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BECT. XIV. Treatment of the Dying and Dead. The hours for visiting

the sick; conduct of visitors. Dying persons addressed their children and

relations ; made their latter will. A strange custom of changing the name

of the dying person. After death the nearest relation kissed the deceased,

and closed his eyes; the other relations tore their upper garment; specta-

tors tore theirs only a hand-breadth; women hired to cry; minstrels;

Sir John Chardin's account of their lamentations. The dead body washed;

wrapt in spices; bound in grave-cloths; laid in an upperchamber. The

Egyptian method of embalming. The persons employed about a dead

body accounted unclean. Funerals, either public or private; insignia

suited to the person's character laid on the coffin; hired mourners ; Dr.

Shaw's account of them; minstrels at the funeral ; ceremonies at the grave;

the sittings and standings in their return to the house ; seven of these ;

mourning for the dead either extraordinary by lamentations, tearing the hair,

cutting their bodies, &c. or ordinary, by tears, tearing the upper garment,

covering the lip. Entertainment after the funeral. The ordinary mourning

before the funeral; for the first three days after; for the next four; for the

remaining twenty-three. Funerals of children ; cemeteries always without

cities; potter's field; public burying places; regulations concerning them.

Private burying-places; Rachel's sepulchre : Joseph's soros, or mound;

Isaiah's and David's tombs; Absalom's pillar ; Esther's and Daniel's tombs ;

tombs of Jonah, Zecharias, and Lazarus. Sepulchres of families commonly

in caves; these described ; tomb of Lazarus ; tombs of the Judges ; sepul-

chral monument over the Maccabæan family; sepulchres of the kings of

Syria and Israel; money said to have been in David's sepulchre examined ;

all the sepulchres white-washed on the 15th of the 12th month ; garnishing

sepulchres accounted meritorious. The written mountains in the wilder-

Dess of Sinai. Two Hebrew epitaphs; the bodies of criminals left without



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SECT. V. Agriculture of Judea.-Time of ploughing; form of their plough;

the ox goud; their manner of sowing; diseases of grain ; blasting or blight;


hoar frost; thunder showers; caterpillar; locusts; harvest in Judea.

The barley harvest; wheat harvest; manner of reaping by pulling up; cut-

ting with a sickle; harvest a season of joy; sheaves, but no shocks in Judea ;

threshing the grain by a staff; fail; feet of cattle; the drag; the wain with

iron wheels or teeth : winnowing by the shovel and fan ; threshing floors in

airy situations; straw used as fodder; grain preserved in earthen jars, or

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Jewish Manner of Writing.
Origin of writing. Engraving on brass, stone tables, on rock. The inscriptions

on the mountains of Faran, in the wilderness of Sinai; in the plain of Mum-
mies in Egypt; at the river Lycus ; on the bricks of Babylon. One of these
seen by the author. Engraving on lead. Books written on painted linen,
papyrus, parchment, leaves, and inner bark of trees, plates of wood covered
with wax. Their pens or styles : sometimes iron; sometimes a reed. The an-
cient form of books in rolls. A copy of the Veda described, as seen by the
author. Rolls commonly written on one side; but sometimes on both. Wri-
tings how preserved. Letters, or private epistles in the form of rolls : how
sealed. Description of an eastern letter seen by the author.

Various disputes have arisen as to the origin of writing. Some supposing that it was of divine original, and never known till the time of Moses; and others, that it was known long prior to him. But, in a matter of such high antiquity, it is impossible to come at certainty. It would seem, however, from the perfection of Moses' style, that it was known before; unless we conclude, that God not only wrote the law on two tables of stone; but that the Holy Spirit enabled Moses to write the Pentateuch in a language till that time only spoken, but never committed to writing; and consequently, that the five books of Moses are remarkable, VOL. II.


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