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Reverend FEHRENBACH. Many colored people, practically all negroes.

Senator Pine. Where do they come from mostly?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. I would not be able to say as to that. They claim that many of them have come from the South, and many from Pittsburgh, from the colored sections.

Senator PINE. Do they come from the mining regions of the South or from the farms?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. They claim that some of them are longtime mine workers, or experienced men, and others are not. Some of these strike breakers are very poor people themselves. They are a very poor class of people and many of them are floaters, because they are coming in and going out and there is an immense turnover of labor in that way. Some times they will bring in 20 in a day and may be that many are leaving.

Senator WHEELER. What is the moral caliber of the people of these mining regions; I mean before the strike began?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. Very good. They are the ordinary middle class of people, and thrifty.

Reverend GLENNON. A very industrious people.
Senator Gooding. And many of them have been here for years.

Reverend FEHRENBACH. Yes, sir; around here especially, for 25 or 27 years.

Senator GOODING. Was there much changing about before these people came in, or were they pretty steadily employed?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. Well, they were fairly steadily employed; as much as in most mines.

Reverend GLENNON. You see the company arranged for man-days, which kept it down, cut down the employment. They produced a scheme of man-days, which controls employment.

Reverend FEHRENBACH. As to this idea, $7.50 basic pay that they speak of, I think it would be a very good idea if you would get the &verage of what these miners have made. I think that would bring it down a good deal.

Senator GOODING. We have done that.
Reverend FEHRENBACH. Yes; what they pull down in the long run.

Reverend GLENNON. Yes; there is too much talk of $7.50, but very few have been able to make $50 for two weeks. That is considerably less than $7.50.

Senator WHEELER. What charitable organizations have helped out?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. We have the Union Relief and the Central Relief. The business people of the city are connected with that.

Reverend GLENNON. You can call that Protestant as well as Catholic, because our Protestant friends are helping all they can.

Reverend FEHRENBACH. Yes; it is interdenominational relief. The business people have gone in and it is now called the Central Relief.

Senator WHEELER. Has the Red Cross done anything?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. Nothing at all. The American Legion has been active. The Red Cross has not come to the relief of any of the people through here generally.

Reverend GLENNON. You understand that I am a little vehement in these matter because I am for the men, first, last, and always.

Senator WHEELER. I have been a little bit surprised because of the fact that the Red Cross has done such good work in other places that they have not done anything here. Do you know why?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. I have no idea. Senator WHEELER. Has the matter been called to their attention, Mr. Murray?

Mr. MURRAY. Oh, yes, sir; officially by the United Mine Workers organization, and by various civic public spirited bodies and individuals.

Senator PINE. Were the thrifty miners able to save any money when they were working under the union scale?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. To some extent. But in the last few years they have not had very much work. They have not been able to put aside very much.

Reverend GLENNON. How long are you Senators going to stay in this district?

Senator WHEELER. We do not know definitely.
Reverend GLENNON. We would like to keep you for two weeks.

Reverend FEHRENBACH. Oh, yes; and the hospitality of my house is open to any of you men at any and all times.

Reverend GLENNON. Oh, yes; and mine the same way.

Senator GOODING. We certainly appreciate your kindness. Where is your district, Father Glennon?

Reverend GLENNON. Contiguous to this, at Finleyville and in the Library section. The most of my people have been evicted from their homes.

Senator Gooding. Will you tell me the conditions there as compared with the strike conditions in this district?

Reverend GLENNON. The same as in this district. They have brought in the riffraff of the country.

Senator GOODING. Will you go ahead and make a statement for the committee here?



Reverend GLENNON. They brought in the riffraff of the country, and I myself have seen these fellows reeling out drunk, and I have been told but I could not swear to it as an eyewitness, that there have been scores of men and women lying around the roads drunk.

Senator WHEELER. That is, among the strike breakers?

Reverend GLENNON. Yes, sir. You understand, of course, that we are not living under ideal conditions. They are bringing in moonshine, and naturally that would get in under these conditions.

Senator WHEELER. We were told at one place that they were selling liquor on company property. Do you know anything about that?

Reverend GLENNON. I could not swear to that.

Senator WAGNER. Would the companies permit you to go in and see the conditions under which the strike breakers are living?

Reverend GLENNON. Oh, yes.

Senator WAGNER. Reverend Fehrenbach, do you have a chance to see these conditions?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. Yes; the same as Father Glennon, as mentioned here.

Senator WAGNER. And what is the situation here?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. You understand it is a question with the men, and I do not want to be prolix, as to whether they can bargain for their labor. That is the essence of the whole question. Are the men to be considered as slaves? Are they not to have the right to say as to how they are going to bargain for the product of their muscle and their brawn, and have a living wage? Shall they have a

a living wage with a chance to educate their children properly and to live decently? They are not asking anything more.

Senator WAGNER. Did you have to have a permit in order to get in?

Reverend FEHRENBACH. Oh, yes; we all have to have a permit to go inside the company's lines.

Senator WAGNER. Father Glennon, will you give us a picture of the situation at your camps? We may not be able to visit them.

Reverend GLENNON. Well, of course, it is hearsay and not as an eyewitness, but I hear that the fellows working in there have very little left at the end of the week.

Senator WAGNER. Do these new people have any church connection at all?

Reverend GLENNON. None whatsoever. They do not even go out to attend the respective churches in the community. In fact, I doubt if they have any church affiliation at all.

Senator WAGNER. Father Glennon, the statement that you have made, I am sure, is very important as to what one of the operators said; that is, that one of the operators told you of the class of people he was going to bring in.

Reverend GLENNON. Oh, yes.

Senator WAGNER. Do you know anything more that you might state along that line?

Reverend GLENNON. Well, I do not know that I could suggest anything more that would profit you. I might add that we were talking privately together, and he said, “I will deny anything that you might say that I have told you." So you see how it is.

Reverend FEHRENBACH. You see he is playing safe, Senator Wagner. Gentlemen, you have a chance to put before the United States the industrial conditions existing here that is going to cause the greatest amount of trouble among the laboring classes that you could possibly imagine. As I have said before, it is tending toward communism and socialism, this embittering of the laboring classes.

Senator WAGNER. Father, what do you know about the I. W. W.'s trying to get in here?

Reverend GLENNON. All I can add is to back up what Father Fehrenbach has said. They have offered to the people here food and clothing and anything that is comforting or that would be helpful to them in their troubles. Naturally when men are desperate they are going to take any aid that is offered them. Some might say that that is a pretty strong statement, but one only has to see the conditions existing here to really appreciate what these people are up against. At Library, which is a mission to our parish, we have a socialist club that does not believe in God, man, or the devil. Of course they would shoot a Catholic priest if they could. We have to run up against some pretty rough things sometimes and be in a position to meet them. At a Bolshevik meeting that I was invited to attend they said: “What in hell is a Catholic priest up here for?”. And being Irish, I wanted to go down in the alley and settle it with that bunch. And there was a thing happened there that punctuated my speech-an Irishman fell dead and he poked me in the back as he fell.

Senator WHEELER. What do you say as to whether the sympathy of the business men and of the people generally around the community is with the workers?

Reverend GLENNON. It is all with the workers.
Reverend FEHRENBACH. Absolutely.
Senator WHEELER. How about in Pittsburgh?

Reverend GLENNON. There is a great deal of apathy all along there, rather a disinterested feeling.

Reverend FEHRENBACH. A sort of lack of knowledge and, therefore, lack of interest. Many of them are like the fellow living downtown in New York City, Senator Wagner. He never saw Central Park.

Senator GOODING. Well, we wish to thank you, Father Fehrenbach and Father Glennon.

(Thereupon the committee left Father Fehrenbach's house and went to Squire O'Rourke's office, where the following occurred:)


Senator Gooding. Give the reporter your name and address. JAMES Smith. My name is James Smith, and I live at Pittsburgh. Senator WHEELER. How long have you lived at Pittsburgh?

JAMES Smith. I ain't lived at Pittsburgh very long. I came there yesterday and live at Homestead.

Senator WHEELER. What were you doing there?
JAMES SMITH. Working in a steel mill.

Senator WHEELER. How did you happen to come up to this country to the coal mines?

JAMES Smith. We was passing by on Fourth Avenue in Pittsburgh yesterday, and we saw a bunch standing in the office of the Wabash Building and we stopped at the door. They wanted to know if we wanted work. We said we did. They said for us to come and sign up. And we said for what. And they said to go out to a coal mine. Senator WHEELER. What did they promise you?

JAMES SMITH. Sixty-five cents a ton for machine coal and 85 cents for pick coal. And they said we would have first-class houses in good condition, and no trouble whatever, and good schools.

Senator WHEELER. Are you a man of family?
James Smith. Yes, sir; a wife and five children.

Senator WHEELER. What did you do up at the camp? Did you look over the conditions around the mines?

JAMES Smith. Yes, sir; I went up there, and I went in this morning and I seen the conditions, and I just walked out. There was a place to work in where the slate was about five feet, and I said I couldn't make a good living there. So I went out, and took the shovel into the office and came away.

Senator WHEELER. Did you object to the barracks that they have there, or the quarters that they have for the miners? Did


look them over?


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JAMES SMITH. Yes, sir; they are no good, either.
Senator WHEELER. What condition did you find them in?

JAMES SMITH. Pretty dirty. The fellows in there were shooting craps and playing cards and going on all night so that a fellow couldn't sleep.

Senator WHEELER. You slept there last night?
JAMES Smith. I blinked my eyes there all night but I didn't sleep.

Senator WHEELER. How many were in there during the night at any one time?

JAMES SMITH. Eight in the room.
Senator WHEELER. Were they shooting crap?
JAMES Smith. Yes, sir.
Senator WHEELER. Was there any drinking going on there?

JAMES SMITH. No, sir; I didn't have any drinks. But way along through the night I felt something come over me, and I tried to sleep but couldn't sleep, and there was a fellow trying to find what little money that I had on me.

Senator WHEELER. And you thought it was a good place to leave? JAMES Smith. Yes, sir; and I left just as soon as I could.



did you?

Senator WHEELER. What is your name?
WILL GREEN. Will Green.
Senator WHEELER. Where is your home?
Will GREEN. Johnstown, Pa.
Senator WHEELER. What were you doing before you came here?
Will Green. Working in a steel mill.
Senator WHEELER. You came up here under some kind of promise,
WILL GREEN. Yes, sir; under some promises.

Senator WHEELER. Did they tell you that a strike was going on here?

WILL GREEN. No; they never mentioned no strike. They said everything was in good shape; in good condition, no trouble was going on at all. The report that was told to me was that everything would be just as smooth and as easy and that we could get along. But when I got here last night I found things a whole lot different from what I had heard. And I just got dissatisfied. I seen that there was noth

I ing doing for me, and I just put my little grip in my hand and walked away.

Senator WHEELER. Are you a man of family:
WILL GREEN. Yes, sir.
Senator WHEELER. How many children have you?
WILL GREEN. Two boys.
Senator WHEELER. Were you with this other fellow?
WILL GREEN. Yes, sir; me and him was together.
Senator WHEELER. Did you and he sleep in the same bunk?

WILL GREEN. No; but in the same building. I was like here and he was over there little piece, in the same building. They have these little double cots, and there is two here and two over there. They are cots made together, or I guess they are made together, I didn't stop to see about that.

Senator WHEELER. Did you see any gambling going on there?

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