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The above engraving represents an en this done, by the mere voice. \Vhen It was at Boudja, a village (a few campment of Arabs, of which some fur- they rest for the night, they generally miles from Smyrna) where many of the ther ideas may be formed from the fol- kneel down in a circle—it is rarely con- Franks have their country houses. was lowing description of a similar scene in sidered necessary to tie one of their fore- hurrying home, on a very dark night, Asia Minor, from Mr. MacFarlane, legs, at the bend of the knee. They al- at the entrance of the village, and, in the published in the Library of Entertaining ways repose on their knees; and a cu- shadow of a garden wall, I stumbled over Knowledge.
rious thing in relation to their natural something, which proved to be a young “ On their journeys, the devidjis al- habits is, that I never saw one of them camel (they accompany their dams on ways choose, for halting-places, spots that throw himself, even for a moment, on his their journeys almost as soon as they are abound in bushes or brakes, where such side. During the night's rest, the di-born), and, going forward, I stumbled are to be found; the camels are left at vidjis generally sleep in the midst of the again over a sack, and fell headlong liberty to browse, and their drivers smoke circle formed by the recumbent camels; through an opening of the “ (lomestic their pipes or go to sleep. There is no if it be a rainy winter night, they will circle” into the midst of it, and upon danger of the camels escaping, or wan- pitch a little tent; but in this genial cli- the sleeping dividjis. I suppose they were dering to any distance; they keep close mate (I speak of Asia Minor) they nearly surprised at the intrusion, but both men to the spot where they are set at liberty, always repose, like their quiet beasts, in and beasts were very civil—the latter, inand can be rallied and formed in line in the open air
. I once invaded a primitive deed, never moved, and seemed as passive a moment. I have more than once seen | dormitory of this sort, in a curious man- | as if I had been falling over roots of trees."
In connexion with the foregoing de-water. This facility of abstaining from enough to deal with the inference thus covertly scription, some notice of the natural his- drink is not an effect of habit alone, but intended when the distinction is broadly stated;
namely, that the whites are, under ali circumtory and habits of the camel may not be is rather dependant on their physical stances, orderly, moral, and industrious. unacceptable to the reader.
structure. Besides the four stomachs, I will prove that free blacks, under every This class of animals is divided into which are common to ruminating animals, variety of condition, are able and willing to two principal species; the dromedary, or the camel is provided with a fifth bag,
exercise the qualities of social life :
1st. With respect to the manumitted slaves in Arabian camel, distinguished by one which serves as a reservoir for water. This bunch or protuberance on its back, and fifth stomach is peculiar to the camel. It 2nd. With respect to the maroons, or descendthe Bactrian camel, which has two, but is so large as to contain a vast quantity ants of runaway slaves; is in other respects like the former. Asia of water, which remains in it without cor
3rd. With respect to the emancipated slaves of is, no doubt, their original country, and rupting or mingling with the other ali- Hayti, Mexico, &c.
4th. Wish respect to the native Africans. here we have mention made of them, in ments. When the animal is pressed with Ist. In our West India Culonies there are the Sacred Writings, at a very early pe- thirst, or has need of Auid to macerate its about 100,000 free persons of colour, who are riod. The remarkable adaptation of their dry food, it causes a part of the con
either manumitted staves, or the descendants of physical structure to the peculiarities of tents of this reservoir to rise into the up- instance of these people having any relief from
such. In some of the islands there is not a single climate and soil in their native regions, per apartments of the stomach, and even the public, and, throughout the whole, the numand their great docility and power of en as high as the throat, by the simple con ber who received relief in a period of five years, durance, have made them, perhaps, the traction of certain muscles. It is by this
was at the rate of 1 in 370; while, in the same most valuable auxiliaries to man that singular construction that the camel is period, the number of whites who received aid as
paupers, was as 1 in 40. are to be found among inferior animals. enabled to pass several days without
The testimony of the colonial authorities conTheir feet are so formed as to tread lightly drinking; and to take, at a time, a pro curs with statistical facts in proof of the orderly, on a dry and shifting soil; their nostrils have digious quantity of water, which remains, moral, and industrious habils of these free the power of closing, so as to shut out the in this natural cistern,
2nd. The maroons of Jamaica, though under sand when the wind raises and scatters it | Travellers have sometimes, when much circumstances the least favourable to any improvein the desert; and, above all, this animal oppressed with drought, been obliged to ment, are, nevertheless, sufficiently industrious to is provided with an apparatus for retain- kill their camels, in order to obtain a sup- maintain themselves in such a manner that the ing watej-in its stomach, so that it can ply from these reservoirs.
population increases rapidly. Those of them who
were established at Sierra Leone, in 1800, “have march from well to well, without great
shown an aptness which gives them the first place inconvenience, although they be several
in the colony as tradesmen." + hundred miles apart. With these ad FUTILITY OF THE OBJECTIONS
3rd. Hayti, however, presents the most tri
umphant refutation of the aspersions cast upon vantages, it is not surprising that it should
the black race. There, nearly 500,000 slaves, ever have been considered by the Ara- | IMMEDIATE ABOLITION OF COLONIAL suddenly emancipated, have so improved their bians, to whom it is most useful, as a
condition that the population has doubled itself in sacred animal, bestowed by Heaven for Sir,
the course of 30 years. Let it never be forgotten, Indeed, from the time of Job You ask me for answers to the following objec- that it was at the latter end of the year 1793 that
the slaves in St. Domingo were emancipated; to the present day, camels have consti- tions, which are urged against the immediate
that the massacres, and burnings, and plunderings, emancipation of the slaves in our colonies. In tuted the staple, and the criterion of the the compass of a letter I can only state the matter
took place before; and that Malenfaut, in 1794, wealth of Arabia ; for without them the shortly. It is urged that
states that—" After this public act of emancipaArabs could neither travel, trade, nor 1. “ The slaves are idle and dissolute, and tion, the negroes remained quiet, both in the
south and in the west, and they continued to subsist. They use their milk and flesh would not work to support themselves.”
work upon all the plantations.” He further says,
II. “ The whites would be driven from the for food, and make stufis for clothing and islands, or their personal safety would be en
that-" The colony flourished under Toussaint. other furniture from their hair, which dangered.”
The whites lived happily, and in peace, upon is fine and soft, and which is completely 111. “ The capital of the planters would be de
their estates ; and the negroes continued to work renewed every year. Besides this, their stroyed, and the commerce and manufactures of for them.” This state of things is up to 1802.
It was the attempt after this to re-establish this country greatly injured.” power of supporting the fatigues of travelling makes them of great value, in proposition ; and, if this be a gratuitous hypothe in the cultivation of the soil, and the manufacture
The two last are merely appendages to the first slavery which led to the devastation that expelled case of invasion, to their wandering own sis resting upon no facts, but derived from a false
of sugar. Here, then, is the fact upon which it ers, whom they can in one day remove analogy, the remainder falls to the ground. 150 miles into the desert, and so effec- it fully and freely. How should they be other
"The slaves are idle and dissolute :" we admit is falsely assumed that emancipation will be fol.
lowed by desolation. tually cut off all approach from their wise ? What inducements have they to be indus
In the republic of Mexico, the slaves were sud. enemies. 'trious, temperate, and chaste? But they are idle denly, emancipated ; and I challenge evidence
that the act has been followed by any ill conseBut it is in commerce that their ser- only when working for their masters. They sup
port themselves by voluntary labour. It is a quences to society. vices are most important. The caravans, great mistake to suppose that the slaves are alto
4th. The concurring testimony of all travellers or large companies in which the mer- gether fed by the masters. And if they do now
to the present day respecting the Africans, shows chants travel, always consist of more labour with unremitting toil, in order to procure that, in their own country, they are an industrious camels than men.
The largest of these necessary food for themselves and families, will people, cultivating the earth, even though at the animals will carry a burthen of a thou- negroes must either work or plunder. And it is they not continue to do so? It is clear that the risk of not reaping that they have sown. Wher
ever the contrary to this is found, it is the effect sand, or even twelve hundred, pounds' not conceivable that the same means by which the
of the wars, produced mainly by the slave trade, weight, and the smallest from six to seven slaves are restrained should be inadequate to the
which the slavery of the European colonies excites
and maintains. hundred, and, with these loads, they walk preservation of order amongst the same men when
The conclusion, then, is inevitable, that the about thirty miles a day, When in a rich the slaves have not a proper sense of the benefits slaves are fit for freedom, and that their emancicountry, or fertile meadow, they eat, in of social order. The present race of slaves in our
pation should not be delayed an hour longer than less than an hour, as much as serves West India colonies have either been born there,
is necessary to give it full and complete effect : them to ruminate the whole night, and or have been there from so early an age that they meaning thereby, the substitution of a system of to nourish them for twenty-four hours. than that derived from agriculture. Besides, the
are acquainted with no other mode of subsistence judicial restraint for the irresponsible authority of They seem, however, happily to prefer physical character of these colonies precludes the
I have argued this subject as a mere question of the nettles, and prickly plants, which exercise of the pastoral life. Hence, to till the intellect, a dry investigation of the understanding.
And, if immediate emancipation is thus demonthey more commonly meet with, to richer earth is considered by the slave to be an essential herbage ; and, when they can get plants condition of his existence. And are negro sluvés only characterized by dis
• Parliamentary Papers, 1820. of any kind, they casily dispense with solute and licentious habits? It will be time
+ Report of Commission of Enquiry, Sierra Leone, Par
liamentary Pipers, 18:27.
strable, does it not become imperative when not loose the hold; but his strength was evi- I lay helpless under him. I felt his fiery viewed as a question of morals between man and dently giving way: he still struck terrible breath-1 saw his lurid eye glaring—1 heard man, and of religion, between man and his Crea- blows, but cach was weaker than the one hc- the gnashing of his white fangs above me. tor!' He who holds his brother in slavery pre before'; till, collecting his whole force for a An exulting shout arose.--I saw him reel as vents the exercise of his free agency, and is, there last effort, he darted one mighty blow into the as if struck.-—-Gore filled his jawș ---Another fore, chargeable, by his own act, with the moral lion's throat, and sank. The savage yelled, mighty blow was driven to bis heart.--He onerated. I would not be in this awful position and, spouting out blood, fled bellowing round sprang high in the air with a howil. He
the for all that this world can bestow.
But the hand still grasped the dropped; he was dead. The amphitheatre
mane, and his conqueror was dragged whirl- thundeed with acclamation. Your's sincerely, ing through the dust at his heels. A univer With Salome clinging to my bosom, ConC. R. M. sal cry now arose to save him, if he were not stantius raised me from the ground. The roar
already dead. But the lion, though bleeding of the lion had roused him from his swoon, DESCRIPTION OF A LION-FIGHT
from every vein, was still too terrible, and all and two blows saved me. The falchion was AT ROME.
shrank from the hazard. At length the grasp broken in the heart of the monster. The whole The Emperor's arrival commenced the grand gave way, and the body lay motionless on multitude stood up, supplicating for our lives display. He took his place under the curtains the ground.
in the name of filial piety and heroism. Nero, of the royal pavilion. The dead were remov What happened for some moments after I devil as he was, dared not resist the strength ed; perfumes were scattered through the air ; know not. There was a struggle at the portal ; of the popular feeling: TOSE-water was sprinkled from silver tubes on a female forced her way through the guards, He waved a signal to the guards; the portal the exhausted multitude; music resounded; rushed in alone, and tung herself upon the was opened, and my children sustaining my incense burned; and, in the midst of these victim. The sight of a new prey ronised the feeble steps, and showered with garlands and preparations of luxury, the terrors of the lion lion; he tore the ground with his talons; he ornaments by innumerable hands, slowly led combat began.
lashed his streaming sides with his tail; he me from the arena."-Salathiel. A portal of the arena opened, and the com lifted up his mane, and bared lis fanys. batant, with a mantle thrown over his face But his approach was no longer with a bound; and figure, was led in, surrounded by soldiery. he dreaded the sword, and came snuffing the COFFIN DEALERS IN JAVA. The lion roared and ramped against the bars blood on the sands, and stealing round the of its den at the sight. The guard put a sword body in circuits still diminishing. The confu
THERE are many coffin-makers in this great and buckler into the hands of the Christian, sion in the vast assembly was now extreme.
city, where death so often keeps his court, and and he was left alone. He drew the mantle Voices innumerable called for aid. Women slays not only his ordinary thousands in the from his face, and bent a slow and firm look screamed and fainted; men burst out into indig- course of the year; but, at particular seasons, round the amphitheatre. His fine countenance nant clamours at this prolonged cruelty. Even strikes down his tens of thousands-in the
houses--in the streets—in the fields : walking and lofty bearing raised an universal sound of the hard hearts of the populace, accustoined as admiration. He might have stood for an they were to the sacrifice of life, were roused with the pestilence in darkness, and slaughterApello encountering the Python. His eye at
to honest curses.
The guards grasped their ing with the arrow that flieth at noon-day. last turned on mine. Could I believe my , arms, and waited but for a sign from the em We noticed particularly the Chinese cofias senses! Constantius was before me! peror: but Nero gave no sign.
which are not only exposed for sale in esery All my ranconr vanished. An hour past I I looked upon the woman's face. It was
undertaker's work-shop, but are frequently could bave struck the betrayer to the heart. I Salome! I sprung upon my feet. I called on
seen placed at the doors of their own dwellings; could have called on the severest vengeance of her name; I implored her by every feeling of for a China-man likes a good bargain of any man and heaven to smite the destroyer of my nature to fly from that place of death, to kind, and will eagerly buy a cofin for himself child. But to see him bopelessly doomed; come to my arms, to think of the agonies of all if he can get it cheap, though he hopes to live the man whom I had honoured for his noble that loved her.
forty years; nor does the sight of it annoy qualities, whom I had even loved, whose She had raised the head of Constantius on him with any feeling less pleasant than the recrime was at worst but the crime of giving way her knee, and was wiping the pale visage with collection that he has his money's worth in it. to the strongest temptation that can bewilder her hair At the sound of my voice she looked These coffins are not expensive, being made the heart of man; to see this noble creature up, and calmly casting back the locks from her both solid and spacious out of four thick Aung to the savage beast, dying in tortures
, forehead, fixed her gaze upon me. She still blocks of timber, the upper one forming the torn piecemeal before my eyes, and this mi- knelt: one hand supported the head, with the lid and projecting over the edges, with a sery wrought by me~I would have ohlested other she pointed to it as her only answer. I shoulder-piece; the body of the chest, thus earth and heaven to save him. But my tongue again adjured her. There was the silence of compacted, is nearly cylindrical. The buryingcleaved to the roof of my mouth. My limbs death among the thousands round me. A place of the Chinese belonging to Batavia, refused to stir. I would have thrown myself sudden fire flashed into her eye, her cheek like one which we have elsewhere described, at the feet of Nero; but I sat like a man of burned. She waved her hand with an air of is on the slope of a hill, where the graves are stone, pale, paralysed--the beating of my superb sorrow.
disposed in the most exact order, as cells, with pulses stopped---my eyes alone alive.
** I am come to die,” she uttered in a lofty their precious deposits sealed up in masonry, The gate of the den was thrown back, and tone. “This bleeding body was my husband.
or brick-work, with ornaments according to the the lion rushed in with a roar, and a bound I have no father. The world contains to me rank or riches of the deceased. A second that bore him half across the arena. I saw but this clay in my arms. Yet," and she corpse is never laid in a sepulchre already octhe sword glitter in the air: when it waved kissed the ashy lips before her," " yet, my cupier. ---Bennet and Tyerman's Voyages. again, it was covered with blood, and a bowl Constantius, it
save that father told that the blow had been driven home. that your generous heart defied the peril of The lion, one of the largest from Numidia, this hour. It was to redcem him from
THE TIO FOUNTAINS. and made furious by thirst and hunger, an the land of evil that you abandoned a quiet animal of prodigious power, couched for an home! Yes, cruel father, here lies the noble
( From Moore': Erenings in Greece.) instant, as if to make sure of his prey, crept a being that threw open your dungeon, that led I saw, from yonder silent cave, few paces onward, and sprang at the victim's you safe through conflagration, that to the Two fountains running side by side ; throat. He was met by a second wound, but last moment of his liberty only thought how The one was Memory's limpid wave, his impulse was irresistible, and Constantius he might preserve and protect you.” Tears at The other cold Oblivion's tide. was flung upon the ground. A cry of natural length fell in floods from her eyes. But,"
"O Love!" said I, in thoughtless dream, borror rang round the amphitheatre. The said she, in a tone of wild horror,
As o'er my lips the Leihe pass'd, struggle was now for instant life or leath. betrayed; and may the Power whose thunders
“ Here, in this dark and chilly stream, They rolled over each other ; the lion reared avenge the cause of his people, pour down just
Be all my pains forgot at låst.” on its hind feet, and, with gnasbing teeth and retribution upon the head that dared”distended talons, plunged on the man; again I heard my own condemnation about to be
But who could bear that gloomy blank, they rose together. Anxiety was now at its uttered by the lips of my child. Wound up
Where joy was lost as well as pain? wildest height. The sword swung round the to the last degree of suffering, I tore my hair,
Quickly of Memory's fount I drank,
And brought the past all back again : chainpion's head in bloody circles. They fell leaped on the bars before me, and plunged And said, “ O Love! whate'er my lot, again, covered with gore and dust. The hand into the arena by her side. The height was Still let this soul to thee be true.. of Constantius had grasped the lion's mane, stunning; I tottered forward a few paces, and Rather than have one bliss forgot, and the furious bounds of the monster could fell. The lion gavea roar and sprang upon me. Be all my pains remembered too !"
c he was
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. tain, the still more fearful waste of human, West India planter as an encouragement of We have received communications from R. C., life discovered, in an arerage decrease of seven his expensive and murderous system, and after A Hater of Slavery, A Burtonite, and A. S. teen Negroes annually out of 314—or eighty- all are insulted and threatened with rebellion.
We are particularly obliged by the contribution of five slaves, being equal to one-fifth of the whole When will the national conscience be aroused Marian, and hope we shall have to thank her for many population, cut off in the space of five years ! to the moral obliquity of such a course? When,
The estates of John Thorp, situate in the pa- especially, will British Christians do justice to
rish of Trelauney, show a diminution of num- their principles, by withdrawing their patronTHE TOURIST. bers, within the same period, amounting to age from so accursed a traffic? The system is
two hundred, out of a population of 2809. But within our power, and we may do with it as MONDAY, DECEMBER 3, 1832. on the coffee plantations, where night-work is we please. "If our rulers refuse to manumit
unknown, mark the contrast; on a plantation the slaves, we may accomplish it ourselves,
having 214 slaves, the average increase for five by a process which, though slower, will be as ON THE DISUSE OF SLAVE SUGAR.
years is three per cent. per annum; and, taking effectual. If the opposition of the West India Human nature has been termed a bundle of an extensive parish, the staple commodity of party prevent any parliamentary enactment, inconsistencies. Conflicting opinions are fre- which is coffee, the average increase through we have only to exclude their produce from quently entertained by the same person, and out is not less than three per cent, per annum. our dwellings, and the triumph of humanity practices are sanctioned at open variance with Can there be a more convincing proof of the will be achieved. Let us, then, combine with the profession made. A very limited know- shocking waste to which human life is subject a zeal and self-devotedness worthy of the ledge of mankind will be sufficient to convince on sugar estates (and owing mainly to the cause. Let associations be formed throughout aus of the accuracy of such a representation system of night-work), than this? And yet to the kingdom for the exclusion of West India We have only to compare the conduct with the such a system must the man of grey hairs, or sugar. ”Let the ministers of religion take a recorded sentiments of men, in order to be the mother of a numerous offspring, after toiling lead in this movement, and outraged humanity assured of their frequent incongruity. On no throughout the day, under the scorching beams will rise from its oppressions, and bless our point is this inconsistency more gross and pal- of a tropical sun, submit; and again be expable than on that which is referred to in the posed to the bleak north wind, to the chilling We have commonly heard it alleged that title of this paper. It is well known that a
mists of heaven, or to the pelting rain ; and, such an attempt is hopeless; but we are perlarge and rapidly increasing portion of the Bri- when overtaken with sleep, to lie down faint suaded to the contrary. This is the common tish public regard colonial slavery as a process and weary, and at the risk of a heavy punish- plea of supineness, and should be treated as of slow murder; and they appeal triumphantly ment, under the great canopy of heaven, with such. Suppose it were well founded, would to the population returns of the sugar islands out another comforter, save Him, who pities it justify our continued encouragement of in justification of their estimate. It is not sim- the oppressed."*
cruelty and murder? If we can effect no imply that they view slavery with disfavour,-
From the population returns we learn, that provement in the condition of the slave, we are that they regard the coerced and unremune
in fourteen sugar colonies the decrease of the yet bound to abstain from the infliction of inrated labour of the African as impolitic and Negroes, on an average of the last eleven years, jury. If we cannot manumit, we must refrain wnrighteous. Such a conviction would, in all has been 58,601. The advocates of slavery from rivetting his chains. We owe it to ourhonesty, pledge them to abstain from the con- have endeavoured to account for this decrease selves as well as to the negro to wash our sumption of slave produce,-to withhold from by various theories, which are sufficiently dis- hands of this pollution. such a system of exaction and wrong the proved by the notorious fact, that the Maroons But positive benefit must follow. If the slightest share of their patronage. But the
in Jamaica, the free blacks throughout our co slave-holder finds the sale of his sugars greatly truth of the matter is, their conviction of the lonies, and even the slaves in America and diminished, he will, as a mere matter of cominiquity of British colonial slavery is much
on the coffee plantations in our own islands, mercial policy, modify his system, so as to stronger than we have supposed. They believe are uniformly increasing: The decrease on meet the views of his customers, and to preit to be a barbarous and cursed system, involv- sugar plantations cannot therefore be account serve himself from ruin. Let him once pering the worst features of rebellion against Goded for by circumstances which exist equally in ceive that the British public are thoroughly with unparalleled cruelty to man. And yet
the case of those other classes. There must resolved no longer to encourage him in their they patronize it: they encourage the planter obviously be something in the nature of their market, and he will abandon slavery rather in the perpetration of wrong, yea, they bribe employment, and its duration and intensity, than abide by its consequences. The same him to coerce the labour of his slaves to a mur which shall account for a difference so palpa- plan would work redemption to the slaves in slerous extent. But how, it may be asked, is ble. This argument is strengthened by the various other ways. It would materially lessen this done? How can charges of so serious a
fact, that the rate of decrease in the sugar the value of slaves, and thus facilitate manunature be established ? Nothing is more easy. colonies bears an observable proportion to the mission. This appears by the returns from the We consume the articles which the planter quantity of sugar produced." In Demerara, slave colonies printed May 9th, 1826, and numsends us, and more especially his sugar, to Trinidad, and the Mauritius, for instance, bered 353. These returns embrace a period of which our observations now extend. It is in whence the exportation of sugars has been five years—from the 1st of January, 1821, to the production of this latter article that the largest in proportion to the number of slaves, the 31st of December, 1825. Amongst other misery of the slaves is perfected. They are
the Negro population has decreased most ra- matters, they furnish the number of slaves sold worked on an average through the year six- pidly; while in Barbudoes and Dominica, where in execution for their masters' debts, specifying teen hours per day, and their labour during little sugar is grown, the slaves have slightly their age, sex, price, &c. Hence we learn the the greater part of this time is performed under increased; and in the Bahamas, where no average price of slaves in the different islands, the impulse of the whip. Human nature can
sugar is raised, 'their increase has been rapid. and the following are some of the results not endure such exaction. It is a demand The increase in the latter case has been sub- ascertained. In Demerara, a sugar colony, which her powers are not competent to meet; sequent to the abandonment of sugar cultiva- the value of the slave is £86 sterling, and in and we find, what general principles would tion. As long as the soil would furnish a crop Berbice £90; while in Barbadoes, whence have led us to anticipate, that the negotio po-nually diminished; but, immediately that it be- £28; and in the Bahamas, where no sugar is
of sugar-canes, the slaves in the Bahamas an- little sugar is exported, his price is reduced to pulation throughout the sugar colonies is rapidly decreasing
came too exhausted for this purpose, the same raised, he may be purchased for £21 8s. How “Of all the evils to which the Negro is lia-race multiplied. The depressing force was much greater the facility of manumission in ble, throughout the whole system of slavery, removed, and nature acted on her general the latter islands than in the forner!-and there is not a greater than this-night-work on law.
how much more enviable in consequence the sugar estates. In proof of this, my Lord, only
Such is the fact. What, then, is the course condition of the slaves ! look at the facts to be found in a late return to which we pursue?. Manifestly such as no
But this is not all. The time of a slave in Parliament, of the average increase and de- moral principle or humane feeling can sanc- a sugar colony is of more value to his master crease of slaves for the five preceding years to tion. We receive the sugar raised at this than in any other. Hence the labour exacted 1828, on the principal properties in Jamaica, sacrifice of human life. We exempt it from from him is more protracted and intense, and distinguishing coffee and other plantations fair competition with free-labour sugar by our the opportunities of improving his own condifrom the sugar estates. We find from these bounty and protecting duties. We give on an tion are proportionally smaller. But, further, returns, one sugar estate with 663 slaves, on average several hundreds annually to each in sugar colonies, the slaves are mainly dewhich there has been an average decrease of
pendent on imported goods with which their ten. On another, with 242 slaves, a decrease * Rev. J. M. Trew's Letters to the Duke of quantities as barely suffice for the maintenance
masters supply them. These are given in such of fifteen ; and on a third, called Blue Moun- | Wellington, 1830.
of life, and nothing can, in consequence, be It was suspected that the waters of this sea saved by the negro as part of the price of his were gradually sinking; but a Memoir in the redemption. But when the cultivation of Swedish Transactions for 1823 has put the sugar ceases, the master finds it for his profit change beyond doubt. From latitude 56 to to give provision grounds to his slaves, on 63 degrees, the observations show a mean fall which they raise their own support. Hence of one foot and a half in forty years, or fourthey become the small poulterers and green- tenths of an inch annually, or three feet four grocers of the community, and are enabled, in inches in a century. The Baltic is very shalmany cases, gradually to accumulate a suffi- low at present; and, if the waters continue to cient sum to purchase their freedom. The sink as they have done, Revel, Abo, and a system, therefore, which we recommend, ope- hundred other ports will
, by and by, become rates in their favour two ways: it reduces their inland towns; the gulfs of Bothnia and Finvalue, and it supplies them with money. Eng- land, and ultimately the Baltic itself, will be lishmen! let your hereditary love of freedom changed to dry land. dictate the course you should pursue. Open every door of escape to your oppressed and wretched fellow-subjects. "Restore to them, by
EPITAPH every means in your power, the rights of which they are deprived, the joys which have long
ON THE MARQUIS OF ANGLESEA'S LEG. been strangers to their breasts. Then will you Attributed to the Right Hon. George Cunning. have the purest satisfaction which is alloited to humanity on earth, and will shield your
Here rests—and let no saucy knave
Presume to sneer and laugh, country from those appalling evils with which
To learn that mouldering in the grave a retributive providence will otherwise visit it.
Is laid-a British calf.
For he who writes these lines is sure
That those that read the whole
Will find such laugh is premature, ascertained respecting the level of the Baltic. For here, too, lies a sole.
And here five little ones repose,
Twin-born with other five,
Who now are all alive.
Rest here of one commanding,
Lost halt his understanding.
Pour'd bullets thick as hail,
To give the foe leg-bail.
As in the battle brave,
With one foot in the grave.
For he will still be found,
Resolv'd to stand his ground.
She meant not to disarm;
She did not seek his h-arm;
Since he could walk with one,
Who never meant to run.
SCULPTURE OF THE FATES INTERRUPTED BY THE GODDESS OF HEALTH. Mark with what fatal skill yon deathful pair Philemon we find the following sentence: by an ancient commentator, is an instance The web of human destiny prepare ;
“ We are subject to kings, kings to the of a very singular figure common in the Life's brittle thread those ruthless sisters hold, And swift around the impetuous wheel is rollid.
gods, and the gods to necessity.” In-Latin language, being derived from the A third more dreadful sister near them stands, deed, to such a height was this impiety word parco," to spare,” because, forsooth, The fatal shears extended in her hands, carried, in the earliest ages of Greece, they spare nobody ! Eager to strike the blow, and seal the doom
that we find Homer and Hesiod teaching Their personal appellations were, Cloof some pale victim trembling o'er the tomb.
that the gods themselves were generated tho, Lachesis, and Atropos; of whom the
by Necessity of Night and Chaos. The first held a distaff, the second spun the The ancient mythology recognized a same power exercised an uncontrolled thread of human destiny, and the third power superior to that of the gods, namely, dominion over the events and duration of cut it short with a pair of scissors—thus that of fate, or necessity. Hence Herod human life, and in this character is re- determining the close of life. The anotus quotes an oracle which declared that presented by the three sisters, seen in the cients imagined that the Parcæ used white “ God himself could not shun his des- above engraving. They were called wool for a long and happy life, and black tined fate;" and in the fragments of | Parce; which name, as we are informed for a short and unfortunate one.