnish all his slaves liberally with food more than the masters in the free colony. Hence, to the king, and represented their ruin as complete. and raiment. Now, in furnishing supplies, the eco it follows, that the WHOLE CAPITAL INVESTE) IN “ The crop of coffee is gathering in,” they say, nomy of an individual, who has only himself, or AGRICULTURAL SLAVES IS LOST, or coNSUMED every
“ but its exuberance excites no sensation of his family, to consult for, must be always superior seven years. This is the price of slavery. This pleasure. If the slaves of the coffee plantations to that of a man who has under his charge a great is nature's revenge for the violation of natural are offered for sale, who can buy them? The number of families, who, all of them, consider rights. I have supposed this colony to contain proprietors of the old sugar estates are themselves This must be, even 40,000 slaves. All our slave colonies put to- sinking under accumulated burdens.
If ever when he himself is the proprietor, resident on gether contain, at least, 400,000 full-grown work. there was a case demanding the active and immehis property. But the proprietors of three quar- ing slaves. Hence it follows, that the sum paid diate interference of a paternal government, to reters of West Indian estates are persons resident in for their labour, over and above the cost of free lieve the burdens, and alleviate the calamities of England ; and their affairs are conducted by labour, is not less than £2,400,000 per annum. a most valuable and useful class of subjects, it is AGENTS, whose only interest is to make sugar as Pretty expensive work this! But some persons that of the coffee-planters in Jamaica." fast as possible, and get their coMMISSION paid : will say, all this is only THEORY; and your cal In 1813, Mr. Marryatt stated in the House of while, upon them, no loss, occasioned by the culations may be quite wrong. Let us come, Commons that -- " There were, comparatively, waste of slaves' lives, or the waste of property, then, to history, facts, and documents; and, as a few estates in the West Indies that had not, ever falls. Here, then, is a DOUBLE DRAIN upon specimen of slave colonies, we will take Jamaica ; during the last twenty years, been sold or given money: the wastefulness of the slaves themselves, an island fertile, abounding in valuable pro up to creditors." and that of the overseer or agent. Besides, when ductions, well situated for commerce and highly In 1830, in an address to parliament, they pray slaves are indolent, or refractory, or criminal, the favoured by England.
that "in consequence of the alarming and unwhole pecuniary loss falls upon the owner.
The sugar of the West India planter is pro- precedented state of distress in which the whole And to all these drawbacks we have to add a tected in the British market by a difference of British West Lodia interest is involved, parliament permanent and incurable one. The slave proprie- £10 per ton, levied on the sugar of the East. would adopt prompt and effectual measures of tor has introduced an EXPENSIVE MACHINE into his His coffee by a difference of £28 ; his rum by relief, in order to preserve them from inevitable system, with which the master of free labourers is ils. 6d. per gallon, and the like with other ruin!" The only way to avert it is to free their not burdened, namely the SLAVE HIMSELF. The articles. He and the West India merchant slaves. To crown the whole, they have been annual interest of the first cost of this machine, have, in effect, a monopoly of the trade and of the obliged to borrow from Parliament, mus VERY and its restoration, before the machine is WORN market. Surely, this island sHOULD ABUUND IN YLAR, near £1,000,000.
WASTE as no LOSS TO THEM.