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SECT. V. Ecclesiastical Punishments among the Jews.—The Nezipè or Admo-

nition, its nature and duration. Tbe Nedui or Separation, The Herim or Cut-

ting off. The Shemetha or Greater Excommunication, A Copy of it 104
SECT. II. Marriages of the Jews.-Espousing; copy of the contract; dowry

SECT. I. Habitations of the Jews. These affected by the state of society,

Tents in pastoral districts described. Villages of stone in rocky situations,

and mud in plains. Fenced cities; their walls, gates, locks, wooden keys,

bolts and bars. Private winter houses of the Jews; of stone, brick, or mud :

manner of defending them from the weather. Doors often ornamented: the

hole at the side for the portion of the law. Houses in the form of a square,

with a court in the middle; their appearance plain towards the street; the

windows, lattices; their appearance towards the court beautiful. Their

chambers, kiosks, olee or upper rooms; door to the street low; doors into

the court large. Ground floor for the family, principal rooms in the second

story; fire-places in the family rooms; braziers in the public apartments.

Stairs sometimes ornamented with vine; manner of finishing their principal

rooms. Way of cooling their chambers ; furniture of rooms, carpets ;

the divan. Chambers of the poor; their beds. The beds of the rich;

their musqueto nets. Bed-chambers always lighted during the night;

often alluded to in Scripture. The summer houses of the Jews described ;

the roofs of houses flat, with battlements: their utility. The eastern

nails of houses; keys of woud described. Dr. Shaws account of eastern

houses. Streets of eastern cities dirty in wet, and dusty in dry weather; nar-

row; the reason why. The gate of the city the most public place. Bazars;

Dr. Russell's and Mr. Kinneir's account of them. Tolls erected at the gate.

No clocks; manner of knowing the hour. Police regulations; nuisances re-

moved; water brought by conduits, tanks, or reservoirs. The pools of Solo-

mon described ; Gihon, Siloam, Jacob's well. Rights of citizenship. Roads

between city and city. Dogs at large without any owner ; several texts al-

luding to this

112

given to the bride, laid out in marriage dresses; custom at Aleppo and in

Egypt. Persons in the East always marry young; young men to virgins ;

widowers to widows. The bride elegantly dressed ; virgins married on the

fourth day of the week, and widows on the fifth : one divorced or a widow,

could not marry till after ninety days. The marriage procession of the bride-

groom to the house of the bride: the marriage ceremony; procession of both

parties to the house of the bridegroom: commonly in the night. The songs

and ceremonies during the procession; marriage supper; office of architri-

clinus : the paranymphi; the shushbenin. Music and dancing after supper.

Signs of virginity: consequences if they appeared not. Marriage feast lasted

eight days: that of a widow only three. The bride had commonly a slave

given her by her parents. Husbands exempted from military service for a

year; Alexander the Great did this after the battle of the Granicus. A large
SECT. V. Entertainments of the Jews.-Furniture of an eastern kitchen.

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Fire-places; fuel, either wood, grass, or dried cow-dung. Bread, how baked,

leavened, toasted. Testimony of travellers. Public ovens,

their

way

of send-

ing bread to them. Eastern bread not good above a day. Their better kind

of cakes; their cracknels. Bread their principal food, eaten with oil, &c.;

wheat, parched corn, barley, beans, summer fruits, roots; milk. Butter,

how made by them; butter-milk a luxury ; leban, how prepared ; cheeses of

the East, how made, not good. The general diet at Aleppo, and of the
SECT. VII, Jewish Manner of Travelling.—Disposition of their dress : never

travelled in the heat of the day but from necessity; saluted no person when

in haste; feet washed when they entered a house. Rode on asses, horses,

mules, camels, and dromedaries; had no stirrips; used hirans and counes ;

provender for their animals; provisions for themselves; articles of conve-

nience and commerce. Skins for water; every article carried in skins. Dis-

tance measured by hours; wells the common resting-places; these often

infested by robbers ; no inns ; khanes, or caravansarais. Caravans; manner of

travelling ; sometimes very numerous. Kings travelled in state; had the

dust allayed with water; harbingers sent before them, and pioneers to level

the roads. Customs observed by the modern Jews on a journey · 227

SECT. VIII. Jewish Marks of Honour and Disgrace.-1. Marks of honour

which servants paid to their masters. Slaves, their price; their submis-

sive attitude; washed the hands of their masters; served him before

they ate themselves; servants of different ranks ; eunuchs; singing men

and singing women. 2. Marks of respect paid by inferiors in general to

superiors. Bowing the head; bowing the knee; bowing to the ground;

kissing the hand, or what came from it; gave them the chief seat; made

yearly presents; allayed the dust before them when travelling : spreading

their garments. A spear, or lamps, indicated the tent of a chief. 3. Marks

of respect among equals. The salam, or salutation ; eastern salutations took

up much time; their way of saluting when at a distance, and when at hand;

kissing; ; falling on the neck; taking hold of the beard. Manner of conduct.

ing visits; these held in the court in summer, and house in winter. The en-

tertainment at an eastern visit; sprinkling with rose-water; perfuming the

guests; their signs of mirth. 4. Marks of honour paid to inferiors; those to

principal officers; Joseph ; Mordecai; changes of raiment; purple robe;

gold buckle and clasp ; a key on the shoulder a mark of office; explanation
SECT. XII. The Jewish Mode of Warfare.-Causes of the Jewish wars;

number of their armies ; degree of efficiency; arms a helmet, breastplate,

habergeon, girdle, greaves, sword, shield, battle-ax, sling, bow, quiver,

poisoned arrows. The Jewish cavalry: their accoutrements; chariots of

war; camels of the kings of Midian ; qualifications of an ancient warrior;

time of going to war; methods taken to distress an invading enemy; order

of encampment among the Jews; camps on hills; religious ceremony before

fighting; method of fighting; their cruelty afterwards. The transplanting

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